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Explanations for differences in educational success. (Outside school factors contd.)

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Explanations for differences in educational success. (Outside school factors contd.) CULTURAL DEPRIVATION Topic 04 Issues in the Cultural deprivation debate Working ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Explanations for differences in educational success. (Outside school factors contd.)


1
Explanations for differences in educational
success. (Outside school factors contd.)
  • CULTURAL DEPRIVATION
  • Topic 04

2
Issues in the Cultural deprivation debate
  • Working class culture is deprived
  • The working classes use a different language code
  • Middle class children have cultural capital

3
Cultural Deprivation issue
  • Culture includes phenomena such as values and
    norms, it is everything that is learned
  • Culture is transmitted by primary socialisation
    where parents pass on societys culture to their
    children (the next generation)

4
  • It is argued that culture varies between social
    classes
  • It is this cultural difference between classes
    which accounts for either the success or failure
    in education

5
Cultural Deprivation (Sugarman)
Cultural attitudes of the working class account
for their lack of educational success.
  • The working class has a preference for immediate
    gratification (to enjoy things straight away)
  • Thus working class pupils are more likely to
    leave school as soon as possible to get a job for
    money now

6
Criticisms of Sugarman idea that working class
culture is deprived
  • He was writing at a time when it was more common
    for working class children to bring home money
    for disadvantaged households
  • High unemployment makes it pointless to leave
    school as soon as possible

7
Differences in parental Interest - Douglas)
Class cultural differences in the degree of
interest show by parents in their childrens
education accounted for the lack of success
  • working class parents were less likely to attend
    school functions, for example parents evenings
    and open-days

8
Criticism of Douglas parental interest argument
  1. Many working class parents may be unable to
    attend these school functions, e.g. because of
    shift work or long hours
  2. Working class parents may feel uncomfortable in
    the middle class atmosphere of schools,
    especially if they did not achieve well
    themselves.

9
Middle and working class differences in Language
(Bernstein)
  • There are two ways or codes of talking (i) In
    Restricted code and (ii) In elaborated code

10
i) The Restricted code
  • This is used by the working class it is a
    short-hand way of speaking and it tends to be
    used between people who share the same meanings,
    e.g. close friends
  • Thus it is not generally understood by everyone
    in all situations. (It is restricted and
    particular)

11
ii) Elaborated code
  • This is used by the middle class
  • It is not restricted or particular to whether or
    not a person already knows what one are talking
    about
  • It is a more detailed way of talking, everyone
    can understand what one means because one
    explains oneself very clearly. (It is general
    and universal)

12
  • Bernstein says middle class children use the
    elaborated code and thus achieve more in school
    because teachers use the same way of speaking
  • Working class children start off with a
    disadvantage because they do not speak in the
    same way as teachers as the restricted code is
    not used in education

13
Criticism of Bernstein
  • Labovs study on working class, black children in
    Harlem (NY) shows their speech patterns are just
    as good at explaining themselves as those of
    white middle class children

14
  • Labov claims that black working class children
    achieve badly at school because they speak a
    different dialect from the teacher and teachers
    often criticise this
  • The children then see school and the class room
    as hostile so they do not say much. This makes
    them look as if they have a restricted code

15
Cultural Capital (Bordieu)
  • The idea of cultural capital is used by
    Marxists to explain cultural influences on
    educationalsuccess
  • Bourdieu suggests that middle class culture has a
    value in educational terms just as material
    wealth (capital) has a value
  • He calls this cultural capital

16
  • Schools are middle class institutions run by the
    middle classes
  • Thus it is middle class forms of knowledge,
    values and ways of communicating ideas that are
    enhanced and rewarded by the education system
  • Working class children may lack these qualities,
    so they do not have the same chance to succeed

17
Accent is part of our class culture
Ya
Yes
Yeh
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