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INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH

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INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH What are the ethical challenges? Richard Jenkins University of Sheffield WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH? There are at least three distinct ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH


1
INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
  • What are the ethical challenges?
  • Richard Jenkins
  • University of Sheffield

2
WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH?
  • There are at least three distinct types of
    non-medical international research involving
    human participants and personal data
  • Research based in the UK but using already
    existing, secondary data from and about
    elsewhere.
  • Comparative collaborative research with
    colleagues outside the UK, where they collect
    their national data and you collect your (UK)
    data.
  • Research carried out by a UK-based researcher
    that involves data collection outside the UK.

3
RESEARCH BASED IN THE UK BUT USING ALREADY
EXISTING, SECONDARY DATA FROM AND ABOUT ELSEWHERE.
  • Here one needs to be certain that the data were
    gathered in a manner that
  • satisfied any in-country legal and ethical
    requirements
  • satisfies the Universitys Research Ethics
    Policy
  • and, if relevant,
  • satisfies any appropriate professional ethical
    requirements (publication etc.).
  • The challenge may be how to do this

4
DETAILED DOCUMENTATION ABOUT
  • Local in-country legal and research ethical
    requirements.
  • The source(s) of the data, the data collection
    procedures involved, the consent forms, etc.
  • Proper translation is required, and a paper
    trail.
  • Exemptions?
  • Data collected before local and/or UK ethical
    requirements were formulated.
  • BUTcommon sense, caution and judgment are still
    required when dealing with historical data of
    this kind.

5
COMPARATIVE COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH WITH
COLLEAGUES OUTSIDE THE UK, WHERE THEY COLLECT
THEIR NATIONAL DATA AND YOU COLLECT YOUR (UK)
DATA.
  • The same ethical requirements are present
  • satisfaction of in-country legal and ethical
    requirements
  • satisfaction of the Universitys Research Ethics
    Policy (particularly if Sheffield is the lead
    institution)
  • and, if relevant,
  • satisfaction of professional ethical requirements
    (publication etc.).

6
COLLABORATION INVOLVES TRUST.
  • In the first place, if you dont trust them,
    dont collaborate with them.
  • Not all jurisdictions or HE systems have research
    ethical requirements for non-medical research
    with human participants, or legal frameworks
    dealing with personal data.
  • The crucial matter is to ensure that data
    protection and research ethical considerations
    are involved in project discussions from the very
    outset, before funding is sought, and that proper
    procedures for obtaining consent etc. are built
    into the research design.
  • Your own elements of any international
    collaborative research must satisfy the
    University research ethics requirements, and be
    approved accordingly.

7
RESEARCH CARRIED OUT BY A UK-BASED RESEARCHER
THAT INVOLVES DATA COLLECTION OUTSIDE THE UK.
  • Once again
  • in-country legal and research ethical
    requirements
  • the Universitys Research Ethics Policy
  • and
  • professional ethical requirements.
  • What are the challenges?

8
RESPONSIBILITYFOR WHAT, AND TO WHOM?
  • You are responsible for ensuring that the
    requirements outlined on the previous slide are
    met
  • and for the day-to-day conduct of the research
    data collection, relationships with locals, etc.
  • You are responsible to your research subjects
  • to local communities and officialdom
  • to the host institution if there is one
  • and to everyone to whom youre normally
    responsible in the UK.

9
IT LOOKS LIKE THERE ARE EXTRA LAYERS OF
RESPONSIBILITY BUT ARE THERE, REALLY?
  • Responsibility for obtaining proper ethics
    approval.
  • Responsibility for legal compliance.
  • Responsibility for personal and institutional
    reputation.
  • Responsibility for the management and conduct of
    research.
  • Responsibility to research subjects.
  • The situation may be more complex, but the
    responsibilities, with respect to research
    ethics, are essentially the same.

10
DOES DOING RESEARCH OUTSIDE THE UK POSE ANY
SPECIAL ETHICAL CHALLENGES?
  • YES
  • and
  • NO

11
YES
  • National law and other regulation.
  • Everyday mutual understanding language,
    interpersonal etiquette, local norms and rules,
    tacit ways of doing things, and so on
  • Presentation of self gender, status, sexuality,
    and other aspects of identity.
  • Notions of privacy.
  • Problems in anticipating consequences of actions.
  • Different institutional and bureaucratic
    procedures and demands.
  • In one word CULTURE

12
NO
  • Many if not all of the factors mentioned on the
    previous slide apply at home as well we live
    in a multi-ethnic and otherwise culturally
    diverse society and issues of these kinds may
    come up.
  • In fact, since these issues are likely to be more
    obvious when working outside the UK, it may well
    be that in these respects working at home is
    more problematic than working away.

13
ETHICAL CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
  • Doing research involving human participants and
    personal data anywhere poses ethical challenges,
    and those ethical challenges are pretty
    universal.
  • While we should be sensitive to local norms and
    conditions, we need to maintain our own standards
    of behaviour.
  • Doing research outside the UK doesnt mean that
    we cease to be governed by UK data protection law
    - because we use the data within the UK - or the
    Universitys Research Ethics Policy.
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