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Multilingualism and Intercultural Communication: Research Findings and Research Paradigms Across the World

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Title: Multilingualism and Intercultural Communication: Research Findings and Research Paradigms Across the World


1
  • Multilingualism and Intercultural Communication
    Research Findings and Research Paradigms Across
    the World
  • AREA Presidential Session cosponsored with the
    World Education Research Associated
  • Invited Session
  • Colorado Convention Centre,
  • Chair Luis C. Moll, The University of Arizona

2
Multilingualism and Transformative Knowledge
Exchange Findings from changing Australian
educational research paradigms Michael Singh
  • Centre for Educational Research,
  • Univeristy of Western Sydney Australian
    Association for Research in Education

3
World research education as a problem
4
World education research as a problem
  1. Eurocentric diffusionism (Blaut, 1993) (1)
    knowledge flows from Western nations into
    non-European nations (2) the Wests present
    supremacy will be permanent
  2. oriental globalisation (Hobson, 2004)
    Easterners created a global economy with
    communication networks along which their
    resource portfolios (ideas, institutions and
    technologies) were diffused, assimilated into,
    and elaborated upon in the West
  3. alternation (Goody, 2010) interactions between
    Eurasian civilisations sees one then another
    place secure sophisticated knowledge systems

5
World education research for transformative
knowledge exchange being changed through
gaining knowledge that adds a source of value
(painting, Koala place, W. Shieh)
6
Overview
  1. Transnational flows of knowledge Australian
    studies (Connell, Lyons Keith)
  2. Practising transformative knowledge exchange
  3. Research process ignorance gt knowledge gt
    ignorance
  4. Chinese knowledge as theory problem

7
I. Transnational flows of knowledge Australian
studies
8
How might Australian studies of transnational
knowledge flows contribute to world education
research?
(painting, The miniature Long March, Qin Ga)
9
1. Connell (2007) Southern theory knowing
the global dynamics of metropolitan/peripheral
knowledge flows
10
Knowing the global dynamics of knowledge flows
  1. The peripheral South does produce theoretical
    knowledge - not a static, homogenous, pre-given,
    bounded category, exists through intellectual
    debates involved in defining, regulating
    enacting such knowledge.
  2. for metropolitan research to serve democratic
    purposes it can problematise Western research
    open up for questioning Western intellectual
    dominance critically engage intellectual
    projects from the global periphery
  3. ignorance due to Anglophone monolingualism
    difficulties of communicating theoretical
    knowledge across languages - acknowledged
    valued for what it reveals about the limits of
    knowledge

11
2. Lyons (2009) The House of Wisdom - Knowing
Arab learning transformed Western intellectual
culture
12
Knowing Arab learning transformed Western
intellectual culture
  1. Arab knowledge comes from complex cultural
    milieu, having different forms (religion,
    politics), product of ethnically diverse peoples
    conducted in the Arab language(s)
  2. varying responses to engagements with Arab
    knowledge by Western Europeans (e.g. reworked for
    adoption, harnessed for parochial interests,
    ignored, disavowed)
  3. Arab knowledge had to demonstrate its original
    contributions to knowledge (e.g. filling in areas
    of ignorance, providing new methods, stimulating
    new struggles over research values)

13
3. Keith (2009) Knowing from the Inside Out -
Knowing how China is fitting itself into the world
(painting, Light easy Yang Zhenzhong)
14
Knowing how China is fitting itself into the world
  1. ignorance of Han zi and Putonghua is not
    unrelated to an Australias Eurocentric language
    education policies of the past current
    underfunding of Asian language education
  2. ignorance of China its efforts to learn from
    other countries is compounded by uninformed media
    reporting simplistic political commentary.
  3. learning to engage in transnational knowledge
    exchange through the critical dialectical
    understanding of Chinese foreign knowledge.
  4. look for comparative strengths weaknesses in
    Chinese and foreign knowledge, establish grounds
    for reserving differences, criticise both
    parasitism and isolationism

15
II. Practising transformative knowledge exchange
16
transformative knowledge exchange
(painting, Dragon or Rainbow Serpent, by Cai
Guo-Qiang)
17
Transformative knowledge exchange as a defining
attribute of word education research
  • In exchange one gains something by giving
    something, altering ones state in the process.
    When an exchange of word takes place, the two
    parties involved are changed in terms of what
    they know, experience, or possess. Due to the
    exchange process each party has given something
    but has also added something, which is the source
    of value. (Cook, 2007 42-43, italics in the
    original)

18
Transformative knowledge exchange
19
Practising transformative knowledge exchange
  1. HDR candidates
  2. Knowledge
  3. supervisors
  1. Possess, can access or produce experiential
    other forms of knowledge
  2. Context, language, people, debate
  3. Selected expertise, ignorance of students their
    knowledge

20
Practising transformative knowledge exchange
  1. pedagogies
  2. rationale
  3. impact
  1. transfer, reciprocity, fusion, synthesis
  2. democratic assembly, representation monitoring
  3. Benefits, value, power

21
Practising transformative knowledge exchange
  • Many forms contradictory elements
  • transplantation, transmission, transfer
  • absorption, assimilation
  • accommodation
  • franchise
  • fusion
  • indigenisation
  • reciprocity

22
III. Research process ignorance gt knowledge gt
ignorance
23
Research process ignorance gt knowledge gt
ignorance
(installation, A book from the sky, by Xu Bing)
24
Research process ignorance gt knowledge gt
ignorance
  • types of ignorance
  • incomplete or imperfect knowledge
  • limitations in current research knowledge
  • the difficulty in distinguishing between an
    individuals ignorance the limitations of
    current knowledge

25
making ignorance pedagogically productive
(installation, ShangART supermarket, Xu Zhen)
26
Research process ignorance gt knowledge gt
ignorance
  • ignorance
  • creeps into medical practice through every pore.
    Whether a physician is defining a disease, making
    a diagnosis, selecting a procedure, observing
    outcomes, assessing possibilities, assigning
    preferences, or putting it all together, he sic
    is walking on very slippery terrain. It is
    difficult for non-physicians, and for many
    physicians, to appreciate how poorly we
    understand them (Groopman, 2007 151)

27
IV. Chinese knowledge as theory problem
28
Chinese knowledge for world education research
  1. two or more languages
  2. Chinese theoretical concepts to be used in world
    education research
  3. Chinese critiques of Western intellectual
    hegemony
  4. the intellectual contributions of Chinese
    knowledge to world
  5. how Chinese intellectuals engage foreign ideas

29
Empirical epistemic China/ Chinese HDR
candidates
(painting Sheep station, W. Shieh)
30
Questioning Chinese knowledge
  • probe substance of assertions, assumptions and
    rules governing these knowledge claims
  • Which Chinese knowledge is used?
  • What do they knowingly not use, why?
  • Which contexts enable its uses which do not?
  • Who can or cannot speak for Chinese knowledge?

31
What constitutes Chinese knowledge treated
problematically subject to critical inquiry
  1. Westernisation of Chinese intellectual culture
    the debates about this
  2. it is not always possible to tell what is
    Chinese knowledge or what knowledge in China
    comes from elsewhere.
  3. Chinese knowledge is understood to be in a
    continuing process of re-constitution - plural,
    provisional and open, rather than a monolithic,
    singular or unchanging, homogenous entity.
  4. Dominating, popular, traditional, minority
    argumentative forms of Chinese knowledge

32
Review
  1. Transnational flows of knowledge Australian
    studies (Connell, Lyons Keith)
  2. Practising transformative knowledge exchange
  3. Research process ignorance gt knowledge gt
    ignorance
  4. Chinese knowledge as theory problem

33
World education research as transformative
knowledge exchange
  1. developing multilingual capabilities
  2. Chinese knowledge - beyond everyday China
  3. Chinese conceptual knowledge to theorise Western
    education
  4. make explicit Chinese knowledge embedded in
    everyday practices of Chinese HDR candidates
  5. selecting Chinese knowledge convincing,
    insightful, testable, debatable
  6. making sense of, critiquing world education
    research as transformative knowledge exchange
  7. worlds low-skilled manufacturer vs. connecting
    with theoretical projects

34
Selected readings
Singh, M. (2010), Connecting intellectual
projects in China and Australia Bradleys
international student-migrants, Bourdieu and
productive ignorance. Australian Journal of
Education. 54 (1) 31-45. Singh, M. (2009), Using
Chinese knowledge in internationalising research
education Jacques Rancière, an ignorant
supervisor and doctoral students from China.
Globalization Societies and Education. 7 (2)
185-201. Singh, M. Han, J. (2010), Peer
review, Bourdieu and honour Connecting Chinese
and Australian intellectual projects. British
Journal of Sociology of Education. 31 (2)
185-198. Singh, M., Han, J. (2009), Engaging
Chinese ideas through Australian education Using
Chengyu to connect intellectual projects across
peripheral nations. Discourse Studies in the
Cultural Politics of Education. 30 (4) 397-411.
35
Thank you from
Michael Singh to participants in this symposium,
and especially to Professor Dr. Ingrid Gogolin,
Founding President of the World Education
Research Association (http//www.weraonline.org/)
Professor Joanne Reid, President, Australian
Association for Research in Education Australian
Research Council for funding Project DP0988108
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