MICRO HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT WITH CHAIN TURBINE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MICRO HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT WITH CHAIN TURBINE

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Title: MICRO HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT WITH CHAIN TURBINE


1
MICRO HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT WITH CHAIN
TURBINE
  • Nguyen Minh Duy

2
Content
  • Overview about hydroelectric power plant
  • Analysis chain turbine
  • Governor using for chain turbine
  • Work in the future

3
Hydropower to Electric Power
4
Hydropower to Electric Power
5
How Hydropower Works
  • Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to
    drive the turbine.
  • Turbine is connected to a generator.
  • Power generated is transmitted over power lines.

6
How Hydropower Works (2)
  • A water turbine that cover the energy of flowing
    or falling water into mechanical energy that
    drives a generator, which generates electrical
    power. This is a heart of hydropower power plant.
  • A control mechanism to provide stable electrical
    power. It is called governor.
  • Electrical transmission line to deliver the power
    to its destination.

7
Vietnam Hydroelectric Potential
8
Vietnam Hydroelectric Potential (2)
  • Vietnam, the nation yearly average of rainfall is
    about 1,861mm.
  • There are more than 2,200 big-to-small rivers and
    streams. So Vietnam is rich hydropower resource.
  • Vietnam is agricultural country (agriculture
    20.1). This is a goal to invest SHP.

9
Sizes of Hydropower Plants
  • Pico hydroelectric plant
  • Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid
  • Micro hydroelectric plant
  • Capacity 10kW to 300kW, usually provided power
    for small community or rural industry in remote
    areas away from the grid
  • Small hydroelectric plant
  • Capacity 300kW to 1MW
  • Mini hydroelectric plant
  • Capacity above 1MW
  • Medium hydroelectric plant
  • 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid
  • Large hydroelectric plant
  • More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity
    grid

10
Micro Hydropower Systems
  • Many creeks and rivers are permanent, they never
    dry up, and these are the most suitable for
    micro-hydro power production
  • Micro hydro turbine could be a waterwheel
  • Newer turbines Pelton wheel (most common)
  • Others Turgo, Crossflow and various axial flow
    turbines

11
Turbine Classified
12
Impulse Turbines
  • Uses the velocity of the water to move the runner
    and discharges to atmospheric pressure.
  • The water stream hits each bucket on the runner.
  • High head, low flow applications.
  • Types Pelton turbine, Turgo turbine

13
Pelton Turbine
14
Turgo Turbine
15
Reaction Turbines
  • Combined action of pressure and moving water.
  • Runner placed directly in the water stream
    flowing over the blades rather than striking each
    individually.
  • Lower head and higher flows than compared with
    the impulse turbines.

16
Francis Turbine
17
Kaplan Turbine
18
Turbine Selection Chart
19
Chain Turbine
  • It is a gravity machine
  • It is built up of two parallel chain systems
    joint together at the chains with a series of
    buckets.
  • The flow rater entering the buckets is
    controlled by the water valve through a motor to
    open or close the valve.
  • Buckets fill full of water go down to bring to
    rotary sprocket system.

20
Analysis of the Chain Turbine
  • With flow rate is 1m3/s, and the head is 20m.
  • Assume H119m, H21m, the diameter of the
    sprocket is 1m.


21
Analysis of the Chain Turbine (2)
  • The gross power output
  • Apply the principle of work and energy with the
    bucket of chain turbine
  • The maximum speed of bucket
  • The angular velocity the sprocket would be
  • The rotational speed of the sprocket would be


22
Analysis of the Chain Turbine (3)
  • Number of buckets in chain turbine


Number of buckets The volume of a bucket (m3)
8 0.50
10 0.40
12 0.36
23
Analysis of the Chain Turbine (4)
  • The power output is
  • The power out of the turbine shaft
  • The efficiency of the chain turbine is given by


24
Analysis of the Chain Turbine (5)
  • Rotational velocity of sprocket depends on the
    distance of between two shafts of turbine H1.
  • Rotational velocity of turbine shaft is slow, so
    it cannot directly connect with generator. It
    need a power transmission
  • Efficiency of chain turbine is low.

25
Advantages of Chain Turbine
  • It is run-of-river power plant.
  • Do not worry about the turbidity of water.
  • There is no danger of cavitations.
  • It is simple to construct, repaired and
    maintenance.

26
Disadvantages of Chain Turbine
  • The slow rotation of chain turbine leads to high
    speed ratios when connect to generator at 600 rpm
    1500 rpm.
  • This chain turbine operation is very noise.
  • Structure of turbine is very big

27
Governor
  • To maintain the generator at a constant 50Hz
    frequency, it is necessary to maintain the
    generator shaft at a constant rotational speed.
  • In the independent hydroelectric power plant,
    the rotational speed of the micro hydro power
    generator can be change when loads are added or
    subtracted from the electrical system.

28
Governor (2)
  • The system frequency can be maintained constant
    by eliminating the mismatch between generator and
    load.
  • Governor is to receipt the frequency signal from
    the output of generator.
  • And it is compared with standard frequency
    signal.
  • From these results, governor output signal is
    coming-out to control the valve of water at the
    entrance to the turbine.

29
Transfer Function Block Diagram of Hydro Plant
  • power system gain constant (Hz/p.u)
  • nominal starting time of water in penstock (s)
  • integral gain constant for servo system
  • proportional gain controller constant for servo
    motor

30
Governor Transfer Function
  • Chain Turbine transfer function
  • water starting time at full load
  • So transfer function of chain turbine is

31
Generator Transfer Function
  • Assume nominal load
  • Frequency 50Hz
  • The latter load assumption yields
  • So, the system gain constant and time constant
    are given by
  • The transfer function of generator

32
Transient responses of system for step changes in
load, showing deviations in system frequency
33
Transient responses of system for step changes in
load, (1.5kW) for different integral gain value,
showing deviations in system frequency (1)
34
Transient responses of system for step changes in
load, (1.5kW) for different integral gain value,
showing deviations in system frequency (2)
35
Transient responses of system for step changes in
load, (1.5kW) for different integral gain value,
showing deviations in system frequency (1)
36
Transient responses of system for step changes in
load, (1.5kW) for different integral gain value,
showing deviations in system frequency (2)
37
Governor Discussion
  • It is more flexible than classical governor.
  • This governor effectively eliminate the frequency
    deviations due to load disturbances for different
    nominal loadings of the system
  • It is importance as the saved water can be used
    for irrigation.

38
Work in the Future
  • In China, YiuHwa Engineering Company is building
    a hydroelectric power plant with chain turbine to
    experiment and research with capacity 200kW.
  • This plant has two turbines and built with head
    20m and flow rate 1.03m3/sec

39
THANK YOU
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