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Vegetable Crops

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... Use and importance Important staple crop in Africa Subsistence production systems Considered to be an under-utilized crop ... Diseases and Pests Has ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vegetable Crops


1
Vegetable Crops PLSC 451/55 Lecture 13, Taro, Yam
  • Instructor
  • Dr. Stephen L. Love
  • Aberdeen R E Center
  • 1693 S 2700 W
  • Aberdeen, ID 83210
  • Phone 397-4181 Fax 397-4311
  • Email slove_at_uidaho.edu

2
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3
Taro field
4
L to R taro, yam, sweet potato, cassava
5
Taro
  • Also Known As
  • Dasheen
  • Cocoyam
  • Kolocasi
  • Ocumo
  • Dalo

6
Taro plant (Dasheen)
7
Taro
  • Domestication
  • Probably originated in India or Southeast Asia
  • Taken to China and Japan - 2000 AD
  • Spread to Africa and South Pacific - 500 AD
  • Came to the Western Hemisphere with slaves

8
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9
Yautia (Taro relative)
  • Domestication
  • Also called Tannia
  • Yautia is a related Arum species and is replacing
    Taro in many African countries
  • Native of tropical America
  • Species name Xanthosoma sagittifolium
  • Very similar in appearance, culture, use

10
Taro plant
11
Taro corm
12
Taro
  • Production Climate and soils
  • Tropical
  • Warm-season, very tender
  • Tolerates heavy, clay soils
  • Needs abundant water
  • Can withstand waterlogged soils
  • Optimal pH 6.0-7.0
  • Tolerates salty water, quick storm recovery

13
Taro
  • Production Systems
  • Very few large producers
  • (Partially mechanized)
  • Virtually no organic production
  • Most production on subsistence and small market
    farms

14
Taro
  • Production System - Dryland
  • Not ponded
  • Irrigated or planted in the dry season
  • Often intercropped in subsistence production
  • Herbicides commonly employed for weed control

15
Taro
  • Production System - Wetland
  • Ponded or flooded
  • Requires cheap, surplus water
  • Monoculture
  • Herbicides not required

16
Taro
  • Propagation
  • Often propagated from a huli
  • Propagules commercially unavailable
  • Nurseries co-produced
  • Hand-planted or machine assisted

17
Taro
  • Harvest
  • Maturity indicated by leaf drop and yellowing
  • Harvest usually by hand
  • No post-harvest curing necessary
  • Store at 45-50 degrees
  • Can be stored for 18 weeks, 2 day shelf-life

18
Harvested taro, ready for market
19
Major Producing Countries China 1,320
mt Nigeria 1,300 Ghana 1,240 Japan
330 Papua New Guinea 220
Considered to be a staple crop in Africa
20
Taro
  • Consumer use
  • Fresh market
  • Boiled or baked
  • Processed
  • Chips, canned, frozen, dehydrated flour used for
    noodles, cakes and baby food

21
Making poi by mashing taro root
22
Poi made from taro root
23
Taro boiled with fish
24
Boiled taro in coconut milk
25
Thai desert made from taro, beans, and egg yolks
26
Taro
  • Taxonomy
  • Monocotyledon
  • Family Araceae
  • Genus and species Colocasia esculenta
  • Related species calamus, Jack-in-the-pulpit

27
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28
Yam (D. batatas)
29
Yam plant
30
Yam tubers
31
Yam
  • Taxonomy
  • Monocotyledon
  • Family Dioscoraceae
  • Genus and species Dioscorea (species)
  • Related species 250 species of wild yams

32
Yam
  • Species used for cultivation
  • D. alata (greater yam) SE Asia
  • D. batatas (Chinese yam) China
  • D. rotunda (yellow yam) Africa
  • D. esculenta (lesser yam) SE Asia
  • D. bulbifera (aerial yam) Africa
  • D. trifida (cush-cush) Tropical America

33
SE Asia
Dioscorea alata (Greater yam) most widely
distributed
34
Africa
Dioscorea rotunda (Yellow yam) greatest
production
35
China
Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)
36
China
Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)
37
SE Asia
Dioscorea esculenta (Lesser yam)
38
Africa
Dioscorea bulbifera (Aerial yam)
39
Tropical America
Dioscorea trifida (Cush-cush yam)
40
Major Producing Countries Nigeria 27 mil
mt Ghana 4 Ivory Coast 3 Benin 2
Togo 0.5 Colombia 0.3
41
Yam
  • Domestication
  • Used for food in West Africa (probable area of
    origin) gt50,000 years ago
  • Cultivated 3000 BC in West Africa and SE Asia

42
Yam
  • Use and importance
  • Important staple crop in Africa
  • Subsistence production systems
  • Considered to be an under-utilized crop
  • Very high in starch, protein, minerals

43
Yam
African peanut and yam soup
  • Consumer use
  • Fresh market
  • Baked, boiled, pounded, fried, dried and ground
    into flour
  • (Some types must be heavily processed -boiled,
    pounded and leached - to eliminate alkaloids)

44
Yam
  • Unusual compounds
  • Dioscorine alkaloid in D. hispida and other
    yams, very poisonous (used as a pest poison)
  • Sapogenin steroidal alkaloid used in the
    production of cortisone, progesterone, and other
    drugs

45
Yam
  • Production Climate and soils
  • Tropical
  • Warm-season, very tender
  • Will not grow in temps lt70 degrees
  • Needs abundant water
  • Requires a well-drained soil

46
Yam
  • Production
  • Propagated using head of tubers from the
    previous crop
  • Six mo to 2 yr growing season
  • Vines are staked and trained

47
Yam
  • Production constraints
  • Quantity of tubers for seed (30 of production)
  • Quantity of labor to plant, stake, and harvest
  • Tubers are deep and harvest difficult

48
Vanatu vine jumpers
Influence on local culture Celebration of
harvest, rites to invoke success of a new crop
year
49
Yam
  • Production Diseases and Pests
  • Has very few natural pests

50
Yam
  • Production Harvest and storage
  • Mostly hand harvested
  • Stored at 55-60 degrees
  • Chilling injury at lt50 degrees
  • Ventilation essential
  • Stored for 6-8 months (ambient)

51
Yam storage
52
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53
Jerusalem artichoke flower
54
Jerusalem artichoke tubers
55
Jerusalem Artichoke
  • Domestication
  • Native of North America found wild in the
    midwest and northeast
  • Cultivated by the Indians prior to European
    migration
  • Taken to Europe where it is grown in dry climates
  • Name derived from Italian girasole articocco
    (sunflower edible)

56
Jerusalem Artichoke
  • Use and importance
  • Similar in appearance and size to Irish potato
  • Very limited usage
  • Storage carbohydrate in inulin (polymer of
    fructose), useful for diabetics
  • Cooked and eaten in similar manner to potato

57
Jerusalem Artichoke
  • Production
  • Production in specialty market gardens
  • Planted using tuber pieces
  • Planted in fall or very early spring
  • Relative easy to grow

58
Jerusalem Artichoke
  • Production - Misc.
  • Volunteers become weedy
  • Harvested by hand or machine
  • Careful handling necessary if stored
  • Store at 32-36 degrees
  • Can be stored for several months

59
Jerusalem artichoke field
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