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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers Chapter 8: Learning 1. In Pavlov s experiments on the salivary ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • From Myers,
  • Psychology 8e
  • Worth Publishers

2
Chapter 8 Learning
Watch Learn
Think!
Reinforce Me!
Animals Learn
Those Kids!
3
Animals Learn
500
400
300
200
100
4
Reinforce Me!
500
400
300
200
100
5
Watch Learn
500
400
300
200
100
6
Think!
500
400
300
200
100
7
Those Kids!
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. In Pavlovs experiments on the salivary
conditioning of dogs, the UCS was
  • A) a tone.
  • B) salivation to the sound of a tone.
  • C) the presentation of food in the dogs mouth.
  • D) salivation to the food in the mouth.

9
2. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused
by a red light that was repeatedly associated
with the presentation of a female quail. The
sexual arousal elicited by the red light was a
  • A) CR.
  • B) CS.
  • C) UCR.
  • D) UCS.

10
3. After learning to fear a white rat, Little
Albert responded with fear to the sight of a
rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
  • A) secondary reinforcement.
  • B) generalization.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) latent learning.

11
4. You would be most likely to use operant
conditioning to teach a dog to
  • A) fear cats in the street.
  • B) dislike the taste of dead birds.
  • C) wag its tail whenever it is emotionally
    excited.
  • D) retrieve sticks and balls.

12
The psychic secretions that interfered with
Pavlovs experiments on digestion were
  • A) unconditioned responses.
  • B) primary reinforcers.
  • C) conditioned responses.
  • D) conditioned stimuli.

13
6. The taste of food and the termination of
painful electric shock are both ____ reinforcers.
  • A) positive
  • B) primary
  • C) negative
  • D) conditioned

14
7. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced
with monetary winnings on a _____ schedule.
  • A) fixed-interval
  • B) variable-interval
  • C) fixed-ratio
  • D) variable-ratio

15
8. Resistance to extinction is most strongly
encouraged by _____ reinforcement.
  • A) intermittent
  • B) delayed
  • C) condition
  • D) negative

16
9. Watching the night sky for shooting stars is
likely to be reinforced on a _____ schedule.
  • A) fixed-interval
  • B) fixed-ratio
  • C) variable-interval
  • D) variable-ratio

17
10. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every
day after work because it reduces his level of
stress. Masons running habit is maintained by a
_____ reinforcer.
  • A) positive
  • B) negative
  • C) conditioned
  • D) partial

18
11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward
because he noticed his older brother does so.
This illustrates the importance of
  • A) respondent behavior.
  • B) immediate reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) modeling.

19
12. Who highlighted the importance of
observational learning?
  • A) Watson
  • B) Bandura
  • C) Skinner
  • D) Pavlov

20
13. Prolonged exposure leads viewers to
experience ___ sympathy for victims of violence
and to become ___ upset by the sight of real life
violence.
  • A) less less
  • B) more more
  • C) more less
  • D) less more

21
14. Children exposed to a model who preached one
thing and did another
  • A) ignored both what the model said and did.
  • B) ignored what the model did and did what the
    model said.
  • C) ignored what the model said and both talked
    and acted in ways consistent with what the model
    did.
  • D) said what the model said and did what the
    model did.

22
15. Children are especially likely to behave
aggressively after viewing TV violence in which
an attractive person commits ____ violence that
causes ____.
  • A) justified no visible pain or harm.
  • B) unjustified no visible pain or harm.
  • C) justified a lot of visible pain or harm.
  • D) unjustified a lot of visible pain or
    harm.

23
16. After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed
a mental representation of the layout of the
campus and no longer gets lost. She has
developed a
  • A) visual memory.
  • B) perceptual delineation.
  • C) cognitive map.
  • D) fixed-interval schedule.

24
17. The fact that learning can occur without
reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by
studies of
  • A) shaping.
  • B) latent learning.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) computer-assisted instruction.

25
18. The desire to engage in an activity for the
sake of its own enjoyment involves
  • A) secondary reinforcers.
  • B) spontaneous recovery.
  • C) intrinsic motivation.
  • D) latent learning.

26
19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food
than to train it to stand on its hind legs for
food. This best illustrates the importance of
______ in learning.
  • A) primary reinforcement
  • B) generalization
  • C) negative reinforcers
  • D) biological predispositions

27
20. When people are paid to do things they
already enjoy doing, the result is often
  • A) they will perform the activity less.
  • B) they will perform the activity more often.
  • C) they will perform the activity longer.
  • D) there will be no change.

28
21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may
also begin to fear speeding trucks and
motorcycles. This best illustrates
  • A) generalization.
  • B) secondary reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) latent learning.

29
22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children
often learn that this action is associated with
the delivery of a candy bar. This best
illustrates the process underlying
  • A) latent learning.
  • B) intermittent reinforcement.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) operant conditioning.

30
23. For purposes of effective child-rearing, most
psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____.
  • A) shaping modeling
  • B) reinforcement punishment
  • C) spontaneous recovery extinction
  • D) classical conditioning operant conditioning.

31
24. A childs fear at the sight of a hypodermic
needle is a(n)
  • A) conditioned response.
  • B) unconditioned stimulus.
  • C) conditioned stimulus.
  • D) unconditioned response.

32
25. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F.
Skinner would most likely have emphasized
  • A) inherited predispositions.
  • B) fear and greed.
  • C) faulty child-rearing practices.
  • D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. In Pavlovs experiments on the salivary
conditioning of dogs, the UCS was
  • A) a tone.
  • B) salivation to the sound of a tone.
  • C) the presentation of food in the dogs mouth.
  • D) salivation to the food in the mouth.

317
36
2. Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused
by a red light that was repeatedly associated
with the presentation of a female quail. The
sexual arousal elicited by the red light was a
  • A) CR.
  • B) CS.
  • C) UCR.
  • D) UCS.

318
37
3. After learning to fear a white rat, Little
Albert responded with fear to the sight of a
rabbit. This best illustrates the process of
  • A) secondary reinforcement.
  • B) generalization.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) latent learning.

320
38
4. You would be most likely to use operant
conditioning to teach a dog to
  • A) fear cats in the street.
  • B) dislike the taste of dead birds.
  • C) wag its tail whenever it is emotionally
    excited.
  • D) retrieve sticks and balls.

328
39
The psychic secretions that interfered with
Pavlovs experiments on digestion were
  • A) unconditioned responses.
  • B) primary reinforcers.
  • C) conditioned responses.
  • D) conditioned stimuli.

316
40
6. The taste of food and the termination of
painful electric shock are both ____ reinforcers.
  • A) positive
  • B) primary
  • C) negative
  • D) conditioned

320
41
7. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced
with monetary winnings on a _____ schedule.
  • A) fixed-interval
  • B) variable-interval
  • C) fixed-ratio
  • D) variable-ratio

332
42
8. Resistance to extinction is most strongly
encouraged by _____ reinforcement.
  • A) intermittent
  • B) delayed
  • C) condition
  • D) negative

331
43
9. Watching the night sky for shooting stars is
likely to be reinforced on a _____ schedule.
  • A) fixed-interval
  • B) fixed-ratio
  • C) variable-interval
  • D) variable-ratio

331
44
10. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every
day after work because it reduces his level of
stress. Masons running habit is maintained by a
_____ reinforcer.
  • A) positive
  • B) negative
  • C) conditioned
  • D) partial

329
45
11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward
because he noticed his older brother does so.
This illustrates the importance of
  • A) respondent behavior.
  • B) immediate reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) modeling.

341
46
12. Who highlighted the importance of
observational learning?
  • A) Watson
  • B) Bandura
  • C) Skinner
  • D) Pavlov

343
47
13. Prolonged exposure leads viewers to
experience ___ sympathy for victims of violence
and to become ___ upset by the sight of real life
violence.
  • A) less less
  • B) more more
  • C) more less
  • D) less more

345
48
14. Children exposed to a model who preached one
thing and did another
  • A) ignored both what the model said and did.
  • B) ignored what the model did and did what the
    model said.
  • C) ignored what the model said and both talked
    and acted in ways consistent with what the model
    did.
  • D) said what the model said and did what the
    model did.

344
49
15. Children are especially likely to behave
aggressively after viewing TV violence in which
an attractive person commits ____ violence that
causes ____.
  • A) justified no visible pain or harm.
  • B) unjustified no visible pain or harm.
  • C) justified a lot of visible pain or harm.
  • D) unjustified a lot of visible pain or harm.

345
50
16. After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed
a mental representation of the layout of the
campus and no longer gets lost. She has
developed a
  • A) visual memory.
  • B) perceptual delineation.
  • C) cognitive map.
  • D) fixed-interval schedule.

334
51
17. The fact that learning can occur without
reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by
studies of
  • A) shaping.
  • B) latent learning.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) computer-assisted instruction.

334
52
18. The desire to engage in an activity for the
sake of its own enjoyment involves
  • A) secondary reinforcers.
  • B) spontaneous recovery.
  • C) intrinsic motivation.
  • D) latent learning.

335
53
19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food
than to train it to stand on its hind legs for
food. This best illustrates the importance of
______ in learning.
  • A) primary reinforcement
  • B) generalization
  • C) negative reinforcers
  • D) biological predispositions

335
54
20. When people are paid to do things they
already enjoy doing, the result is often
  • A) they will perform the activity less.
  • B) they will perform the activity more often.
  • C) they will perform the activity longer.
  • D) there will be no change.

335
55
21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may
also begin to fear speeding trucks and
motorcycles. This best illustrates
  • A) generalization.
  • B) secondary reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) latent learning.

320
56
22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children
often learn that this action is associated with
the delivery of a candy bar. This best
illustrates the process underlying
  • A) latent learning.
  • B) intermittent reinforcement.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) operant conditioning.

326
57
23. For purposes of effective child-rearing, most
psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____.
  • A) shaping modeling
  • B) reinforcement punishment
  • C) spontaneous recovery extinction
  • D) classical conditioning operant conditioning.

332
58
24. A childs fear at the sight of a hypodermic
needle is a(n)
  • A) conditioned response.
  • B) unconditioned stimulus.
  • C) conditioned stimulus.
  • D) unconditioned response.

318
59
25. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F.
Skinner would most likely have emphasized
  • A) inherited predispositions.
  • B) fear and greed.
  • C) faulty child-rearing practices.
  • D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society.

338
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by
  • David Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers, 2006

61
Answers
1. C
2. A
3. B
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. D
8. A
9. C
10. B
11. D
12. B
13. A
14. D
15. A
16. C
17. B
18. C
19. D
20. A
21. A
22. D
23. B
24. A
25. C
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