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Africa

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Africa French Colonies Post WWII French Union: All the French colonies were united. They were also able to send representatives to French National Assembly in Paris. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Africa


1
Africa
2
Early African
  • General Geography
  • Plateau Africa shaped like an upside down bowl
  • Rivers Nile, Congo, Niger all blocked by rapids
    and hard to travel upstream (isolation and lack
    of trade)
  • Deserts
  • Sahara Desert Covers one-fourth of Africa
    (North)
  • Kalahari and Namib Deserts (South)
  • Savannas Dry grasslands south of the Sahara
    desert and north of Kalahari and Namib Deserts
  • Tropical Rainforest Center of Africa (equator)
  • Mountains Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya

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Early Africa
  • Language
  • Bantu Early African Language.appeared to have
    spread over a lot of Sub Saharan Africa
  • Trade
  • Early peoples appear to have had some
    interactions with Asia
  • Society
  • Matrilineal Ancestors and property traced back
    through their mothers instead of fathers
  • Religion
  • Similar to other areasgods and spirits based on
    nature

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Ancient Egypt
  • Egyptian Geography
  • Nile River Where the first Civilizations
    began..predicatable flooding was a positive for
    development of Egypt
  • Sahara Desert Made invasion impossible
  • Egyptian Development
  • Hieroglyphics Writing
  • Papyrus Plant that was made into early paper
  • Rosetta Stone Found by Frenchhelped us learn
    more about ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt
  • Leaders/Rulers
  • Dynasty Family of rulers
  • Pharaoh Absolute powerboth religious and
    political
  • Kingdoms
  • Old (2680 BC-2180 BC) Built Pyramids/Sphinx
  • Middle (2050-1780 BC) Invaded by foreigners
  • New (1570 BC-1080 BC) Strongest Empire
  • Famous Pharaohs
  • Hatshepsut 1st Female Pharaoh
  • Thutmose III King Tutone of few tombs found
    intact
  • Amenhotep IV Polytheistic to Monotheistic
    (failed)
  • Ramses II Last great Pharaoh..eventually
    Egyptians lost their freedoms when invaded by
    Persians in 300 BC

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Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Society
  • Calendar and System
  • Religion
  • Gods based of nature
  • Mummification Process to prepare the body for
    life after death. Tomb of Pharaohs would be
    filled with valuables to take with them to
    afterlife
  • Trade
  • Caravans groups of people traveling together
    and trading together (safety)

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Kush/Aksum
  • Kush
  • Important area for trade, located in present day
    Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt
  • Back and forth relationship with Egypt (1500
    BC-200 AD)
  • Aksum
  • Located in present day Ethiopia, neighbor and
    rival of Kush
  • Empire began to grow around 100 AD and became
    very powerful peak of power between 300-600 AD.
  • King Ezana Powerful converted empire to
    Christianity. Impact still felt today in the
    area.
  • Declined started in 600 AD because of erosion of
    land and Islamic invaders that hurt Aksums
    control on trade

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East Africa Trade
  • Trade
  • There were no real large kingdoms in the lands
    located along the Indian Ocean.
  • More small villages that were centered on trade.
  • Traded gold, ivory, hides and fellow African
    slaves.
  • A lot of interactions with Muslims from Arabia
    and Persia
  • Swahili
  • African culture that developed in Eastern Africa
  • Language that combine Bantu with Persian and
    Arabic
  • Became popular up and down the east coast of
    Africa
  • Mogadishu and Kilwa became important trade cities
  • Great Zimbabwe
  • Shona people who migrated to the area by the
    Zambezi River (where gold was mined)
  • Grew very powerful then had a rapid decline due
    to overpopulation (1400s)

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West Africa
  • Trade
  • Salt for gold trade was important along South
    Sahara
  • Empires began to grow around this area
  • Ghana
  • Earliest empire of West Africa (300 AD)
  • Tunka Manin Ghanaian ruler at the peak of power
    (1067 AD).
  • Huge Army 200,000 warriors, bows/arrows/spears
  • Destroyed when the Berbers invaded across the
    area in 1100 AD.
  • Berbers carried Islam across North Africa

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West Africa
  • Mali
  • Neighbors of Ghana gained control of area in
    1235 AD
  • Mansa Musa Leader of Mali during its peak of
    power
  • Timbuktu Became the leading city of Mali
    educational and trade center.
  • Songhai
  • Sonni Ali captured Timbuktu after Musas death,
    created a new empire called the Songhai.
  • Gao and Timbuktu became main trading centers for
    people from Europe, India, and China.
  • Eventually defeated by an army from Morocco that
    had a new weaponguns.

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European Involvement
  • Slave Trade
  • Portugal began with a positive relationship with
    African tribesthen they became greedy and wanted
    gold and slaves.
  • Dutch, English and French would all get involved
    by the 1600s.
  • Middle Passage Trip the slaves made from Africa
    to Americasawful. Part of Triangular Trade.
    Slaves would be sold in return for New World
    goods headed to Europe and Africa.
  • Over 10 million slaves survived the journey to
    the Americas.
  • West Africa Slave Trade
  • Strong states began to emerge in West Africa as
    partners in the slave trade.
  • Slavery of other people was a popular practice in
    Africa (although freedom was often times granted
    and not considered property)
  • Problem Over time, the loss of so many people
    had awful effects on the development of the area.

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1800s Europeans in North Africa
  • France
  • Became interested in Algeria, Tunisia, and
    Morocco
  • Great Britain
  • Wanted to control Egypt
  • Italy
  • Wanted to control Libya
  • Spain
  • Also interested in parts of Morocco.

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1800s Suez Canal
  • Suez Canal
  • French company began building this canal to
    connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas.
  • Egyptian leaders were falling into debt, decided
    to sell there share of the canal to the British.
  • Eventually GB was the majority share holder of
    the canal..so they controlled it.
  • Egyptians began to protest this lack of control
    over the canal.eventually led to rebellions that
    the British stopped.
  • GB would basically control Egypt until after WWII
    when Nasser took control of the canal and kicked
    out the British

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1800s Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Had been under the control of Egypt before
    European involvement.
  • GB wanted to create a dam on the Nile River and
    the French wanted to add Sudan to their empire.
  • Sudan revolted in 1881led by Muhammad Ahmad, a
    Muslim leadereventually gained control of entire
    country.
  • GB and French Involvement
  • GB did not like this, they defeated Ahmad in
    1898.
  • France wanted to control the area as well.
  • Fashoda Area where both French and British
    forces met..eventually the French backed down,
    leaving GB in control of the area.

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1800s Sub Saharan West Africa
  • End of Slave Trade
  • Area had once been dominated by slave trade. By
    the 1800s, most European countries had stopped
    trading slaves.
  • Other items became popular to trade (oils,
    feathers, ivory, etc)
  • European Interests
  • France Won Senegal by defeating Samory Toure
  • Great Britain Won control of the Gold
    Coast..main county was Ghana
  • United States Involvement
  • Created and defended Liberia a county for freed
    American slaves to return to.
  • Only independent country in the area.

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1800s Central Africa
  • Cause of European Interest
  • Henry Stanley Journalist, looking for Dr.
    Livingstone (1871)
  • Impressed with Central Africa, tried to convince
    GB and others to invest and develop the region
  • Belgium Interest
  • King Leopold II created a personal colony of
    around 900,000 square miles (Present day Congo)
  • Leopold eventually gave the colony to the Belgian
    government, where the area became known as
    Belgian Congo (1900s)
  • Leopold took almost all the natural rubber and
    sold the native people as slaves.imperialism at
    its worst

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1800s East Africa
  • European Countries
  • Divided up the land, very similar to what had
    happened in Western Africa.
  • Famine and a disease that killed the native
    cattle led to many natives starving to death
  • They were too weak to defend themselves from the
    Europeans

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1800s South Africa
  • Great Britain and Dutch Interests
  • Boers Decedents of the original Dutch settlers
    living in South Africahad created 3 colonies
  • Boers left the area when the British arrived in
    the late 1800s.
  • Zulus Native tribe that was a rival of the
    Boers. Zulus were eventually defeated by
    British.
  • European Interest in Gold and Silver
  • Germany became very interested in Southern Africa
    once Gold and Silver were found.
  • Cecil Rhodes British businessman that gained
    control of a vast areamonopoly on diamond
    production.
  • Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was created by Cecil
    Rhodes.

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1800s South Africa
  • Boer War
  • Boers did not allow Rhodes/GB to expand diamond
    production into the Transvaal (area where Boers
    had moved)
  • GB eventually defeated the Boers in 1899 and
    gained control of more land to mine.
  • South Africa
  • GB eventually allowed for all 3 parts of former
    Boer colonies to unite togetherformed the
    country of South Africa. (1910)
  • New constitution made it almost impossible for
    non-whites to have any sort of rights.
  • This would lead to apartheidwhich Nelson Mandela
    fought so hard to end (late 1900s)

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1800s Effects of European Imperialism
  • Bad Effects
  • Europeans controlled all aspects of government
  • Paternalism Belief that Africans were not able
    to effectively rule themselves.
  • Alliances Some Africans tried to form alliances
    with European countriesusually this worked out
    bad for the African countries (Ethiopia and
    Italy)
  • Most Africans never accepted European rule and
    culture. Europeans wanted them to assimilate.
    Did not happen.
  • Good Effects
  • New things crops, ways of farming, roads, and
    railroads all helped improve communications.

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Independence Time
  • Post WWI
  • After WWI a lot of British colonies began
    demanding self-rule.
  • Egypt
  • Wafd Party Nationalist movement that developed
    in Egypt after WWI. Quickly put down by the
    British in 1919.
  • By 1922, GB decided let Egypt become independent
    but still left troops there to control the Suez
    Canal and Sudan.
  • Anglo-Egyptian Treaty Gave Egypt greater
    independence as WWII was looming. Basically they
    had each others back.
  • As time went on, many Egyptians wanted GB to
    completely leave the country.

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More Calls for Independence
  • Issues
  • Africans had helped GB/France during WWInow they
    wanted freedom.
  • Soldiers returning from war had new ideas on
    nationalism, independence, racism, etc
  • African Organizations
  • By the 1930s most Africans were calling for
    independence rather than reform.
  • This made European countries and tribal chiefs
    upset
  • Leaders
  • Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya)
    and Leopold Senghor (Senegal).
  • This leaders followed the non-violent teachings
    of Gandhi to gain support for independence

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African during WWII
  • Italy/Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia one of the few independent countries
    in Africa during the 1930s.
  • Mussolini Leader of Italy, invaded a defeated
    Ethiopia in 1935.
  • Ethiopia had asked for help, no one helped them.
  • Fighting in Africa
  • Germany, led by commander Erwin Rommel had taken
    control of Libya. Tank warfare
  • Eventually Axis forces were defeated by
    Americans/British forces in 1942forced to
    retreat back to Tunisia.
  • Eventually Dwight Eisenhower (USA) and Bernard
    Montgomery (GB) were able to trap Rommels troops
    in Tunisia.
  • Allies gained complete control of Northern Africa
    and Suez Canal

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Back to more independence
  • Independence Movement
  • Grew tremendously after WWII. Most Africans no
    longer accepted being under the control of
    European Countries
  • Pan Africanism Cultural unity of people of
    African heritage in their struggle for freedom.
  • Europes Response
  • Not all European countries were so eager to give
    up their lands in Africa

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British Colonies in Africa
  • Ghana
  • Kwame Nkrumah (en-KROO-muh) was the leader and
    began to organize political change.
  • Boycotts turned into riotseventually stopped by
    GB
  • Convention Peoples Party (CPP) Founded by
    Nkrumah and was determined to get immediate
    self-government
  • In 1957, the Gold Coast was given its freedom
    from Great Britain.renamed Ghana to celebrate
    African heritage
  • Kenya
  • Countries with more white settlers (like Kenya)
    were more against giving Africans any sort of
    self rule.
  • Arguments over who would control the wealthy land
    that coffee was grown on (whites had control of
    it).
  • This led to a bloody conflict between the Kikuyu
    (Kenyas largest ethnic group) and the
    whites/Africans that were loyal to GB.
  • Jomo Kenyatta Leader of the Mau Mau (secret
    Kikuyu group) was imprisoned..eventually freed in
    1961.
  • Kenyatta easily won election in 1964Kenya was
    free

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Post Independence Africa
  • Ghana and Political Violence
  • Kwame Nkrumah Leader of Ghanatook control of
    cocoa (very profitable, made a ton of money and
    power)
  • Turned Ghana into a one-party state and had
    absolute power.
  • Cocoa prices fell, Ghana lost money and Nkrumah
    turned violent towards his own people.
  • Military Coup (takeover) forced Nkrumah out of
    power
  • Jerry Rawlings brought back civilian rule to
    Ghana
  • Transition was not an easy thing for people of
    Ghana but today Ghana is a stable democracy in
    West Africa

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British Colonies in Africa
  • Central Africa
  • South Rhodesia Large white population granted
    self government during the 1920s.
  • North Rhodesia and Nyasaland Mostly black,
    governed by GB
  • GB attempted to unite all 3 of themdid not work.
  • Change
  • North Rhodesia became Zambia
  • Nyasaland became Malawi
  • South Rhodesia
  • South Rhodesia (mostly white) would not give up
    its controlled to civil unrest and fighting.
  • In 1980 Robert Mugabe won an election and made
    turned South Rhodesia into Zimbabwe

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French Colonies
  • Post WWII
  • French Union All the French colonies were
    united. They were also able to send
    representatives to French National Assembly in
    Paris.
  • Not really true independence.leaders like
    Leopold Senghor (Senegal), Felix Houphouet-Boigny
    (Ivory Coast) and Sekou Toure (Guinea) began to
    demand more change.
  • French Response (1958)
  • Charles de Gaulle (French President) gave
    colonies a choice be apart of French Community
    (receive aid from France) or be independent (cut
    off all ties with France/aid)
  • Guinea was the only one to cut tiesthey became
    isolated and turned to the USSR for aid.
  • This freaked out Francelet all the other
    countries have their independence in 1960.
  • Today
  • France is intervening in the Central African
    Republic

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Belgian and Portuguese Colonies
  • Differences in Opinion
  • Both Belgium and Portugal did not want to give
    any self-rule to their African colonies.different
    than GB and France.
  • This led to more violence
  • Belgian Congo
  • Belgium did not want to give up great wealth in
    timber and mineral resources of Congo.
  • Congo was made up of many different
    regions/tribes
  • Began to unite during and after WWII.
  • Violent uprisings began in 1959granted
    independence in 1960. Problem was that the Congo
    was made up of so many different groups of
    people.
  • Patrice Lumumba Won the first electionall non
    Africans feared him and immediately left the
    countrycaused Congo to go into Civil War.
  • Joseph Mobutu Military leader who overthrew
    Lumumba and ran the country into the 1990s.
    Renamed to Zaire.
  • Today it is called the Democratic Republic of
    Congo

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Belgian and Portuguese Colonies
  • Portugal
  • Would not give any sort of self government to its
    colonies
  • Response
  • African leaders in Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese
    West African and Portuguese East Africa all began
    to form liberation armies to fight against the
    Portuguese.
  • Wars ended when leaders of Portugal were
    overthrown in 1974new leaders took Portugal out
    of Africa.
  • Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique all were
    created and all had problems.

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Country of South Africa
  • Creation
  • Formed from two British and two Boer territories.
  • White ruled country and was mostly independent.
  • Segregation
  • Whites and non-whites were legally segregated.
    Country was made up of 75 non-whites and 25
    whites.
  • Whites were the only ones allowed to govern the
    country and also owned most of the land.
  • By law non-whites could only hold low paying
    manual labor jobs.
  • Apartheid Government policy that created
    segregation and economic exploitation in South
    Africa.

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Country of South Africa
  • Protests against Apartheid
  • African National Congress (ANC) Started a
    non-violent protests of policiesviolently
    stopped by the South African Government.
    (Sharpeville60 protestors dead)
  • Nelson Mandela Became a leader of the ANCand
    was arrested in 1962, sentenced to life in prison
    for treason against the South African government.
  • South Africa withdrew all ties from GB at this
    time
  • Policies continued to get worse and worsepolice
    even gunned down elementary age children
    protesting having to speak the same language.
  • By the 1980scountry was a mess with protest

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Country of South Africa
  • Changes
  • F.W. de Klerk elected President of South Africa
    in 1989. He lifted some of the apartheid laws
    and freed members of the ANC. (Mandela)
  • Violence continued among many different groups of
    people (blacks against blacks, whites against
    whites)
  • Nelson Mandela Won the first all-race election
    in 1994had many issues (poverty and AIDS).
  • Mandela just passed away last week

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Post Independence Ethnic Violence
  • Why Ethnic Violence
  • Europeans had group people together that had no
    common heritage..would lead to internal fighting
  • Nigeria
  • By 1963, Nigeria was essentially divided into 4
    separate areas (different groups lived in those
    areas)
  • Eastern portion of Nigeria tried to leave the
    country to form its own country called (Biafra).
  • Civil War followed, millions of Biafras died
  • Nigeria remained a whole country.
  • Nigeria is Africas most populous country and has
    one of the fastest growing/largest economies in
    Africa.

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Post Independence Ethnic Violence
  • Rwanda, Burundi and Zaire
  • Rwanda and Burundi Tensions began to grown
    between two groups (Tutsis and Hutus)
  • Tutsis had long been favored by the Europeans
    b/c they believed they had come from white
    decent.
  • Generally, there is very little difference
    between to the two groups.
  • A genocide in Rwanda resulted in the Hutus
    killing and raping between 800,000-1,000,000
    Tutsis (20 of population). This was a result
    of Rwandas Hutu Presidents plane being shot
    down.
  • Eventually the Tutsis turned the tide and were
    able to force out the Hutus (and kill) hundreds
    of thousands of them. Most of the refugees went
    to neighboring Zaire.

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Post Independence Ethnic Violence
  • Continued Violence
  • The Rwandan Hutu refugees did not get along with
    the Tutsis that were native to Zaire.
  • Tutsis and other groups fought back against the
    Hutu refugees and the government of Zaire (led by
    Mobutu Sese Seko).
  • Eventually the Tutsi and anti-Mobutu forces won
  • Laurent Kabila was the new ruler and Zaire became
    the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • The Democratic Republic of Congo has had
    tremendous violence towards women and others.
    Awful place today!
  • UN is now trying to keep the peace against the
    Hutus that live along the border between DRC and
    Rwanda

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Problems
  • Economic Problems
  • Limited Economies Many African countries were
    dependent on 1 crop or industry.
  • Ghana (Cocoa), Nigeria (Oil), Zambia (Copper),
    Sudan (Cotton), DRC (Cobalt)
  • This has caused most African countries to really
    struggle financially.led to extreme poverty
    throughout a good majority of the continent.
  • Nigeria and South Africa are two of the economic
    success stories from Africa.
  • Population and Environmental Problems
  • Desertification spread of the desert.aided by
    cutting down of trees.
  • Droughts have brought starvation to millions of
    people
  • AIDS and Ebola virus have killed millions as well

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US and Soviet Involvement
  • Angola
  • Civil War that was aided on both sides by the
    United States and the USSR
  • Namibia
  • Became independent when Cuban forces withdrew
    from the country
  • Ethiopia
  • Overthrew emperor in 1974, turned to a Marxist
    form of government with the help of USSR. (liked
    them better than Somalia)
  • Somalia
  • Socialist government also supported by the USSR.
  • General Help
  • Both Somalia and Ethiopia called on foreign aid
    from both the USA and USSR during awful droughts
    during the 1980s

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US and Soviet Involvement
  • Collapse of Soviet Union (1991)
  • Led to a collapse in governments in both Ethiopia
    and Somalia.
  • Somalia Fell into an awful civil war. Foreign
    aid to the people of Somalia was deniedled to US
    involvement in 1992-1993.
  • Other Current Issues
  • Arab Spring (Egypt, Libya) in 2011-2013
  • Benghazi Attacks
  • Genocide in the Sudan (Darfur)

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