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Title: Workshop Description


1
Workshop Description
2
RTI at Middle and High Schools Behavioral
Interventions for Groups and Individual
Students Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
3
Workshop Agenda
4
Workshop Materials Available at
  • http//www.interventioncentral.org/bctc.php

5
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
6
Big Ideas in Student Behavior Management
7
Big Ideas Similar Behaviors May Stem from Very
Different Root Causes (Kratochwill, Elliott,
Carrington Rotto, 1990)
  • Behavior is not random but follows purposeful
    patterns. Students who present with the same
    apparent surface behaviors may have very
    different drivers (underlying reasons) that
    explain why those behaviors occur. A students
    problem behaviors must be carefully identified
    and analyzed to determine the drivers that
    support them.

Source Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N.,
Carrington Rotto, P. (1990). Best practices in
behavioral consultation. In A. Thomas and J.
Grimes (Eds.). Best practices in school
psychology-II (pp. 147169). Silver Spring, MD
National Association of School Psychologists..
8
Common Root Causes or Drivers for Behaviors
Include
  • Power/Control
  • Protection/Escape/Avoidance
  • Attention
  • Acceptance/Affiliation
  • Expression of Self
  • Gratification
  • Justice/Revenge

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Moell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West..pp. 3-4.
9
Showed disrespect towards me when she yelled
inappropriately regarding an instruction sheet.
I then asked her to leave the room. She also
showed disrespect when I called her twice earlier
in the class to see her report card grade.
Teacher Referral Example
10
I gave out a test. After a few minutes, he
crunched it and threw it on the floor. If he
were not prepared, he could have talked to me and
I would have allowed him to take it on a
different date, as I usually do.
Teacher Referral Example
11
Big Ideas Attend to the Triggers and
Consequences of Problem Behaviors (Martens
Meller, 1990)
  • Intervening before a student misbehaves or when
    the misbehavior has not yet escalated increases
    the likelihood of keeping the student on task and
    engaged in learning. Consequences of behaviors
    that are reinforcing to the student will increase
    the occurrence of that behavior.

ABC Timeline
A
Source Martens, B.K., Meller, P.J. (1990). The
application of behavioral principles to
educational settings. In T.B. Gutkin
C.R.Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school
psychology (2nd ed.) (pp. 612-634). New York
John Wiley Sons.
12
ABC Timeline Example
13
Student Motivation Levels Are Strongly Influenced
by the Instructional Setting (Lentz Shapiro,
1986)
  • Students with learning or motivation problems do
    not exist in isolation. Rather, their
    instructional environment plays an enormously
    important role in these students degree of
    academic engagement.

Source Lentz, F. E. Shapiro, E. S. (1986).
Functional assessment of the academic
environment. School Psychology Review, 15, 346-57.
14
Big Ideas Behavior is a Continuous Stream
(Schoenfeld Farmer, 1970)
  • Individuals are always performing SOME type of
    behavior watching the instructor, sleeping,
    talking to a neighbor, completing a worksheet
    (behavior stream).
  • When students are fully engaged in academic
    behaviors, they are less likely to get off-task
    and display problem behaviors.
  • Academic tasks that are clearly understood,
    elicit student interest, provide a high rate of
    student success, and include teacher
    encouragement and feedback are most likely to
    effectively capture the students behavior
    stream.

Source Schoenfeld, W. N., Farmer, J. (1970).
Reinforcement schedules and the behavior
stream. In W. N. Schoenfeld (Ed.), The theory
of reinforcement schedules (pp. 215245). New
York Appleton-Century-Crofts.
15
Big Ideas Academic Delays Can Be a Potent Cause
of Behavior Problems (Witt, Daly, Noell, 2000)
  • Student academic problems cause many school
    behavior problems.
  • Whether a students problem is a behavior
    problem or an academic one, we recommend starting
    with a functional academic assessment, since
    often behavior problems occur when students
    cannot or will not do required academic work.

Source Witt, J. C., Daly, E. M., Noell, G.
(2000). Functional assessments A step-by-step
guide to solving academic and behavior problems.
Longmont, CO Sopris West, p. 13
16
Unmotivated Students What Works
Motivation can be thought of as having two
dimensions
  1. the students expectation of success on the task

Multiplied by
  1. the value that the student places on achieving
    success on that learning task
  • The relationship between the two factors is
    multiplicative. If EITHER of these factors (the
    students expectation of success on the task OR
    the students valuing of that success) is zero,
    then the motivation product will also be zero.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
17
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
  • An intrinsically motivated behavior is defined
    as one for which there exists no recognizable
    reward except the activity itself (e.g.,
    reading). That is, behavior that cannot be
    attributed to external controls is usually
    attributed to intrinsic motivation.
  • an extrinsically motivated behavior refers to
    behavior controlled by stimuli external to the
    task. p. 345

Source Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L.,
Lovett, B. J., Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic
reinforcement in the classroom Bribery or best
practice. School Psychology Review, 33, 344-362.
18
Intrinsic Motivation Is This Construct Useful?
  • By definition, intrinsic motivation is supported
    by the reinforcing quality of the activity alone.
    As a construct, intrinsic motivation may be
    untestable, because the reinforcer cannot be
    directly observed or experimentally manipulated.
  • In other words, whether or not it is theoretical
    possible for a task to be intrinsically
    motivating, schools should always consider
    factors in the instructional environment that can
    be altered to increase the reinforcing qualities
    of the learning task.

Source Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L.,
Lovett, B. J., Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic
reinforcement in the classroom Bribery or best
practice. School Psychology Review, 33, 344-362.
19
Childhood and Beyond Longitudinal Project
  • 3 cohorts of children (about 250 children per
    cohort) were followed across elementary, middle
    and high school. (Children were recruited from 4
    middle-class school districts in the midwest.)
  • In the subject areas of math, language arts, and
    sports, students were asked each year to rate
    their competence in the subject and their valuing
    of it.

Source Jacobs, J. E., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W.,
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in
childrens self-competence and values Gender and
domain differences across grades one through
twelve. Child Development, 73, 509-527.
20
Childhood and Beyond Longitudinal Project Some
Findings
  • Ratings of both competence and value declined for
    all 3 subject areas (math, language arts, and
    sports) for boys and girls as they grew older.
  • Girls rated themselves lower in competence in
    math throughout schooluntil grade 12, when boys
    and girls converged in their ratings (because
    boys ratings declined faster than did girls
    ratings).
  • Across all grade levels, boys rated themselves
    significantly less competent than did girls in
    language arts.
  • Not surprisingly, boys and girls valuing
    (enjoyment, liking) of a subject area correlated
    with perceived ability. Generally, boys and girls
    who rated themselves as lowest in ability also
    rated their valuing of the subject area as
    lowest.

Source Jacobs, J. E., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W.,
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in
childrens self-competence and values Gender and
domain differences across grades one through
twelve. Child Development, 73, 509-527.
21
Our Working Definition of School Motivation For
This Workshop
  • The student is engaged in active accurate
    academic responding.

22
Applying RTI Logic to Better Understand
Behavior Problems
23
Special Education is Magic A Barrier to
Interventions in the General-Education Setting
  • some teachers view students with
    handicaps as being qualitatively different from
    normal achievers and believe that only special
    teachers can teach these special students. At the
    very least, this kind of magical thinking reduces
    teachers expectations for student progress, and
    we know that ambitious goals increase
    achievement. At its worst, believing that special
    education is magic leads teachers to actively
    resist accommodating students with special needs
    in their classrooms through behavioral or
    instructional consultation.

Source Martens, B. K. (1993). A case against
magical thinking in school-based intervention.
Journal of Educational and Psychological
Consultation, 4(2), 185-189.
24
Factors Influencing the Decision to Classify as
BD (Gresham, 1992)
  • Four factors strongly influence the likelihood
    that a student will be classified as Behaviorally
    Disordered
  • Severity Frequency and intensity of the problem
    behavior(s).
  • Chronicity Length of time that the problem
    behavior(s) have been displayed.
  • Generalization Degree to which the student
    displays the problem behavior(s) across settings
    or situations.
  • Tolerance Degree to which the students problem
    behavior(s) are accepted in that students
    current social setting.

Source Gresham, F. M. (1992). Conceptualizing
behavior disorders in terms of resistance to
intervention. School Psychology Review, 20, 23-37.
25
I call the range of students whom teachers come
to view as adequately responsive i.e.,
teachable as the tolerance those who are
perceived to be outside the tolerance are those
for whom teachers seek additional resources. The
term tolerance is used to indicate that
teachers form a permissible boundary on their
measurement (judgments) in the same sense as a
confidence interval. In this case, the teacher
actively measures the distribution of
responsiveness in her class by processing
information from a series of teaching trials and
perceives some range of students as within the
tolerance. (Gerber, 2002)


Source Gerber, M. M. (2003). Teachers are still
the test Limitations of response to instruction
strategies for identifying children with learning
disabilities. Paper presented at the National
Research Center on Learning Disabilities
Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas
City, MO.
26
Inference Moving Beyond the Margins of the
Known
  • An inference is a tentative conclusion without
    direct or conclusive support from available data.
    All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It
    is critical that problem analysts make
    distinctions between what is known and what is
    inferred or hypothesized.Low-level inferences
    should be exhausted prior to the use of
    high-level inferences. p. 161

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
27
Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses
An 11th-grade student does poorly on tests and
quizzes in math. Homework is often incomplete.
He frequently shows up late for class and does
not readily participate in group discussions.
28
Tier 3 Targets Focus on School Factors Over
Which We Have Influence
  • The hypothesis and intervention for struggling
    students should focus on those variables that
    are alterable within the school setting. These
    alterable variables include learning goals and
    objectives (what is to be learned), materials,
    time, student-to-teacher ratio, activities, and
    motivational strategies. p. 95

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
29
The Problem-Solving Model Multi-Disciplinary
Teams
  • A school consultative process (the
    problem-solving model) with roots in applied
    behavior analysis was developed (e.g., Bergan,
    1995) that includes 4 steps
  • Problem Identification
  • Problem Analysis
  • Plan Implementation
  • Problem Evaluation
  • Originally designed for individual consultation
    with teachers, the problem-solving model was
    later adapted in various forms to
    multi-disciplinary team settings.

Source Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a
problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of
Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
111-123.
30
Academic or Behavioral Targets Are Stated as
Replacement Behaviors
  • The implementation of successful interventions
    begins with accurate problem identification.
    Traditionally, the student problem was stated as
    a broad, general concern (e.g., impulsive,
    aggressive, reading below grade level) that a
    teacher identified. In a competency-based
    approach, however, the problem identification is
    stated in terms of the desired replacement
    behaviors that will increase the students
    probability of successful adaptation to the task
    demands of the academic setting. p. 178

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
31
Common Reasons Why Behavior Plans Fail
32
Common Reasons Why Behavior Plans Fail
  1. Student problems are defined in vague rather than
    specific terms, making it more difficult to
    select the right intervention(s) to support the
    student. When student concerns are stated in
    vague terms (e.g., The student is disruptive or
    The student has an attitude, they lack details
    about the setting(s) in which behavior problems
    typically occur, a specific description of the
    problem behavior, and information about its
    severity.

33
Common Reasons Why Behavior Plans Fail
  1. The problem behavior is viewed as residing
    primarily within the student. This focus on the
    student alone can cause schools to overlook the
    important positive impact that instructional
    staff can have on students by changing
    instruction, work (curriculum) demands, and the
    learning environment.

34
Common Reasons Why Behavior Plans Fail
  1. The school selects an incorrect hypothesis about
    what is supporting the students problem
    behavior, so the strategies to promote the
    positive, replacement behavior dont work. For
    example, the school may incorrectly hypothesize
    that a student is misbehaving to win attention
    from peers when in fact that student is acting
    out to escape classwork.

35
Common Reasons Why Behavior Plans Fail
  1. The replacement behavior does not take hold
    because it is not being adequately reinforced.
    If the replacement behavior was not a part of
    the students repertoire before the intervention
    plan began, that replacement behavior simply
    fails to take hold in the absence of
    reinforcement. If the replacement behavior does
    appear intermittently (e.g., student occasionally
    complies with adult requests), these flickers
    of positive behavior may be extinguished
    completely because of lack of reinforcement.

36
Common Reasons Why Behavior Plans Fail
  • The students problem behavior continues, even
    after the replacement behavior has been
    taught. The reason that the problem behavior
    persists is that antecedents (triggers) and / or
    consequences supporting the negative behavior
    still remain in place.

37
Team Activity Select a Behaviorally Challenging
Student
  • At your table
  • Discuss students in your classrooms or school who
    present challenging behaviors.
  • Of the students discussed, select one student
    that your team will use in an exercise of
    defining student problem behaviors.
  • Write a brief statement defining that students
    problem behavior(s).

38
Defining Student Problem Behaviors A Key to
Identifying Effective Interventions Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
39
Interventions Potential Fatal Flaws
  • Any intervention must include 4 essential
    elements. The absence of any one of the elements
    would be considered a fatal flaw (Witt,
    VanDerHeyden Gilbertson, 2004) that blocks the
    school from drawing meaningful conclusions from
    the students response to the intervention
  • Clearly defined problem. The students target
    concern is stated in specific, observable,
    measureable terms. This problem identification
    statement is the most important step of the
    problem-solving model (Bergan, 1995), as a
    clearly defined problem allows the teacher or RTI
    Team to select a well-matched intervention to
    address it.
  • Baseline data. The teacher or RTI Team measures
    the students academic skills in the target
    concern (e.g., reading fluency, math computation)
    prior to beginning the intervention. Baseline
    data becomes the point of comparison throughout
    the intervention to help the school to determine
    whether that intervention is effective.
  • Performance goal. The teacher or RTI Team sets a
    specific, data-based goal for student improvement
    during the intervention and a checkpoint date by
    which the goal should be attained.
  • Progress-monitoring plan. The teacher or RTI Team
    collects student data regularly to determine
    whether the student is on-track to reach the
    performance goal.

Source Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M.,
Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral
interventions. A systematic process for finding
and eliminating problems. School Psychology
Review, 33, 363-383.
40
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms (Batsche et al., 2008 Upah,
    2008). Write a clear description of the problem
    behavior. Avoid vague problem identification
    statements such as The student is disruptive.
  • A well-written problem definition should include
    three parts
  • Conditions. The condition(s) under which the
    problem is likely to occur
  • Problem Description. A specific description of
    the problem behavior
  • Contextual information. Information about the
    frequency, intensity, duration, or other
    dimension(s) of the behavior that provide a
    context for estimating the degree to which the
    behavior presents a problem in the setting(s) in
    which it occurs.

41
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42
Defining Student Problem Behaviors Team Activity
  • Using the student selected by your team
  • Step 1 Define the problem behavior in clear,
    observable, measurable terms.
  • Five Steps in Understanding Addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms.
  • Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior.
  • Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Select a replacement behavior.
  • Write a prediction statement.

43
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior (Upah, 2008). Writing both examples and
    non-examples of the problem behavior helps to
    resolve uncertainty about when the students
    conduct should be classified as a problem
    behavior. Examples should include the most
    frequent or typical instances of the student
    problem behavior. Non-examples should include any
    behaviors that are acceptable conduct but might
    possibly be confused with the problem behavior.

44
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45
Defining Student Problem Behaviors Team Activity
  • Using the student selected by your team
  • Step 2 Develop examples and non-examples of the
    problem behavior.
  • Five Steps in Understanding Addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms.
  • Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior.
  • Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Select a replacement behavior.
  • Write a prediction statement.

46
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a behavior hypothesis statement (Batsche et
    al., 2008 Upah, 2008). The next step in
    problem-solving is to develop a hypothesis about
    why the student is engaging in an undesirable
    behavior or not engaging in a desired behavior.
    Teachers can gain information to develop a
    hypothesis through direct observation, student
    interview, review of student work products, and
    other sources. The behavior hypothesis statement
    is important because (a) it can be tested, and
    (b) it provides guidance on the type(s) of
    interventions that might benefit the student.

47
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48
Defining Student Problem Behaviors Team Activity
  • Using the student selected by your team
  • Step 3 Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Five Steps in Understanding Addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms.
  • Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior.
  • Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Select a replacement behavior.
  • Write a prediction statement.

49
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Select a replacement behavior (Batsche et al.,
    2008). Behavioral interventions should be focused
    on increasing student skills and capacities, not
    simply on suppressing problem behaviors. By
    selecting a positive behavioral goal that is an
    appropriate replacement for the students
    original problem behavior, the teacher reframes
    the student concern in a manner that allows for
    more effective intervention planning.

50
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51
Defining Student Problem Behaviors Team Activity
  • Using the student selected by your team
  • Step 4 Select a replacement behavior.
  • Five Steps in Understanding Addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms.
  • Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior.
  • Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Select a replacement behavior.
  • Write a prediction statement.

52
Defining Problem Student Behaviors
  1. Write a prediction statement (Batsche et al.,
    2008 Upah, 2008). The prediction statement
    proposes a strategy (intervention) that is
    predicted to improve the problem behavior. The
    importance of the prediction statement is that it
    spells out specifically the expected outcome if
    the strategy is successful. The formula for
    writing a prediction statement is to state that
    if the proposed strategy (Specific Action) is
    adopted, then the rate of problem behavior is
    expected to decrease or increase in the desired
    direction.

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54
Defining Student Problem Behaviors Team Activity
  • Using the student selected by your team
  • Step 5 Write a prediction statement.
  • Five Steps in Understanding Addressing Problem
    Behaviors
  • Define the problem behavior in clear, observable,
    measurable terms.
  • Develop examples and non-examples of the problem
    behavior.
  • Write a behavior hypothesis statement.
  • Select a replacement behavior.
  • Write a prediction statement.

55
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56
The Alpha Command Structuring Verbal Teacher
Directives to Maximize Their Impact (Walker
Walker, 1991)
57
The Importance of Teacher Commands
  • Teacher commands are a necessary classroom
    management tool, required to start and stop
    student behaviors.
  • However, teacher commands can lose their force if
    overused.
  • In one observational study in an elementary
    school, for example, researchers found that
    teachers in that school varied in their use of
    verbal commands, with rates ranging from 60 per
    day to 600 per day.

58
Ineffective (Beta) Teacher Commands Are Often
  • Presented as questions or Lets statements
  • Stated in vague terms
  • Have overly long justifications or explanations
    tacked on

59
Effective (Alpha) Teacher Commands
  • Are brief
  • Are delivered one task or objective at a time
  • Are given in a matter-of-fact, businesslike tone
  • Are stated as directives rather than as questions
  • Avoid long explanations or justifications (and
    puts them at the BEGINNING of the directive if
    needed)
  • Give the student a reasonable amount of time to
    comply

60
Ideas to Reduce Teacher Use of Commands
  • Be reflective analyze when commands are being
    overused and why find other solutions
  • Train students in common routines (e.g., getting
    help when stuck on independent seatwork)
  • Use classroom memory aids (e.g., posting of
    steps of multi-step assignment, daily schedule,
    etc.)
  • Give periodic rules review
  • Use routine prompt signals (e.g., music or chimes
    to signal transitions)

61
Anna, I want you to be sure to go straight home
from school today! Yesterday afternoon after
school dismissal, I was in my car and noticed
that you and your friends were utilizing the
snowbanks along Henry Street, where there is a
lot of traffic. I want you to go straight home
today and not dawdle!
  • Effective Alpha Teacher Commands
  • Are brief
  • Are delivered one task or objective at a time
  • Are given in a matter-of-fact, businesslike tone
  • Are stated as directives rather than as questions
  • Avoid long explanations or justifications
  • Give the student a short but reasonable amount of
    time to comply

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63
Thaddeus, I know that you finished the quiz
early, but it is important that you not distract
the other students while they are trying to work.
You wouldnt want them to do poorly on the quiz,
would you?
  • Effective Alpha Teacher Commands
  • Are brief
  • Are delivered one task or objective at a time
  • Are given in a matter-of-fact, businesslike tone
  • Are stated as directives rather than as questions
  • Avoid long explanations or justifications
  • Give the student a short but reasonable amount of
    time to comply

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65
OK, class. Pull out the writing assignment that
you had for homework last night. Pair off with a
neighbor. Each one of you should read the others
assignment. Then you should edit your partners
work, using our peer-editing worksheet. Finally,
review your editing comments with your partner.
You have 20 minutes. Begin!
  • Effective Alpha Teacher Commands
  • Are brief
  • Are delivered one task or objective at a time
  • Are given in a matter-of-fact, businesslike tone
  • Are stated as directives rather than as questions
  • Avoid long explanations or justifications
  • Give the student a short but reasonable amount of
    time to comply

66
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67
Classroom Management Strategies That Promote
Improved Behaviors and Academic Success Jim
Wright www.interventioncentral.org
68
RTI Listening to the Teachers Voice
69
Q How is a Traditional Classroom Like a Pinball
Machie?
70
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies p. 10
  • Be sure that assigned work is not too easy and
    not too difficult
  • Offer frequent opportunities for choice
  • Select high-interest or functional learning
    activities
  • Instruct students at a brisk pace
  • Structure lessons to require active student
    involvement
  • Incorporate cooperative-learning opportunities
    into instruction
  • Give frequent teacher feedback and encouragement
  • Provide correct models during independent work
  • Be consistent in managing the academic setting
  • Target interventions to coincide closely with
    point of performance

71
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Be sure that assigned work is not too easy and
    not too difficult. It is surprising how often
    classroom behavior problems occur simply because
    students find the assigned work too difficult or
    too easy (Gettinger Seibert, 2002). As a
    significant mismatch between the assignment and
    the students abilities can trigger misbehavior,
    teachers should inventory each students academic
    skills and adjust assignments as needed to ensure
    that the student is appropriately challenged but
    not overwhelmed by the work.

1
72
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Offer frequent opportunities for choice.
    Teachers who allow students a degree of choice in
    structuring their learning activities typically
    have fewer behavior problems in their classrooms
    than teachers who do not. (Kern et al., 2002).
    One efficient way to promote choice in the
    classroom is for the teacher to create a master
    menu of options that students can select from in
    various learning situations. For example, during
    independent assignment, students might be allowed
    to (1) choose from at least 2 assignment options,
    (2) sit where they want in the classroom, and (3)
    select a peer-buddy to check their work. Student
    choice then becomes integrated seamlessly into
    the classroom routine.

2
73
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Select high-interest or functional learning
    activities. Kids are more motivated to learn when
    their instructional activities are linked to a
    topic of high interest (Kern et al., 2002). A
    teacher who discovers that her math group of
    7th-graders loves NASCAR racing, for example, may
    be able to create engaging math problems based on
    car-racing statistics. Students may also be
    energized to participate in academic activities
    if they believe that these activities will give
    them functional skills that they value (Miller et
    al., 2003).

3
74
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Instruct students at a brisk pace. A myth of
    remedial education is that special-needs students
    must be taught at a slower, less demanding pace
    than their general-education peers (Heward,
    2003). In fact, a slow pace of instruction can
    actually cause significant behavior problems,
    because students become bored and distracted.
    Teacher-led instruction should be delivered at a
    sufficiently brisk pace to hold student
    attention. An important additional benefit of a
    brisk instructional pace is that students cover
    more academic material more quickly, accelerating
    their learning (Heward, 2003).

4
75
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Structure lessons to require active student
    involvement. When teachers require that students
    participate in lessons rather than sit as passive
    listeners, they increase the odds that students
    will become caught up in the flow of the activity
    and not drift off into misbehavior (Heward,
    2003). Students can be encouraged to be active
    learning participants in many ways. For example,
    a teacher might
  • call out questions and has the class give the
    answer in unison (choral responding)
  • pose a question
  • give the class think time, and then draw a name
    from a hat to select a student to give the
    answer or
  • direct students working independently on a
    practice problem to think aloud as they work
    through the steps of the problem.
  • Students who have lots of opportunities to
    actively respond and receive teacher feedback
    also demonstrate substantial learning gains
    (Heward, 1994).

5
76
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Incorporate cooperative-learning opportunities
    into instruction. Traditional teacher lecture is
    frequently associated with high rates of student
    misbehavior. There is evidence, though, that when
    students are given well-structured assignments
    and placed into work-pairs or cooperative
    learning groups, behavior problems typically
    diminish (Beyda et al., 2002). Even positive
    teacher practices can be more effective when used
    in cooperative-learning settings. If students are
    working in pairs or small groups, teacher
    feedback given to one group or individual does
    not interrupt learning for the other groups.

6
77
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Give frequent teacher feedback and
    encouragement. Praise and other positive
    interactions between teacher and student serve an
    important instructional function, because these
    exchanges regularly remind the student of the
    classroom behavioral and academic expectations
    and give the student clear evidence that he or
    she is capable of achieving those expectations
    (Mayer, 2000).

7
78
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Provide correct models during independent work.
    In virtually every classroom, students are
    expected to work independently on assignments.
    Independent seatwork can be a prime trigger,
    though, for serious student misbehavior (DuPaul
    Stoner, 2002). One modest instructional
    adjustment that can significantly reduce problem
    behaviors is to supply students with several
    correctly completed models (work examples) to use
    as a reference (Miller et al., 2003). A math
    instructor teaching quadratic equations, for
    example, might provide 4 models in which all
    steps in solving the equation are solved.

8
79
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Be consistent in managing the academic setting.
    Teachers can hold down the level of problem
    behaviors by teaching clear expectations
    (classroom routines) for academic behaviors and
    then consistently following through in enforcing
    those expectations (Sprick et al., 2002).
    Classrooms run more smoothly when students are
    first taught routines for common learning
    activities--such as participating in class
    discussion, turning in homework, and handing out
    work materialsand then the teacher consistently
    enforces those same routines by praising students
    who follow them, reviewing those routines
    periodically, and reteaching them as needed.
    Having similar behavioral expectations across
    classrooms can also help students to show
    positive behaviors.

9
80
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies
  • Target interventions to coincide closely with
    point of performance. Skilled teachers employ
    many strategies to shape or manage challenging
    student behaviors. It is generally a good idea
    for teachers who work with a challenging students
    to target their behavioral and academic
    intervention strategies to coincide as closely as
    possible with that students point of
    performance (the time that the student engages
    in the behavior that the teacher is attempting to
    influence) (DuPaul Stoner, 2002). For example,
    a student reward will have a greater impact if it
    is given near the time in which it was earned
    than if it is awarded after a one-week delay.

10
81
References
  • Beyda, S.D., Zentall, S.S., Ferko, D.J.K.
    (2002). The relationship between teacher
    practices and the task-appropriate and social
    behavior of students with behavioral disorders.
    Behavioral Disorders, 27, 236-255.
  • DuPaul, G.J., Stoner, G. (2002). Interventions
    for attention problems. In M. Shinn, H.M. Walker,
    G. Stoner (Eds.) Interventions for academic and
    behavioral problems II Preventive and remedial
    approaches (pp. 913-938). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.
  • Gettinger, M., Seibert, J.K. (2002). Best
    practices in increasing academic learning time.
    In A. Thomas (Ed.), Best practices in school
    psychology IV Volume I (4th ed., pp. 773-787).
    Bethesda, MD National Association of School
    Psychologists.
  • Heward, W.L. (1994). Three low-tech strategies
    for increasing the frequency of active student
    response during group instruction. In R.Gardner
    III, D.M.Sainato, J.O.Cooper, T.E.Heron,
    W.L.Heward, J. Eshleman, T.A.Grossi (Eds.),
    Behavior analysis in education Focus on
    measurably superior instruction (pp. 283-320).
    Monterey, CA Brooks/Cole.
  • Heward, W.L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about
    teaching and learning that hinder the
    effectiveness of special education. Journal of
    Special Education, 36, 186-205. Kern, L.,
    Bambara, L., Fogt, J. (2002). Class-wide
    curricular modifications to improve the behavior
    of students with emotional or behavioral
    disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 27, 317-326.
  • Mayer, G.R. (2000). Classroom management A
    California resource guide. Los Angeles, CA Los
    Angeles County Office of Education and California
    Department of Education.
  • Miller, K.A., Gunter, P.L., Venn, M.J., Hummel,
    J., Wiley, L.P. (2003). Effects of curricular
    and materials modifications on academic
    performance and task engagement of three students
    with emotional or behavioral disorders.
    Behavioral Disorder, 28, 130-149.
  • Sprick, R.S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V. (2002).
    Prevention and management of behavior problems in
    secondary schools. In M. Shinn, H.M. Walker, G.
    Stoner (Eds.) Interventions for academic and
    behavioral problems II Preventive and remedial
    approaches (pp. 373-401). Bethesda, MD National
    Association of School Psychologists.

82
Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic
Management 10 Strategies p. 19
  • Be sure that assigned work is not too easy and
    not too difficult
  • Offer frequent opportunities for choice
  • Select high-interest or functional learning
    activities
  • Instruct students at a brisk pace
  • Structure lessons to require active student
    involvement
  • Incorporate cooperative-learning opportunities
    into instruction
  • Give frequent teacher feedback and encouragement
  • Provide correct models during independent work
  • Be consistent in managing the academic setting
  • Target interventions to coincide closely with
    point of performance

83
Group Activity Offer Advice to a Troubled
Classroom
  • At your tables
  • View the video clip of a high school classroom.
  • Discuss possible classroom instructional or
    management concerns that might be linked to poor
    student academic performance and/or challenging
    behaviors.
  • Devise a list of 2-3 TOP suggestions that you
    might offer to this teacher to address those
    concerns.

84
Maintaining Classroom Discipline (1947) Pt. 1 of
3 (412)
Source Internet Archive. Retrieved September 23,
2007, from http//www.archive.org/details/Maintain
1947
85
RTI Problem-Solving Teams Promoting Student
Involvement Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org

86
Intervention Responsibilities Examples at
Teacher, School-Wide, and Student Levels
Teacher
Student
School-Wide
  • Lab services (math, reading, etc.)
  • Remedial course
  • Homework club
  • Take agenda to teacher to be reviewed and signed
  • Seeking help from teachers during free periods
  • Signed agenda
  • Attention prompts
  • Individual review with students during free
    periods

87
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88
RTI Promoting Student Involvent
  • Schools should strongly consider having middle
    and high school students attend and take part in
    their own RTI Problem-Solving Team meetings for
    two reasons. First, as students mature, their
    teachers expect that they will take
    responsibility in advocating for their own
    learning needs. Second, students are more likely
    to fully commit to RTI intervention plans if they
    attend the RTI Team meeting and have a voice in
    the creation of those plans.

89
RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • Before the RTI Team Meeting. The student should
    be adequately prepared to attend the RTI Team
    meeting by first engaging in a pre-meeting with
    a school staff member whom the student knows and
    trusts (e.g., school counselor, teacher,
    administrator). By connecting the student with a
    trusted mentor figure who can help that student
    to navigate the RTI process, the school improves
    the odds that the disengaged or unmotivated
    student will feel an increased sense of
    connection and commitment to their own school
    performance (Bridgeland, DiIulio, Morison,
    2006).

90
RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • A student RTI pre-meeting can be quite brief,
    lasting perhaps 15-20 minutes. Here is a simple
    agenda for the meeting
  • Share information about the student problem(s).
  • Describe the purpose and steps of the RTI
    Problem-Solving Team meeting.
  • Stress the students importance in the
    intervention plan.
  • Have the student describe his or her learning
    needs.
  • Invite the student to attend the RTI Team
    meeting.

91
(No Transcript)
92
RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • During the RTI Team Meeting. If the student
    agrees to attend the RTI Team meeting, he or she
    participates fully in the meeting. Teachers and
    other staff attending the meeting make an effort
    to keep the atmosphere positive and focused on
    finding solutions to the students presenting
    concern(s). As each intervention idea is
    discussed, the team checks in with the student to
    determine that the student (a) fully understands
    how to access or participate in the intervention
    element being proposed and (b) is willing to take
    part in that intervention element. If the student
    appears hesitant or resistant, the team should
    work with the student either to win the student
    over to the proposed intervention idea or to find
    an alternative intervention that will accomplish
    the same goal.
  • At the end of the RTI Team meeting, each of the
    intervention ideas that is dependent on student
    participation for success is copied into the
    School Success Intervention Plan.

93
(No Transcript)
94
RTI Promoting Student Involvement
  • After the RTI Team Meeting. If the school
    discovers that the student is not carrying out
    his or her responsibilities as spelled out by the
    intervention plan, it is recommended that the
    staff member assigned as the RTI contact meet
    with the student and parent. At that meeting, the
    adult contact checks with the student to make
    sure that
  • the intervention plan continues to be relevant
    and appropriate for addressing the students
    academic or behavioral needs
  • the student understands and call access all
    intervention elements outlined on the School
    Success Intervention Plan.
  • adults participating in the intervention plan
    (e.g., classroom teachers) are carrying out their
    parts of the plan.

95
Starting RTI in Your Secondary School Enlisting
students in intervention plans
  • As a team
  • Talk about strategies to prepare students to be
    self-advocates in taking responsibility for their
    own learning.
  • Discuss ways to motivate students to feel
    comfortable in accessing (and responsible FOR
    accessing) intervention resources in the school.

96
Selecting Rewards That Motivate Tips for
Teachers
97
NYC Schools Pilots Pay for Student Performance
  • 200 schools participating in pilot
  • Reward system designed by Harvard economist
    Roland Fryer
  • Program is funded through private grants
  • Students are paid for high performance on NY
    State tests
  • Teachers also receive bonus pay for improved
    student performance. NOTE Most schools elect to
    share bonus monies across all staff.

Source Medina, J. (2008, March 15). Next
question Can students be paid to excel? The New
York Times, pp. A1, A19.
98
Tying Reward Schedule to Students Stage of the
Instructional Hierarchy (Daly, Martens, Barnett,
Witt, Olson, 2007)
  • During acquisition of a skill and early stages of
    fluency-building, provide reinforcement (e.g.,
    praise, exchangeable tokens) contingent upon
    on-task behavior (time-based reinforcement). This
    approach avoids penalizing students for slow
    performance.
  • During later stages of fluency-building, change
    to reinforcement based on rate of performance
    (accuracy-based contingency). This approach
    explicitly reinforces high response rates.
  • As fluency increases, maintain high rates of
    performance through intermittent reinforcement,
    lottery, etc.

Source Daly, E. J., Martens, B. K., Barnett, D.,
Witt, J. C., Olson, S. C. (2007). Varying
intervention delivery in response to
intervention Confronting and resolving
challenges with measurement, instruction, and
intensity. School Psychology Review, 36, 562-581.
99
Activity Take a Reinforcer Survey
  • Pair off.
  • Read through the 8 items on the mini-reinforcer
    survey appearing on the next slide.
  • Each person should select their TOP 2-3 reward
    choices.
  • Note similarities or differences in the types of
    rewards that each of you chose.

100
Activity Reinforcer Survey Pick Top 2-3 Choices
  • The student will select the pizza toppings for a
    class pizza party.
  • The student will have the teacher call the
    student's parent or guardian to give positive
    feedback about him or her.
  • The student will be dismissed to go to a favorite
    activity such as recess 2 minutes early.
  • The student will post drawings or other artwork
    in a public place such as on a hall bulletin
    board.
  • The student will select friends to sit with to
    complete a cooperative learning activity.
  • The student will tell a joke or riddle to the
    class.
  • The student will draw a prize from the class
    'prize box'.
  • The student will have first choice in selecting
    work materials (e.g., scissors, crayons, paper).
  • The student will be able to take one turn in an
    ongoing board game with a staff member (e.g.,
    chess). The staff member will then take their
    turn at a convenient time.
  • The student will select a friend as a "study
    buddy" to work with on an in-class assignment.

101
Selecting a Reward 3-Part Test
  • Do teacher, administration, and parent find the
    reward acceptable?
  • Is the reward available (conveniently and at an
    affordable cost) in schools?
  • Does the child find the reward motivating?

102
Creating Reward Deck Steps
  1. Teacher selects acceptable, feasible rewards
    from larger list
  2. Teacher lists choices on index cardscreating a
    master deck
  3. Teacher selects subset of rewards from deck to
    match individual student cases

103
Creating Reward Deck Steps (Cont.)
  1. Teacher reviews pre-screened reward choices with
    child, who rates their appeal. (A reward menu is
    assembled from childs choices.)
  2. Periodically, the teacher refreshes the childs
    reward menu by repeating steps 1-4.

104
The Power of RTI DVD Excerpt on Rewards
105
Monitoring Student Academic Behaviors Daily
Behavior Report Cards
106
Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) Are
  • brief forms containing student behavior-rating
    items. The teacher typically rates the student
    daily (or even more frequently) on the DBRC. The
    results can be graphed to document student
    response to an intervention.

107
http//www.directbehaviorratings.com/
108
Daily Behavior Report Cards Can Monitor
  • Hyperactivity
  • On-Task Behavior (Attention)
  • Work Completion
  • Organization Skills
  • Compliance With Adult Requests
  • Ability to Interact Appropriately With Peers

109
Jim Blalock
May 5
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Daily Version
110
Jim Blalock
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Weekly Version
05 05 07
05 06 07
05 07 07
05 08 07
05 09 07
40
0
60
60
50
111
Daily Behavior Report Card Chart
112
Student Case Scenario Jim
  • Jim is a 10th-grade student who is failing his
    math course and in danger of failing English and
    science courses. Jim has been identified with
    ADHD. His instructional team meets with the RTI
    Team and list the following academic and
    behavioral concerns for Jim.
  • Does not bring work materials to class
  • Fails to write down homework assignments
  • Sometimes does not turn in homework, even when
    completed
  • Can be non-compliant with teacher requests at
    times.

113
www.interventioncentral.org
114
Building Positive Relationships With
Students Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
115
Avoiding the Reprimand Trap
  • When working with students who display
    challenging behaviors, instructors can easily
    fall into the reprimand trap. In this
    sequence
  • The student misbehaves.
  • The teacher approaches the student to reprimand
    and redirect. (But the teacher tends not to give
    the student attention for positive behaviors,
    such as paying attention and doing school work.)
  • As the misbehave-reprimand pattern becomes
    ingrained, both student and teacher experience a
    strained relationship and negative feelings.

116
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Two-By-Ten Intervention (Mendler,
2000)
  • Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for
    10 consecutive days in building a relationship
    with the studentby talking about topics of
    interest to the student. Avoid discussing
    problems with the students behaviors or
    schoolwork during these times.

Source Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating
students who dont care. Bloomington, IN
National Educational Service.
117
Sample Ideas to Improve Relationships With
Students The Three-to-One Intervention (Sprick,
Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002)
  • Give positive attention or praise to problem
    students at least three times more frequently
    than you reprimand them. Give the student the
    attention or praise during moments when that
    student is acting appropriately. Keep track of
    how frequently you give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student.

Source Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., Nolet, V.
(2002). Prevention and management of behavior
problems in secondary schools. In M. A. Shinn, H.
M. Walker G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for
academic and behavior problems II Preventive and
remedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD
National Association of School Psychologists.
118
Team Activity The Defiant Student Case Study
  • At your table
  • Based on the brief videotape clip, use the
    behavior intervention checklist to brainstorm
    possible missing pieces that the teacher could
    include as Tier 1 supports in the future.
  • Be prepared to share your results!

119
Large-Group Discussion Activity Using the RTI
Behavior Intervention Checklist in the Classroom
  • At your table
  • Discuss ideas or questions that you may have
    about using the Behavior Intervention Checklist
    in your classrooms.
  • How would you share information from the
    checklist with the students teacher?

120
Extinguishing the Blaze Avoiding Power
Struggles and Helping Students to Keep Their
Cool Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
121
Extinguishing the Blaze Teacher Tips
While you can never predict what behaviors your
students might bring into your classroom, you
will usually achieve the best outcomes by
remaining calm, following pre-planned
intervention strategies for misbehavior, and
acting with consistency and fairness when
intervening with or disciplining students.
122
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Allow the Student a 'Cool-Down' Break (Long,
    Morse, Newman, 1980). Select a corner of the
    room (or area outside the classroom with adult
    supervision) where the target student can take a
    brief 'respite break' whenever he or she feels
    angry or upset. Be sure to make cool-down breaks
    available to all students in the classroom, to
    avoid singling out only those children with
    anger-control issues. Whenever a student becomes
    upset and defiant, offer to talk the situation
    over with that student once he or she has calmed
    down and then direct the student to the cool-down
    corner. (E.g., "Thomas, I want to talk with you
    about what is upsetting you, but first you need
    to calm down. Take five minutes in the cool-down
    corner and then come over to my desk so we can
    talk.")

123
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Ask Open-Ended Questions (Lanceley, 2001). If a
    teacher who is faced with a confrontational
    student does not know what triggered that
    students defiant response, the instructor can
    ask neutral, open-ended questions to collect more
    information before responding. You can pose
    who, what, where, when, and how
    questions to more fully understand the problem
    situation and identify possible solutions. Some
    sample questions are "What do you think made you
    angry when you were talking with Billy?" and
    "Where were you when you realized that you had
    misplaced your science book?" One caution Avoid
    asking why"questions (e.g., "Why did you get
    into that fight with Jerry?") because they can
    imply that you are blaming the student.

124
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests
    (Braithwaite, 2001). When an instructor's request
    has a positive 'spin', that teacher is less
    likely to trigger a power struggle and more
    likely to gain student compliance. Whenever
    possible, avoid using negative phrasing (e.g.,
    "If you don't return to your seat, I cant help
    you with your assignment"). Instead, restate
    requests in positive terms (e.g., "I will be over
    to help you on the assignment just as soon as you
    return to your seat").

125
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Give Problem Students Frequent Positive
    Attention (Sprick, Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002).
    Teachers should make an effort to give positive
    attention or praise to problem students at least
    three times more frequently than they reprimand
    them. The teacher gives the student the attention
    or praise during moments when that student is
    acting appropriately--and keeps track of how
    frequently they give positive attention and
    reprimands to the student. This heavy dosing of
    positive attention and praise can greatly improve
    the teachers relationship with problem students.

126
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
  • Have the Student Participate in Creating a
    Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, Ramsey, 1995).
    Students can feel a greater sense of ownership
    when they are invited to contribute to their
    behavior management plan. Students also tend to
    know better than anyone else what triggers will
    set off their problem behaviors and what
    strategies they find most effective in calming
    themselves and avoiding conflicts or other
    behavioral problems.

127
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Keep Responses Calm, Brief, and Businesslike
(Mayer, 2000 Sprick, Borgmeier, Nolet, 2002).
Because teacher sarcasm or lengthy negative
reprimands can trigger defiant student behavior,
instructors should respond to the student in a
'neutral', business-like, calm voice. Also, keep
responses brief when addressing the non-compliant
student. Short teacher responses give the defiant
student less control over the interaction and can
also prevent instructors from inadvertently
'rewarding' misbehaving students with lots of
negative adult attention.
128
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Listen Actively (Lanceley, 1999 Long, Morse,
Newman, 1980). The teacher demonstrates a sincere
desire to understand a students concerns when he
or she actively listens to and then summarizes
those concerns--that is, summing up the crucial
points of that concern (paraphrasing) in his or
her own words. Examples of paraphrase comments
include 'Let me be sure that I understand you
correctly', 'Are you telling me that?', 'It
sounds to me like these are your concerns' When
teachers engage in 'active listening' by using
paraphrasing, they demonstrate a respect for the
student's point of view and can also improve
their own understanding of the student's problem.
129
Extinguishing the Blaze Selected Ideas
Offer the Student a Face-Saving Out (Thompson
Jenkins, 1993). Try this face-saving
de-escalation tactic Ask the defiant student,
"Is there anything that we can work out together
so that you can stay in the classroom and be
successful?" Such a
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