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Dissociative Disorders

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Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Depersonalization Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder A. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dissociative Disorders


1
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • Dissociative Fugue
  • Depersonalization Disorder

2
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • A. The presence of two or more distinct
    identities or personality states
  • B. At least two of these identities or
    personality states recurrently take control of
    the persons behavior
  • C. Inability to recall important personal
    information that is too extensive to be explained
    by ordinary forgetfulness
  • D. Not due to a GMC or substance

3
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Identities
  • At least two of these recurrently take control of
    a persons behavior
  • Can be categorized into three types
  • Core identity superego
  • 1st alternate identity id
  • 2nd alternate identity ego

4
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Prevalence
  • Up for debate
  • Rates have increased dramatically over few
    decades
  • First case reported in the 1850s
  • Several cases in 1880s-1900s
  • By the 1970s, only about 200 cases in all
  • Now, some psychologists claim that up to 1 of
    the general population has this disorder
  • Individual clinicians are not reporting having
    dozens to hundreds of such clients

5
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Explanations for increasing prevalence
  • Increased public awareness of the disorder
  • Changes in the diagnostic criteria for
    schizophrenia
  • Therapists may be actively looking for DID
  • Prevalence, continued
  • Rates very uneven across countries
  • Rates very uneven across clinicians within
    countries
  • The rates of this disorder is very
    controversialsome psychologists doubt its
    existence at all

6
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Risk Factors
  • Severe child abuse, especially sexual abuse
    (reported in 95 of cases
  • Remembered or Recovered???
  • Having generous psychiatric medical coverage

7
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Question of Validity
  • Studies show differences in psychological test
    results and physiological states between alters
  • Alternative theories
  • Could be due to distinct personalities
  • Could be due to role enactments
  • Extremely heated controversy over iatrogenesis
    vs. natural occurrence (iatrogenesis caused
    by treatment)

8
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Can people actually dissociate?
  • Have you had a dissociative experience?
  • Common dissociative experiences
  • Reading a paragraph and then having no
    recollection of what you read
  • Driving somewhere and not knowing how you got
    there
  • Talking to someone and not knowing what youre
    actually talking about

9
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Perhaps there is an underlying continuum

Normal Dissociative Experiences
Dissociative Identity Disorder
10
Dissociative Amnesia
  • One or more episodes of inability to recall
    important personal information, usually of a
    traumatic or stressful nature, that is too
    extensive to be explained by ordinary
    forgetfulness
  • Not better explained by a another mental disorder
    and is not due to a GMC or substance
  • Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or
    impairment in functioning

11
Dissociative Fugue
  1. Sudden, unexpected travel away from home or ones
    customary place of work, with inability to recall
    ones past
  2. Confusion about personal identity or assumption
    of a new identity (partial or complete)
  3. Not better explained by a another mental disorder
    and is not due to a GMC or substance
  4. Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or
    impairment in functioning

12
Depersonalization Disorder
  1. Persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling
    detached from, and as if one is an outside
    observer of, ones mental processes or body
  2. During the depersonalization experience, reality
    testing remains intact
  3. Not better explained by a another mental disorder
    and is not due to a GMC or substance
  4. Symptoms cause clinically significant distress or
    impairment in functioning
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