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African sisters education collaborative ASEC/SLDI

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Author: Miki Created Date: 08/30/2014 01:44:21 Title: African sisters education collaborative ASEC/SLDI CAMEROON leadership Development Programme – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African sisters education collaborative ASEC/SLDI


1
African sisters education collaborative ASEC/SLDI
CAMEROON leadership Development Programme
  • Corporate Governance
  • By
  • Miki Gilbert Ngwaneh
  • (MA International Development, UoS, UK)
  • Coordinator, Short Professional Courses
  • Pan African Institute for Development West
    Africa (PAID-WA) Buea
  • E-mail gilbert.miki_at_paidafrica.org/miki_gilbert_at_y
    ahoo.com

2
WHAT IS IT ALL ABOUT?
3
Overview
  • The proper governance of companies will become
    as crucial to the world economy as the proper
    governing of countries. strong corporate
    governance produces good social progress. The
    two go together.
  • James Wolfensohn, 1999

4
Corporate Governance
  • What is it?
  • an ongoing, systematic process of implementing
    effective change.
  • A dynamic value-based process that ensures
    changes within a system, with emphasis on the
    capacity to achieve and sustain a desired state
    of affairs that is of benefit to the organisation
    concerned
  • A deliberately planned organizational effort
    aimed at improving an organizations
    effectiveness and efficiency

5
CG is
  • set of mechanisms used to manage the
    relationships (and conflicting interests) among
    stakeholders, and to determine and control the
    strategic direction and performance of
    organizations (aligning strategic decisions with
    company values)

6
Key principles
  • Participation the degree of involvement by
    stakeholders.
  • Fairness the degree to which rules apply equally
    to everyone in a group or society.
  • Decency the degree to which the formation and
    stewardship of the rules is undertaken without
    humiliating or harming people.
  • Accountability the extent to which actors are
    responsible to a group or society for what they
    say and do.
  • Transparency the degree of clarity and openness
    with which decisions are made.
  • Efficiency the extent to which limited human and
    ?nancial resources are applied without
    unnecessary waste, delay or corruption.

7
OECD Principles of Corporate Governance
  • The Rights of Shareholders
  • The Equitable Treatment of Shareholders
  • The Role of Stakeholders in Corporate Governance
  • Disclosure and Transparency and
  • The Responsibility of the Board
  • Protection of shareholders rights and the
    capability of shareholders to influence behaviour
    of the corporation are pillars of good corporate
    governance

8
Ingredients of CG
  • Four ideals, which should be the guiding force of
    organization's philosophy on Corporate
    Governance, are
  • Transparency
  • Accountability
  • Disclosure
  • Value Creation.
  • A strong financial and non financial disclosure
    regime is the heart of corporate governance

9
CORPORATE GOVERANCE WHAT IS ALL THE FUSS ABOUT?
OPENING CASE
  • Corporate governance can destroy or create
    value for a firm.
  • It is concerned with
  • 1. strengthening the effectiveness of a
    companys board of directors
  • 2. verifying the transparency of a firms
    operations
  • 3. enhancing accountability to shareholders
  • 4. incentivizing executives
  • 5. maximizing value-creation for stakeholders
    and shareholders


10
Why Corporate Governance?
  • Increase the level of trust among members
  • Ensure satisfaction and commitment amongst
    stakeholders involved
  • Confront and diagnose organizational problems and
    difficulties instead of neglecting them
  • Ensure effectiveness in group dynamics and helps
    to resolve both internal and external conflicts
  • Provide a level ground for collaboration and
    cooperation amongst the individual members.
  • To improve quality services rendered

11
Why Corporate Governance?
  • Better access to external finance
  • Improved company performance sustainability
  • Higher firm valuation and share performance
  • Reduced risk of corporate crisis and scandals

12
Why CG matters
  • Corporate governance also matters to
    organisations for the following reasons
  • Avoidance of business scandals, which damage
    trust in business.
  • Value placed on good corporate governance by
    institutional investors.
  • Growing involvement of the private sector in
    service delivery.
  • Need for systems to prevent and deter corruption

13
Factors for effective CG
  • Willingness and capacity to engage
  • Knowledge and skills
  • Democracy, transparency and accountability I
  • Incentives and sanctions

14
Components of CG
  • Trucker (1984) identifies four crucial components
    of corporate governance
  • Setting corporate direction
  • Involvement in executive action
  • Supervision of management
  • Accountability

15
Pillars of CG
  • Accountability
  • Fairness
  • Transparency
  • Independence

16
Accountability
  • Ensure that management is accountable to the
    Board
  • Ensure that the Board is accountable to
    shareholders

17
Fairness
  • Protect Shareholders rights
  • Treat all shareholders including minorities,
    equitably
  • Provide effective redress for violations

18
Transparency
  • Ensure timely, accurate disclosure on all
    material matters, including the financial
    situation, performance, ownership and corporate
    governance

19
Independence
  • Procedures and structures are in place so as to
    minimise, or avoid completely conflicts of
    interest
  • Independent Directors and Advisers i.e. free from
    the influence of others

20
Group exercise
  • Break up into 3 groups and let each group work on
    any of the following
  • List the characteristics of good corporate
    governance
  • List the characteristics of bad corporate
    governance
  • Outline measures that can be used to ensure good
    corporate governance
  • 10 minutes for preparation
  • 5 minutes for presentation
  • 5 minutes for group-based feedback

21
Attributes of good CG
  • Role and Powers of management.
  • Legislation
  • Management Environment
  • Management Skills
  • Organisational Induction and Training
  • Organisational Meetings
  • Organisational Resources
  • Code of Conduct
  • Strategy setting
  • Financial and Operational Reporting
  • Monitoring the institutional Performance
  • Audit Committee
  • Risk Management

22
Factors of quality CG
  • Integrity of the Management
  • Ability of the Board
  • Adequacy of the Process
  • Quality of Corporate Reporting
  • Participation of Stakeholders

23
CG and links to Roles and Responsibilities
  • LETS CHECK OUT FOR THE RACI MODEL

24
Role Responsibility Charting (RACI)
  • Using the RACI charting system to identify, plan,
    manage and accomplish your roles and
    responsibilities.

25
Why do we need RACI A Story
  • There were four people named
  • EVERYBODY
  • SOMEBODY
  • ANYBODY, and
  • NOBODY

26
Why do we need RACI? Contd
  • There was an important job to be done and
    EVERYBODY was asked to do it...
  • EVERYBODY was sure that SOMEBODY would do it...

27
Why do we need RACI? Contd
  • ANYBODY could have done it, but NOBODY did it!
  • SOMEBODY got angry about that, because it was
    EVERYBODYs job!

28
Why do we need RACI? Contd
  • EVERYBODY thought that ANYBODY could do it, but
    NOBODY realised that EVERYBODY wouldnt do it!

29
Why do we need RACI? Contd
  • It ended up that EVERYBODY blamed SOMEBODY when
    NOBODY did what ANYBODY could have done
  • ...sounds familiar?

30
So What is RACI Charting?
  • A systematic and participative technique to
  • Identify all functions (activities, tasks, and
    decisions) that have to be accomplished for
    effective operation
  • Clarify roles and individual levels of
    participation in relation to each function
  • Develop best methods for individuals to fill
    these roles

31
Exercise
  • ASEC Experience with Roles and Responsibilities
  • List the different situations where work was not
    carried out because it was unclear who had to do
    it
  • List the different situations where 2 or more
    people were trying to carry out the same task
  • What are the results of working in a team with
    unclear roles and responsibilities
  • Working time 15 mins Reporting time 5 mins

32
Unclear Roles and Responsibilities Result in
Comments Like These...
  • My boss always overrules my decisions whenever
    he/she wants
  • The approval process for even the simplest item
    took so long today
  • It seems every department has someone putting
    together a spreadsheet on the same data
  • Things are always slipping through the cracks
  • I have the responsibility, but not the
    authority, to get the job done

Clear roles and responsibilities can be
identified through RACI charting
33
Therefore, With Clear Roles and Responsibilities,
We Should Expect to See...
  • Increased productivity through well defined
    accountability
  • Increased capacity by eliminating overlaps and
    redundancies
  • Less confusion/misunderstandings by encouraging
    teamwork

34
Therefore, With Clear Roles and Responsibilities,
We Should Expect to See...
  • Streamlined work process by eliminating
    unnecessary interfaces and assigning
    accountability where it belongs
  • Improved organization effectiveness by allowing
    stakeholders to cooperate and share responsibility

35
RACI - Definitions
Responsible
Accountable
RACI
Consult
Inform
36
RESPONSIBLE Do The Job. Execute.
R Responsible
  • These are the individuals who actually complete
    the task or activity and are responsible for
    action and/or implementation. Responsibility is
    often shared, with each individuals degree of
    responsibility determined by the individual with
    the A.

A Accountable
C Consult
I Inform
37
ACCOUNTABLE Make the Decision. Take
Ultimate Ownership.
R Responsible
A Accountable
  • This is the individual who carries the yes or
    no authority and has full veto power for an
    activity. It is important to clarify the levels
    of accountability and to distinguish between
    management accountability and operational
    accountability. Only one A can be assigned to a
    task or activity and authority must accompany
    accountability.

C Consult
I Inform
38
CONSULT Communication Before. In The Loop.
R Responsible
A Accountable
C Consult
  • These are the individuals who must be consulted
    prior to a final decision or action. Consult
    implies TWO-WAY communication.

I Inform
39
INFORM Need To Know. Do Not Change The
Decision.
R Responsible
A Accountable
C Consult
I Inform
  • These are the individuals who need to be informed
    after a decision or action is taken because they,
    in turn, may take action or make a decision based
    on the output. Inform is FYI or FYA and implies
    only ONE-WAY communication..

40
The Output RACI Matrix Can Initially Look Quite
Complex
Roles of Participants
Decisions or Activities
41
RACI ASEC Project Conception and
Implementation Phase
Activity Executive Director BOD Committee Heads CSO Members
Determine the aims of the project and develop the GPP R/A I C
Design the project R/A C
Approve it for implementation C R/A I
Develop the SPP I C R/A
Implement the project R/A C I
Monitor and report progress R R/A C I
Evaluate the project for results R/A I I I
42
Exercise
  • RACI Charting
  • Choose one project e.g
  • ASEC Leadership workshop
  • And provide the required RACI chart for its
    conception and implementation
  • Working time 15 minutes
  • Reporting time 5minutess

43
The 5-Step Process
  • ? Identify work process
  • ? Determine the decisions and activities to
    chart
  • ? Prepare a list of roles or people involved in
    those tasks
  • ? Develop the RACI chart
  • ? Get feedback and buy-in (validate)

44
Step 1 Identify work process
  • Start with high impact areas first
  • Dont chart process that will soon change
  • Work process must be well defined
  • Fewer than ten activities implies the definition
    is too narrow
  • Greater then 25 activities implies definition is
    too broad

45
Step 2 Determine the decisions and
activities to chart
  • Avoid obvious, generic or ambiguous activities,
    such
  • Attend Meetings
  • Each activity or decision should begin with a
    good action verb e.g.

Evaluate Schedule Write Record Determine
Operate Monitor Prepare Update Collect
Approve Conduct Develop Inspect Train
Publish Report Review Authorize Decide

46
Step 2 Determine the decisions and
activities to chart, contd
  • When the action verb implies a judgment or
    decision (e.g. evaluate, monitor, inspect,
    review) add a phrase to indicate the primary
    outcome. Examples
  • Monitor phone service handling of customer
    requests to identify training needs
  • Analyze data to locate source of delay
  • Activities or decisions should be short, concise,
    and apply to a role or need, and in general not
    to a specific person

47
Step 3 Prepare List of Functional Roles
  • Roles can be individual roles or group roles
  • Roles can include people outside the organisation
  • Roles may be based on the current state" of the
    organisation or the future state" depending on
    your purpose

48
Step 4 Develop the RACI chart
  • As a general rule, first assign Rs then
    determine who has the A, then complete Cs and
    Is
  • The ideal group size is four to ten people
  • For larger groups or more complex projects, an
    independent facilitator is required
  • Meeting time can be significantly reduced if a
    straw model list of decisions and activities is
    completed prior to meeting

49
Step 4 Develop the RACI chart, contd
50
Chart Review - Vertical Analysis
  • Many R's
  • No empty spaces
  • No R's or A's
  • Too many A's
  • Qualifications

Too many "R's" could signal a work over-load
situation.
51
Chart Review - Vertical Analysis, contd
If You Find
Then Ask
Lots of R's Can the functional role
stay on top of so much? Can the decision /
activity be broken into smaller, more manageable
functions? No Empty Spaces Does the
individual(s) need to be involved in so many
activities? Could management by exception
principles be used, perhaps reducing C's to
I's? No R's or A's Should this functional role
be eliminated? Have processes changed to a point
where resources should be re-utilized? Too
many A's Does a proper "segregation of duties
exist? Should other groups be accountable for
some of these activities to ensure checks and
balances and accurate decision making throughout
the process? Is this a bottleneck in the
process and is everyone waiting for decisions or
direction? Qualifications Does the type or
degree of participation fit the qualifications
of the functional role?
52
Chart Review - Horizontal Analysis
  • Many R's
  • Too many A's
  • Many C's
  • Many I's

Too many R's" could signal "over the wall"
activities "Just get it off my desk ASAP!
53
Chart Review - Horizontal Analysis, contd
Then Ask
If You Find
No R's Is job getting done? Some roles may be
waiting to approve, be consulted, or informed.
No one sees their role to take the
initiative. Too many Rs Is this a sign of
over the wall activities? Just get it off my
desk ASAP! No A's Why not? There must be an
'A'. Accountability should be pushed down to
the most appropriate level. Too many As Is
there confusion? I thought you had it! It also
creates confusion because every person with an
A has a different view of how it is or should
be done. Too few As Rs The process must
slow down while the activity is performed on an
ad hoc basis. Or the procedure may be outdated
or it can be streamlined if not needed. Lots
of C's Do all the functional roles really need to
be consulted? Are there justifiable benefits in
consulting all the functional roles? Lots of
I's Do all the functional roles need to be
routinely informed or only in exceptional
circumstances?
54
Step 5 Get feedback and buy-in
  • Distribute the RACI chart to everyone represented
    on the chart but not present in the development
    meeting
  • Capture their changes and revise chart as
    appropriate
  • Reissue revised RACI chart
  • Update as necessary on a on-going basis

A follow-up meeting may be necessary if
significant changes are made
55
R A C I - Closing Guidelines
  • Place Accountability (A) and Responsibility (R)
    at the lowest feasible level.
  • There can be only one accountable individual per
    activity
  • Authority must accompany accountability
  • Minimize the number of Consults (C) and Informs
    (I)
  • All roles and responsibilities must be documented
    and communicated
  • Discipline is needed to keep the roles and
    responsibilities clear.
  • Drift happens. RACI has to be revisited
    periodically, especially when symptoms of role
    confusion reappear

56
(No Transcript)
57
My Leadership
58
The Leader. . .
PREPARING OUR HEARTS
  • Has a great PURPOSE in life.

59
Do you know your Purpose?
  • What are your burdens?
  • What are your spiritual gifts?
  • What are your natural talents?
  • What are your desires and passions?
  • What do others affirm about you?
  • What are your dreams and visions?
  • Whats most fulfilling to you?
  • What opportunities are in front of you?

60
2. Has removed any HINDRANCE from his life.
  • Character
  • Communicates CREDIBILITY.
  • Harnesses RESPECT.
  • Creates CONSISTENCY.
  • Earns TRUST.
  • Leaders must choose to
  • Develop personal DISCIPLINE.
  • Develop a personal SECURITY IDENTITY.
  • Develop personal CONVICTIONS, VALUES and ETHICS.

61
3. Has placed him completely at DISPOSAL
  • Three attitudes of total surrender
  • We must have nothing to PROVE.
  • b. We must have nothing to LOSE.
  • c. We must have nothing to HIDE.

62
4.Has a FAITH that expects results
  • Common Traits of People of Faith
  • Vision
  • b. Confidence
  • c. Hunger
  • d. Resolve
  • e. Dreams

63
5. Chooses to SERVE in attitude and action.
  • It always starts with a need.
  • That need sparks passion within a person.
  • That person acts in response to the need.
  • This action moves others to cooperate.

64
6. Stirs up the GIFTS in themselves and others.
  • Leaders naturally arise through this order
  • identifies a primary gift.
  • 2. develop that gift.
  • match that gift with a place of service.
  • provides a platform for influence.
  • flourishes because of the gift.

65
7. Is SECURE enough to empower others.
  • INSECURE LEADERS
  • a. The insecure are into titles
  • b. The insecure draw strength from image
  • c. The insecure pursue status
  • d. The insecure want to gain value from others
  • SECURE LEADERS
  • The secure are into service delivery
  • b. The secure draw strength from identity.
  • c. The secure pursue service to others.
  • d. The secure want to add value to others.

66
8. Has chosen to be an EXAMPLE before he leads
others.
67
(No Transcript)
68
Conclusion
69
  • People are insecure.
  • Give them confidence.
  • 2. People like to feel special.
  • Honor them.
  • 3. People look for a better tomorrow
  • Give them hope.
  • 4. People need to be understood.
  • Listen to them.
  • 5. People lack direction.
  • Navigate for them.

70
  • People are needy.
  • Speak to their hearts first.
  • People get emotionally low.
  • Encourage them.
  • People want to succeed.
  • Help them win.
  • People desire relationships.
  • Provide community.
  • People seek models to follow.
  • Be an example.

71
Open Forum And Evaluation
72
Thanks
  • For Your Kind Attention
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