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Title: CLOUD COMPUTING: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES


1
CLOUD COMPUTING PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES
  • BY
  • PROF. (MRS.) S. C. CHIEMEKE
  • DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
  • UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY

2
AGENDA
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of Cloud Computing
  • Types of Cloud Computing
  • Deployment Types
  • Benefits of using Cloud Computing
  • Challenges of Cloud Computing in Nigeria
  • Solutions
  • Security Issues to consider before moving to
    the cloud
  • Conclusion

3
What is Cloud Computing?
  • Cloud Computing is a general term used to
    describe a new class of network based computing
    that takes place over the Internet,
  • basically a step on from Utility Computing
  • a collection/group of integrated and networked
    hardware, software and Internet infrastructure
    (called a platform).
  • Using the Internet for communication and
    transport provides hardware, software and
    networking services to clients
  • These platforms hide the complexity and details
    of the underlying infrastructure from users and
    applications by providing very simple graphical
    interface or API (Applications Programming
    Interface).

4
  • Cloud computing is Internet-based computing,
    whereby shared resources, software and
    information are provided to computers and other
    devices on-demand, like the electricity grid.
  • The cloud computing is a culmination of numerous
    attempts at large scale computing with seamless
    access to virtually limitless resources.
  • on-demand computing, utility computing,
    ubiquitous computing, autonomic computing,
    platform computing, edge computing, elastic
    computing, grid computing,

5
  • A number of characteristics define cloud data,
    applications services and infrastructure
  • Remotely hosted Services or data are hosted on
    remote infrastructure.
  • Ubiquitous Services or data are available from
    anywhere.
  • Commodified The result is a utility computing
    model similar to traditional that of traditional
    utilities, like gas and electricity - you pay for
    what you would want!

6
(No Transcript)
7
CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
    (NIST) defines cloud computing as
  • ...a model for enabling convenient, on-demand
    network access to a shared pool of configurable
    computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,
    storage, applications, and services) that can be
    rapidly provisioned and released with minimal
    management effort or service provider interaction
    (Metz, 2010).

8
  • Five characteristics of cloud computing is
    evident
  • On demand self service
  • With cloud-based services, many of the steps you
    follow to install applications can be eliminated
    and with a few clicks of a button, an application
    can be up and running in a matter of minutes.
  • Resource pooling
  • With current systems and data centers, IT
    departments often get stuck in a silo of their
    own creation. Institutions rarely share computing
    resources, and if they do, it is cumbersome to
    create and manage workflows that utilize these
    shared resources. With the cloud, users can
    provision computing resources based on their
    needs, and then destroy those resources, giving
    them back to the shared pool once their needs are
    met.

9
  • Rapid Elasticity
  • Systems change constantly. To create the best
    experience for users, IT departments often must
    scale or update systems to meet user demand.
    Scaling or upgrading a system currently in
    production can be cumbersome and resource
    intensive for an IT department.
  • Broad Network Access
  • Traditionally, users have to install software to
    their computers and upgrade systems to handle the
    programs. If you're away from your computer, you
    may not have access to the software, which can
    cause frustration. Today, much of the software
    we use is available over the Internet
  • Measured Services
  • Cloud providers charge IT departments based on
    their use of computing resources. On the other
    hand, IT departments can use these metering (or
    measured) services to scale resources up and down
    based on information gathered from these
    particular tools.

10
TYPES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
11
TYPES OF CLOUD (Contd)
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) Software delivery
    service that provides access to different
    computing software on the web. SaaS delivers a
    single application through the browser on
    thousands of customers using a multitenant.
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
    Infrastructure comprises of hardware, software,
    networking components, servers and storage space.
    IaaS allows a company to pay for only as much
    capacity of data as needed.
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS) offers developers a
    medium through which they can create and develop
    software applications virtually. For example,
    Joomla and wordpress configured systems which
    allows remote software application development.
    PaaS providers use APIs website portals or
    gateway software installed on customers
    computers. PaaS providers include microsoft
    Azure, Google Maps etc.

12
CLOUD APPLICATIONS
  • SaaS resides here
  • Most common Cloud / Many providers of different
    services
  • Examples Sales Force, Gmail, Yahoo! Mail,
    Quicken Online
  • Advantages Free, Easy, Consumer Adoption
  • Disadvantages Limited functionality, no control
    or access to underlying technology

13
Cloud Platforms
  • Closed environments
  • Typically applications must be developed with a
    particular platform in mind
  • Multi tenant environments
  • Highly scalable multi tier architecture
  • Examples Google App Engine, Heroku, Mosso,
    Engine Yard, Joyent or Force.com (SalesForce Dev
    Platform)
  • Advantages Good for developers, more control
    than Application Clouds, tightly configured
  • Disadvantages Restricted to what is available,
    other dependencies

14
CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE
  • IaaS is the delivery of technology infrastructure
    as an on demand scalable service
  • Usually billed based on usage
  • Usually multi tenant virtualized environment
  • Can be coupled with Managed Services for OS and
    application support
  • Advantages Full control of environments and
    infrastructure
  • Disadvantages premium price point, limited
    competition.

15
DEPLOYMENT TYPES - CLOUD USAGE
  • Private Clouds
  • Usually owned by an Enterprise
  • Functionality not exposed to the Customer
  • Within the boundaries (firewall) of the
    organization
  • E.g. CBN, FBN and UBA and MultiLinks have clouds
    designed by Onlak Computers (Cbusiness day)
  • Public Clouds
  • Enterprises use Cloud functionality from others
  • Offer services to users outside of the Enterprise
  • Exist beyond firewall, fully hosted and managed
    by the vendor
  • e.g. Rivers Cloud in Rivers State with support
    from MTN and Globacom, Amazon's Web Services and
    Google appEngine .
  • Hybrid Clouds
  • Mix of Private and Public Clouds
  • Partial Resource Outsourcing for Cost Reduction
  • Control over Sensitive Data Code e.g.
    Junipper, IBN

16
BENEFITS
  • Ease of use
  • Deploy infrastructure with a mouse or API
  • No cabling, screwdrivers, racking, unboxing,
    buying
  • Middle of the night
  • Do it yourself remotely from anywhere anytime

17
Contd..
  • Flexibility and Storage
  • Storage of files in the cloud allows for
    development and easy access of office files from
    anywhere. This gives room for workers to work
    together even when far apart, provided internet
    connection is available (Arno, 2011)
  • Control your infrastructure with your application
    demands.
  • No need to purchase expensive hardware's for
    scalability.

18
Contd..
  • Reliability
  • Based on High quality hardware
  • Design for failures
  • Automatically spin up replacements
  • Use multiple clouds

19
Contd..
  • Time Saving
  • Easy access to information is guaranteed as can
    be seen with Yahoo mail, Gmail and mailbox
    generally.
  • It is fast and easy in contrast to time required
    to download and install a software (Arno, 2011)
  • Reduced Cost
  • Prevents illegal reproduction and distribution of
    software
  • Payment is made for only software used
    (Hinchcliffe, 2009)
  • No need to buy in advance, Pay-as-you-go e.g.
    Sales force company charges from 5 to 25 per
    month for its services.

20
CHALLENGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN NIGERIA
  • PRIVACY
  • Companys data are entrusted to system managed
    by companies on remote servers. The company
    managing customers information can accidentally
    or intentionally reveal it or utilize it for
    unauthorized purpose (Miller, 2011).
  • Privacy statements written by cloud providers
    are written in very complicated ways and are not
    understood by customers (Pardeep, 2011). Cloud
    will also be a very attractive targets for
    hackers.

21
  • DATA AVAILABILITY
  • Data availability is limited to internet access
    or connection. The epileptic power supply in
    Nigeria makes this a serious challenge.
    Customers want to move around with their
    information by storing their data on larger
    memory chips and carry it around. (Ume, 2012)
  • TRADITIONAL SECURITY
  • Cloud application integrating platforms are not
    securely created. Infrastructures used to
    integrate with cloud are not also fully secured.
    This is because the knowledge of authentication
    and authorization of cloud program have not been
    fully explored (Pardeep, 2011).

22
SOLUTIONS
  • Privacy and Control This can be assured by
    keeping cloud private or having a tight service
    level agreement (SLAs).
  • Accessibility Filtering a packet-sniffer output
    to specific services as an effective way to
    address security issues shown by anomalous
    packets directed to specific ports or services.
    Shutting down of unused services, keep patches
    updated and reduce permission and access rights
    of application and users
  • Authentication Use of encrypted protocol
    wherever possible (Basta, 2007).

23
SOLUTIONS (CONTD..)
  • Web Applications X10 language is looked at as
    one way to achieve better use of the cloud
    capabilities of massive parallel processing and
    concurrency
  • Data Verification Talks are around the
    possibility of employing resource isolation to
    ensure security of data during processing, by
    isolating the processor caches in virtual
    machines and isolating those virtual caches from
    the Hypervisor.

24
Security Issues to consider before moving to the
cloud
  • There are significant security concerns that need
    to be reviewed when considering moving critical
    applications and sensitive data
  • Wheres the data? Your cloud provider should
    agree in writing to provide the level of security
    required for your customers.
  • Who has access? Anyone considering using the
    cloud needs to look at who is managing their data
    and what types of controls are applied to these
    individuals.
  • What are your regulatory requirements? You must
    ensure that your cloud provider is able to meet
    the regulatory requirements and is willing to
    undergo certification, accreditation, and review.
  • Do you have the right to audit? The cloud
    provider should agree in writing to the terms of
    audit.
  • What type of training does the provider offer
    their employees? Knowing how your provider trains
    their employees is an important item to review.
  • What type of data classification system does the
    provider use? Is the data classified? How is your
    data separated from other users? You will also
    want to know what type of encryption is being
    used.

25
  • What are the service level agreement (SLA) terms?
    The SLA serves as a contracted level of
    guaranteed service between the cloud provider and
    the customer that specifies what level of
    services will be provided.
  • What is the long-term viability of the provider?
    How long has the cloud provider been in business
    and what is their track record. If they go out of
    business, what happens to your data? Will your
    data be returned, and if so, in what format?
  • What happens if there is a security breach? If a
    security incident occurs, what support will you
    receive from the cloud provider?
  • What is the disaster recovery/business continuity
    plan (DR/BCP)? While you may not know the
    physical location of your services, it is
    physically located somewhere. All physical
    locations face threats such as fire, storms,
    natural disasters, and loss of power. In case of
    any of these events, how will the cloud provider
    respond, and what guarantee of continued services
    are they promising?

26
CONCLUSION
  • While many people have concerns about its current
    uses, there is no doubt that it is changing the
    way we provide systems and services. The more
    informed IT departments are about the cloud, the
    better the position they will be in when making
    decisions about deploying, developing, and
    maintaining systems in the cloud. The decision
    to move to cloud-based services should fit into
    the organizations overall corporate objectives.
    Before any services are moved to the cloud, the
    organizations senior management should ensure
    such actions are consistent with their strategic
    plans.

27
References
  • Ume A. (2012), The Fear and "Phobia" of the Cloud
    and Cloud Computing. Journal of Educational and
    Social Research Vol. 2 (8) October 2012
  • Buyya, R. Yeo, C. S. and Venugopal, S. (2008).
    Market-Oriented Cloud Computing Vision, Hype,
    and Reality for Delivering IT Services as
    Computing Utilities. Aug 2008.
  • Foster, I. Zhao, Y. Raicu, I. and Lu, S.
    (2008). Cloud computing and grid computing
    360-degree compared. In 2008 Grid Computing
    Environments Workshop. IEEE, 2008.
  • Gillett, F. E. Brown, E. G.Staten, J. and Lee,
    C. (2008). "Future View The New Tech Ecosystems
    Of Cloud, Cloud Services, and Cloud Computing
    Understanding, Segmenting, and Competing in the
    Next Computer Revolution," Forrester Research,
    August 28, 2008.
  • Hoff. (nd). Cloud Security doesnt matter. ,
    January. Available http//www.rationalsurvivabili
    ty.com/blog/?p1694.
  • Khmelevsky, Y. and Voytenko, V. (2010). Cloud
    computing infrastructure prototype for university
    education and research. In WCCCE 10
    Proceedings of the 15th Western Canadian
    Conference on Computing Education, pages 15, New
    York, NY, USA, 2010. ACM.
  • Mell, P. and Grance, T (2009). "The NIST
    Definition of Cloud Computing," ver. 15, National
    Institute of Standards and Technology,
    Information Technology Laboratory, October 7,
    2009.
  • Metz, R. (2010). Cloud Computing Explained. The
    text of this article is licensed under the The
    text of this article is licensed under the
    Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share
    Alike 3.0 license.
  • Peter Mell, T. G. (2009). Effectively and
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    S/cloud-computing/cloud-computing-v26.ppt.
  • Plummer, D. C. Bittman, T. J. Austin, T.
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    Gartner, Forrester," CloudEnterprise.info, August
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28
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