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12-4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably?

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12-4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably? Concept 12-4 We can sharply cut pesticide use without decreasing crop yields by using a mix of cultivation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 12-4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably?


1
12-4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More
Sustainably?
  • Concept 12-4 We can sharply cut pesticide use
    without decreasing crop yields by using a mix of
    cultivation techniques, biological pest controls,
    and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides
    as a last resort (integrated pest management).

2
Nature Controls the Populations of Most Pests
  • What is a pest?
  • Any species that _________________ with human
    welfare
  • Worldwide, only about _______ species cause most
    of the damage to the crops we grow
  • Many potential pests are controlled by
    ___________ ____________________
  • Example Spiders kill far more insects than
    humans do every year with chemicals

interferes
100
natural
enemies
3
Natural Capital Spiders are Important Insect
Predators
Wolf Spider Not dangerous to humans What will
happen if pesticides kill off the wolf spiders
in an area?
Their prey population will increase
Fig. 12-21, p. 297
4
We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
Populations (1)
  • Different types of pesticides include
  • Insecticides _______________ killers
  • Herbicides ________________ killers
  • Fungicides _______________ killers
  • Rodenticides _________________ killers
  • We are not the first species to use chemicals to
    ward off another
  • Plants have been doing this for nearly 225
    million years

insect
weed
fungus
rodent
5
We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
Populations (2)
  • First-generation pesticides mainly natural
    chemicals borrowed from _____________
  • Farmers started using these back in the 1600s
  • Second-generation pesticides first used in 1939
  • _____________ produced DDT and others
  • Broad-spectrum agents toxic to ___________
    pests as well as many beneficial species
  • narrow-spectrum agents effective against
    ______________ group of organisms
  • Persistence varieslength of time that they
    __________ in the environment

plants
Lab
many
narrow
remain
6
Rachel Carson, Biologist
Biologist Silent Spring Potential threats of
uncontrolled use of pesticides
Fig. 12-B, p. 298
7
Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several
Advantages
  • Save human lives by preventing the transmission
    of _________________
  • Malaria mosquito Bubonic plaque
    rat fleas
  • Increases food ___________ and ____________ for
    farmersprevent crop loss
  • Work _________________
  • When used properly, health risks are _________
    relative to benefits
  • New pesticides are much ___________ and more
    effective than older ones

diseases
supplies
profit
quickly
low
safer
8
Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several
Disadvantages (1)
  • Accelerate rate of genetic ________________ in
    pests
  • ___________________ for farmers
  • Some insecticides kill _____________ predators
    and parasites that help control the pest
    population
  • ________________ in the environment __________
    wildlife some are human health _______________

resistance
Expensive
natural
Pollution
harms
hazards
9
Pesticide Use Has Not Reduced U.S. Crop Losses to
Pests
  • David ________________ expert on insect ecology
  • Studied data from more than 300 agricultural
    scientists and economists
  • 1942-1997 crop losses from insects
    ______________ from 7 to 13, even with _______
    increase in pesticide use
  • High environmental, health, and social costs with
    use
  • Recommends using _____________________ pest
    management practices
  • Pesticide industry _______________ these findings

Pimental
increased
10 x
alternative
disputes
10
What Can You Do? Reducing Exposure to Pesticides
Fig. 12-23, p. 300
11
Laws and Treaties Can Help to Protect Us from the
Harmful Effects of Pesticides
  • Several U.S. federal agencies regulate the sale
    and use of pesticides
  • Environmental Protection Agency ________
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    ___________
  • Food and Drug Administration _______
  • Laws and Treaties
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide
    Act, 1947 ____________
  • Assesses the health risks of active ingredients
    in pesticides
  • Not properly fundedhas only tested about
    _________

EPA
USDA
FDA
FIFRA
10
12
Laws and Treaties Can Help to Protect Us from the
Harmful Effects of Pesticides
  • Laws and Treaties Continued..
  • Food Quality Protection Act, 1996
  • Reduces the allowed levels of pesticide residues
    in food by ______ when the effects on
    ______________ are not well known
  • 1998 International Treaty
  • Signed by 50 countries
  • Requires exporting countries to have informed
    __________ from importing countries for a list of
    22 pesticides and 5 industrial chemicals
  • 2000 International Treaty
  • signed by 100 countries to ban or phase out 12
    especially hazardous ____________ (persistent
    organic pollutants)

10
children
Rotterdam Convention
consent
Stockholm Convention
POPs
13
There Are Alternatives to Using Pesticides (1)
  • ___________ the pest
  • Crop rotation changing planting times
  • Provide homes for pest _______________
  • Requires plant diversity or _________________
  • Use _______________
  • engineering to develop
  • pest and disease resistant
  • crop strains

Fool
predators
polycultures
genetic
14
There Are Alternatives to Using Pesticides (2)
  • Bring in natural enemies - predators, parasites,
    diseases
  • Use insect perfumes or
  • __________________
  • to lead pests into traps
  • Bring in hormones that interfere
  • with pest ___________ cycle
  • Alternative methods of weed control
  • Crop rotation, cover crops, mulches

pheromones
life
15
Integrated Pest Management Is a Component of
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Integrated pest management _________
  • Controlled program that uses a ________________
    of cultivation, biological controls, and chemical
    tools to reduce crop damage to an economically
    tolerable level
  • Reduces ________________ and ____________ costs
  • Disadvantages
  • Requires expert _________________
  • High _________________ costs
  • Government and pesticide company opposition

IPM
collaboration
pollution
pesticide
knowledge
initial
16
12-5 How Can We Improve Food Security?
  • Concept 12-5 We can improve food security by
    creating programs to reduce poverty and chronic
    malnutrition, relying more on locally grown food,
    and cutting food waste.

risky
  • Agriculture is a financially __________ business
  • A good or bad year may depend upon
  • - Weather - Loan interest rates
  • - Crop prices - global markets
  • - Crop pests

17
Use Government Policies to Improve Food
Production and Security
  • Governments use two main approaches to influence
    food production
  • ________________ prices to make food affordable
  • Place an upper limit on prices
  • Good for ____________________ but not for the
    farmer
  • Provide __________________ to farmers
  • Tax breaks or other financial support to keep
    them in business and encourage food production

Control
consumers
subsidies
18
Examples of Using Subsidies
  • In __________________ the government provided
    small rural farmers access to
  • Seeds
  • Tools
  • Irrigation systems
  • Storage facilities
  • Positive Outcomes? - Food production and jobs
    increase
  • Negative Outcomes? - Sometimes more food is
    produced than can be sold.____________ of
    resources

Kenya
waste
19
  • Similarly, government subsidies to fishing fleets
    can promote ___________________ and the reduction
    of aquatic biodiversity
  • Bottom trawling industries were provided 150
    million in subsidies per year
  • Many analysts are calling for an ___________ to
    these subsidies or only providing subsidies for
    farmers/fishers who use ______________________
    methods

overfishing
end
sustainable
20
New Zealand
  • Example In 1984, ____________________ ended
    farm subsidies
  • As a result, farmers had to become more
    __________________ and production of some foods
    such as milk ____________________________

innovative
quadrupled
21
Other Government and Private Programs are
Increasing Food Security
poverty
  • Government programs that reduce _____________ or
    _______________ population growth, also help to
    promote food security
  • UN World Food Program created a new system for
    buying food from ________________ farmers to
    increase their economic security
  • UNICEF studies indicate that 1/2 to 2/3 of
    nutrition related childhood deaths could be
    prevented with a small _____________ cost per
    child
  • Immunizing children against childhood diseases
  • Prevent dehydration in infants and children
  • Vitamin A capsules

slow
small
5-10
22
  • Global Crop Diversity Trust storing
    _____________ to prevent the disappearance of the
    variety of our food crops
  • Working with 50 gene banks around the world

seeds
23
Review Questions
  • What are some examples of different types of
    pesticides?
  • What has been the goal of recent international
    treaties regarding pesticide transfer and use?
  • What is the goal of IPM?

Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides
To require informed consent and ban certain POPs
To reduce both crop damage and pollution at
economically tolerable levels
24
Review Questions
  • What are the two main approaches used by
    governments to influence food production?
  • What are some examples of different organizations
    that are helping to improve food security?

Control prices
Provide farmer subsidies
UN World Food Program
UNICEF
Global Crop Diversity Trust
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