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UNIT 1 PART 2 THE MIDDLE AGES & THE RENAISSANCE The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Middle%20Ages%20


1
Unit 1 Part 2
  • The Middle Ages
  • The Renaissance

2
Prelude 2 Early Middle Ages
  • The Culture of the Middle Ages Renaissance

3
Hearing from The Lady and the Unicorn tapestry
(late 15th century)
4
Prelude 2 Middle Ages (476 1460) Also called
the Medieval period
Early Middle Ages (to 1000)
  • Fall of Roman Empire
  • Growth of Christianity (Roman Catholic Church)
  • Fuedal Society clergy, nobility, and peasant
    classes
  • Illiterate except clergy (monks monasteries,
    nuns - convents)
  • Patronage (support, employment) for music by
    the Church
  • Art style symbolic, impersonal, iconic

5
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • Chapter 12

6
Chapter 12. Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
  • The Mass
  • Ordinary of the Mass
  • 5 parts of the worship service that do not change
    EVER!
  • Latin (Vatican II, 1932 1965)
  • Proper of the Mass
  • 5 parts of the worship service that could be
    altered
  • Would be changed according to feast days,
    holidays, baptisms, weddings, funerals, etc

7
Ordinary of The Mass
  • Kyrie (Greek)
  • Lord have mercy
  • Christ have mercy
  • Lord have mercy
  • Gloria
  • Glory to God in the highest and in Earth, peace
    to men of goodwill.
  • Credo
  • Literally, I Believe

8
Ordinary of The Mass
  • Sanctus
  • Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and
    earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the
    highest.
  • Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the
    Lord. Hosanna in the highest.
  • Agnus Dei
  • Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the
    world, have mercy upon us. Lamb of God. Grant us
    peace.

9
Chapter 12. Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
Gregorian Chant (plainchant, plainsong)
  • First written music
  • Texture Monophonic (choral with no
    accompaniment)
  • Rhythm Nonmetric
  • Responsorial (soloist, then chorus)
  • Harmony church modes (modal)
  • Latin text - syllabic, neumatic, and melismatic

Hildegard of Bingen, Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
10
Gregorian Chant Notation
11
Text settings for Chant
  • Syllabic one note for each word or syllable
  • example Row, Row, Row Your Boat
  • Neumatic two to four notes per syllable
  • example higher range of middle section -
    Hildegard, Alleluia
  • Melismatic many notes per syllable
  • example - Gloria from Angels We Have Heard
    on High
  • example - opening of Hildegard,
    Alleluia (below)

Melismatic
12
Hildegard of Bingen
  • German (Holy Roman Empire)
  • Founded her own convent
  • Scholar writings on science, medicine,
    religion, philosophy, poetry, and music

13
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14
(Notre Dame) Organum
  • Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris
  • First polyphonic music (non-imitative)
  • The development of precise rhythm and pitch
    notation
  • Often based on pre-existing chants (cantus
    firmus)
  • 2-part music by Leonin, 3rd and 4th parts by
    Perotin

Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris (11631235)
Notre Dame School, Guade Maria virgo
15
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17
Prelude 2 The late Middle Ages
  • The culture of the middle ages Renaissance

18
Prelude 2 Late Middle Ages
  • Feudal society ending
  • Modern Nation/States, developing (France,
    England, etc.)
  • Opening of East West (trade, cultural exchange)
  • Crusades
  • Cities first Universities (centers of art and
    culture)
  • Rising influence of Royal Courts Second source
    of patronage

19
Secular Music in the Middle Ages
  • Chapter 13

20
Chapter 13. Secular Music - late Middle Ages
  • Ars Nova (new art) music style first in France,
    then Italy
  • Minstrels (ie troubadours, trouveres, etc.)
  • Secular dance - instrumental, improvised,
    instruments not specified
  • Secular songs (ie chanson) settings of poetry,
    may be monophonic or polyphonic

The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition
21
Mauchaut
  • French
  • Employed by church and royal courts
  • Composed Notre Dame Mass (First complete
    polyphonic setting of Ordinary)
  • Sacred music and secular songs (chanson)

Mauchaut, Pius quen oubli (Chanson)
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition
22
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23
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24
Prelude 2 The Renaissance
  • The Culture of the Middle Ages Renaissance

25
Prelude 2 The Renaissance 1450 - 1600
  • Renaissance rebirth or renewal began in
    Italy.
  • Destruction of Constantinople scholars, artists
    fled west.
  • The awakening of intellectual awareness and the
    beginning of the modern era (in Western
    society)
  • Humanism focus on human achievements (science,
    discovery, ideas, reasoning)
  • Secularization - focus on daily life, as opposed
    to religious ideas
  • Interest in ancient Greece and Roman culture,
    art, philosophy

26
Prelude 2 Renaissance
  • World exploration (ie Columbus)
  • Scientific discovery (ie Galileo)
  • Invention of Printing Press increased musical
    literacy, amateur musician - (merchant
    or middle upper classes) music in home
  • Art realism (expressive face, poses) sense of
    motion and drama, the human nude in
    sculpture, (ie daVinci, Michelangelo)
  • Music as an expressive art.

Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci
27
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28
Renaissance Sacred Music
  • Chapter 14

29
Chapter 14. Renaissance Sacred Music
  • the Golden Age of a-cappella singing (choir
    or voices without instruments)
  • imitative polyphony dominant (with other
    textures)
  • some based on cantus firmus (pre-existing
    melody)
  • harmony modal but with fuller chords

30
Chapter 14. Josquin
  • Singer
  • Franco-Flemish (northern France)
  • Employed royal courts church - Duke of Ferrara
    northern Italy, Papal Choir Rome, late in
    life returned to France
  • Motets, masses, and secular chansons

31
Chapter 14. Motet
  • Most important genre of early polyphonic music
  • Sacred music (during the Rennaisance)
  • Timbre SATB choir a-cappella
  • Texture mostly polyphonic (imitative) with some
    homorhythmic

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34
14. Renaissance Sacred Music The Reformation
and Counter-Reformation
(Protestant) Reformation (Martin Luther)
  • Text in the vernacular (common language)
  • More congregational singing
  • Hymn tunes - simple melodies, homophonic texture,
    (ie Bach)
  • Pure vocal music (no instruments)
  • Text in the traditional Latin
  • No secular tunes/influences
  • Clarity of text - simplified textures (ie
    Palestrina)

Counter-Reformation (Council of Trent)
35
Chapter 14. Palestrina
  • Italian, organist, and choirmaster
  • Employed St. Peters Basilica and Sistine Chapel
  • Mostly sacred music Mass the liturgical
    music of Roman Catholic Church, (approved by the
    Council of Trent) also motets, some secular
    madrigals
  • Style Timbre a-cappella (5 or 6 voices in the
    choir) Texture mostly polyphonic with other
    textures

Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria
36
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38
Renaissance Secular Music
  • Chapter 15

39
Chapter 15. Renaissance Secular Music
  • Professional musicians courts and civic
    functions
  • Merchant-class amateurs music in the home
  • Instrumental dance music (instruments not
    specified)
  • Vocal music Chanson and Madrigal

40
15. Renaissance Secular Music The Italian
Madrigal
  • Madrigals began in Italy
  • Text based on a secular poem
  • Aristocratic court entertainment
  • Timbre a few solo voices (ie quartet)
  • Word Painting - music style reflecting the
    meaning of the text

41
Word Painting examples from Monteverdi A un giro
sol (at a single turning glance)
  • The breeze laughs all about
  • The sea becomes calm
  • The sky becomes more radiant
  • I alone am sad and weeping, doubtless on the day
    you were born, so cruel and wicked, my death
    was also born.

The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Shorter Edition
42
Chapter 15. Renaissance The English Madrigal
  • Elizabethan age of literature (ie Shakespeare)
  • Simpler and lighter in style/story, cheerful,
    humorous
  • Refrain syllables (fa-la-la)
  • Word-painting (examples - Farmer Fair Phyllis)

43
Chapter 15. Renaissance The English Madrigal
  • John Farmer
  • Active in Ireland and England
  • Organist and choirmaster
  • English madrigals songs

Farmer, Fair Phyllis
Typical pastoral scene, by Zick
44
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45
Susato Three Dances
  • Susato Belgium composer
  • Set of 3 rondes (rounds)
  • Performed by a wind band (instruments not
    specified)
  • Each section in Binary form (A-A-B-B) (C-C-D-D
    ) (E-E-F-F)

46
15. Renaissance Secular Music
47
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