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Understanding Knowledge Management concept

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Rajendra Suwal Last modified by: Acer Created Date: 5/20/2001 5:57:52 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Knowledge Management concept


1
Understanding Knowledge Management concept
  • Dr. Rajendra Suwal
  • Management and Leadership Development Specialist
  • Nepal Administrative Staff College
  • April 3, 2013

2
Overview of the Session
  • Define knowledge
  • Explain knowledge Management Concept
  • Learn the characteristics of knowledge
    management.
  • Describe knowledge management tools.
  • Describe useful applications for distributing,
    creating and sharing knowledge
  • Describe some useful Knowledge Management tools
    for Environment aspects

3
What is Knowledge?
  • Data collection of facts, measurements,
    statistics
  • Information organized data
  • Knowledge contextual, relevant, actionable
    information
  • Strong experiential and reflective elements
  • Dynamic
  • Branches and fragments with growth
  • Difficult to estimate impact of investment
  • Evolves over time with experience
  • Information that changes something or
    somebodybecoming grounds for action by making an
    individual, or institution capable of different,
    more effective action - Drucker, The New
    Realities

4
Knowledge
  • Explicit knowledge
  • Objective, rational, technical
  • Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports
  • Codified
  • Leaky knowledge
  • Tacit knowledge
  • Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning
  • Highly personalized
  • Difficult to formalize
  • Sticky knowledge

5
Why people do not want to share knowledge?
  • Knowledge is power
  •  I dont have time
  •  Ive got too much real work to do
  •  Thats not my job
  •  Youre just using other peoples ideas and
    taking the credit
  •  I want to do things my way
  •  This is how its always been done
  • Im already suffering from information overload
  • You should already know all the answers
  •  Its just another management fad if I ignore
    it, itll eventually go away
  • Whats in it for me?

6
Knowledge Management in the Organization
  • SYSTEMATICALLY ACTIVELY MANAGING AND LEVERAGING
    STORES OF KNOWLEDGE IN AN ORGANIZATION
  • Organizational learning mechanisms Processes to
    create, gather, store, maintain, disseminate
    knowledge

7
Why KM is Needed
  • Traditional reasons for KM are
  • Improving Decision Making by reusing knowledge
  • Capturing knowledge from transient work forces
  • Additionally, we are finding we need KM because
    of
  • Supporting knowledge communities
  • Obsolescence/Innovation
  • Knowledge persistence

8
What Experts say on Influence of Knowledge on
Success
  • Peter Drucker (the one factor)
  • Toffler (Survival in Knowledge Age is not who can
    read or write but who can learn and unlearn
    quicker)
  • Tom Peters (sum total of value-added)
  • Handy, Drucker (primary factor of productivity)

9
A few Foundation Principles and Building
Concepts
  • Knowledge Influences Success
  • Knowledge Resides in the Heads of People
  • Two Types of Knowledge
  • Codified
  • Personalized
  • Knowledge Sharing Requires a Conduit to Happen
    Systemically
  • Technology is the conduit
  • Knowledge Sharing Requires Trust
  • KM embraces both the Knowledge Based organization
    and the Learning Organization
  • KM has planned architectural frameworks

10
Knowledge Requires Capture, Organization, Access
and Leverage
  • NEW WAY
  • Capture from is digits in cyberspace
  • Organization via software programs designed upon
    engineering principles, mathematical equations,
    word associations in cyberspace 24/7/365
  • Access wherever the physical bodies link via
    computers
  • Tacit knowledge tapped using many different
    technological tools
  • Leverage is exponential, multiples upon multiples
  • OLD WAY
  • Capture form is written, auditory or graphical
    representations
  • Organization is via tables of content, indexes,
    classification systems used by publishers,
    libraries, etc
  • Access when physical body goes to where the
    knowledge is locateda library, a company, a
    research laboratory, a school
  • Tacit knowledge rarely tapped
  • Leverage is a sum game

11
Technology Changes
  • KM is integrating technologies that aid
    collaboration and/or knowledge storage
  • Wiki, blogs, social networks
  • Semantic Web
  • GIS Data Fusion - Integration technologies
    (XML, SSE)
  • Visualization technologies
  • RFID and sensor networks
  • Social Network Analysis

12
KM Wikis Blogs Social Networks
  • Use of wikis for collaborative projects improves
    the ability of project members to collaboratively
    author documents.
  • Use of blogs or wikis to create virtual
    discussion spaces where discussions can continue
    24/7 with no physical boundaries.
  • Use of blogs, wikis, Linkedin, or Facebook to
    create knowledge worker spaces, communities of
    practice, and social networks. This allows
    knowledge workers to discover the experts among
    them and to learn from each other.
  • Use of second life to create virtual worlds for
    knowledge transfer.
  • Use of blogs or wikis to connect knowledge
    sources for new knowledge creation and
    repositories of best practices and other
    artifacts.

13
KM and the Semantic Web
  • Semantic web is a goal where everything on the
    web is expressed in a common ontology
  • Improves our ability to find relevant knowledge
  • Facilitates knowledge storage
  • Enhances knowledge creation

14
KM and Data Fusion
  • Data fusion is about taking different data
    streams and putting them together to add decision
    support value
  • Allows experts to create knowledge
  • Utilizes RSS feeds, SSE, XML
  • Main application is GIS which fuses multiple data
    streams to create mapped knowledge repositories

15
KM and Visualization
  • Knowledge Visualization improves knowledge
    transfer by providing tools that allow knowledge
    workers to manipulate knowledge into
    representations that have more meaning
    (incorporates context and culture)
  • Second life allows for avatar representations and
    a virtual world where knowledge can be abstracted
    and shared in a non-threatening environment
  • Mapping technologies such as topic maps and GIS
    create knowledge abstractions based on topics,
    geography, etc. and to control overload by using
    knowledge to determine what should be presented
  • Knowledge portals to provide self directed
    visualization of knowledge through customization.

16
KM and Mapping
  • Knowledge Mapping allows for better organization
    of knowledge to facilitate knowledge retrieval
  • Utilizes taxonomies and ontologies
  • Mapping technologies such as topic maps and GIS
    allows faculty to organize knowledge based on
    some taxonomy
  • Utilizes organizations based on topics, skill
    sets, people, geography, subject, etc..

17
KM Social Network Analysis
  • Social Network Analysis provides a tool that
    helps researchers identify knowledge sources and
    flows
  • Looks at formal communications such as reports
    and email
  • Looks at informal communications such as who you
    go to when you need to know something
  • Maps the two together to give a view of where
    knowledge is and how it flows

18
Integrating Initiatives
  • Trend is to combine KM with new technologies into
    strategic organizational initiatives such as
  • Customer Relationship Management, CRM
  • Supply Chain Management, SCM
  • Data mining to discover knowledge
  • Enterprise Resource Planning, ERP
  • Project management mature processes
  • Communities of Practice, CoP

19
Critical Success Factors
  • A Knowledge Strategy that identifies users,
    sources, processes, storage strategy, knowledge
    and links to knowledge for the KMS
  • Motivation and Commitment of users including
    incentives and training
  • Integrated Technical Infrastructure including
    networks, databases/ repositories, computers,
    software, KMS experts
  • An organizational culture that supports learning
    and the sharing and use of knowledge

20
Critical Success Factors
  • A common enterprise wide knowledge structure that
    is clearly articulated and easily understood (an
    ontology)
  • Senior Management support including allocation of
    resources, leadership, and providing training
  • Learning Organization
  • There is a clear goal and purpose for the KMS

21
Knowledge Management Systems
  • Knowledge
  • Awareness and understanding of a set of
    information and the ways that information can be
    made useful to support a specific task or reach a
    decision
  • Knowledge management system (KMS)
  • Organized collection of people, procedures,
    software, databases, and devices used to create,
    store, share, and use the organizations
    knowledge and experience

22
Overview of Systems
23
Data and Knowledge Management Workers and
Communities of Practice
  • Personnel involved in a KMS include
  • Data workers secretaries, administrative
    assistants, bookkeepers, other data-entry
    personnel
  • Knowledge workers people who create, use, and
    disseminate knowledge
  • Examples professionals in science, engineering,
    and business writers researchers educators
    corporate designers
  • Chief knowledge officer (CKO) top-level
    executive who helps the organization use a KMS to
    create, store, and use knowledge to achieve
    organizational goals
  • Communities of practice (COP) group of people
    dedicated to a common discipline or practice,
    such as open-source software, auditing, medicine,
    or engineering
  • Excel at obtaining, storing, sharing, and using
    knowledge

24
Obtaining, Storing, Sharing, and Using Knowledge
Knowledge Management System
25
Knowledge Management Enablers
  • Leadership
  • Knowledge champions, such as CKOs
  • Culture
  • Access
  • Technology
  • Learning Culture

26
More on the Importance of Corporate Culture
  • Changing the culture is imperative.
  • To create a climate in which employees volunteer
    their creativity and expertise, managers need to
    look beyond the traditional tools at their
    disposal finding ways to build trust and develop
    fair process.
  • That means getting the gatekeepers to facilitate
    the flow of information rather than hoard it.
  • And offering rewards and incentives.

27
Organizational Changes
  • Knowledge management efforts can completely
    collapse boundaries
  • A knowledge management system cannot work through
    hierarchies
  • Individual and team learning processes must
    become the true driver of organizational learning

28
Sustainability of a KM Endeavor
  • There are three fundamental processes that
    sustain profound changes such as the introduction
    of a KM system
  • developing networks of committed people
  • improving business results
  • enhancing personal results
  • To achieve sustainability, there must be a
    focus on learning, and learning how to harness
    the learning capabilities that lead to
    innovation.
  • The emergence and development of informal
    networks must be supported so that people can
    share their tacit knowledge and help one another.

29
Definition of Environmental Aspect
  • An environmental aspect is the part of an
    activity, product, or service that interacts with
    the environment. An aspect can be thought of as
    the actual or potential cause of an
    environmental impact.
  • Aspects can be regulated or unregulated.

30
Examples of Environmental Aspects
  • Vehicles emit exhaust
  • Water leaks from distribution system
  • Fueling spills occur
  • Containers not closed
  • Noise from aircraft engine run-up testing
  • Lights and computers left on at night
  • Copier paper bleached with chlorine
  • Bicycles dont emit exhaust

31
Knowledge Management in reference to Environment
Aspects
  • As pointed out earlier, KM is essentially about
    facilitating the processes by which knowledge is
    created, shared and used in organizations.
  • Creating a knowledge environment usually requires
    changing organizational values and culture,
    changing peoples behaviors and work patterns.

32
Processes
  • At the organization level, the processes can be
  • coming out with KM policy and strategy
  • providing induction packs full of know how to
    new staff
  • creating databases of all environment related
    publications produced by an organization so that
    staff can access them from their desk
  • conducting exit interviews when staff leave so
    that their knowledge is not lost to the
    organization
  •  

33
Processes2
  • providing ongoing learning so that people can
    constantly update their knowledge on
    environments
  •  encouraging people with interest on environment
    to network with each other
  •  creating electronic filing systems that can be
    searched in a number of ways, making the
    information much easier to find
  •  redesigning offices to be open plan so that
    staff and managers are more visible and talk to
    each other more
  • creating intranets so that staff can access all
    kinds of organizational information and knowledge
    that might otherwise take a great deal of time
    and energy to find.

34
KM tool box for Environment Aspects
  • After Action Reviews (AARs) A tool pioneered by
    the US army and now widely used in a range of
    organizations to capture lessons learned both
    during and after an environment activity or
    project.
  • Communities of Practice Communities of practice
    link people together to develop and share
    knowledge around environment aspects  
  • Conducting a knowledge audit A systematic
    process to identify an organization's knowledge
    needs, resources and flows on environment
    aspects, as a basis for understanding where and
    how better knowledge management can add value.

35
KM tool box for Environment Aspects2
  • Identifying and sharing best Environment
    practices Approaches to capturing best practices
    discovered inside or outside the organization and
    sharing them for the benefit of all.
  • Knowledge harvesting A tool used to capture the
    knowledge of experts and make it available to
    others.
  •  Social network analysis Mapping relationships
    between people, groups and organizations to
    understand how these relationships either
    facilitate or impede knowledge flows.
  •  White pages A step-up from the usual staff
    directory, this is an online resource that allows
    people to find colleagues with specific knowledge
    and expertise on environment.

36
Acknowledgements
  • Peter Senge
  • Art Kleiner
  • Blaise Zerega
  • Charlotte Roberts
  • Richard Ross
  • George Roth
  • Bryan Smith
  • James Brian Quinn
  • William Truran
  • J Michael Pemberton
  • Sarah Cliffe
  • David A. Nadler
  • Rick Mullin
  • Ellen M. Lapp
  • Thomas Stewart
  • Peter Feltham
  • Howard Rheingold
  • Nick Bontis
  • Morten T. Hansen
  • Jim Bair
  • Henry Mintzberg
  • James Cortada

37
  • Thank you for Listening
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