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AP TEST REVIEW PART ONE

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Title: AP TEST REVIEW PART ONE


1
AP TEST REVIEWPART ONE
  • Renaissance, Reformation, Religious Wars

2
RENAISSANCE POLITICS
  • ITALY CITY STATE SYSTEM
  • Ruled by dictatorial princes
  • Constant warring between states--done by
    mercenaries called condottieri
  • States were Milan (Sforza), Venice, Florence
    (Medici) (cultural center), Papal States (popes),
    Naples
  • Machiavelli wrote for Lorenzo de Medici (The
    Prince and Circle of Governments)

3
National Monarchies
  • Created by the absorption of smaller feudal
    states
  • Had professional standing armies
  • By 1500, the four great national monarchies were
    England, France, Spain, and Portugal.

4
100 Years War (1337 - 1453)
  • Caused by conflicts between England and France
    over Flanders and over French succession.
  • Began when English King Edward III claimed the
    French throne and the French nobility refused to
    recognize his claim.

5
100 Years War, Continued
  • England invaded France and won several big
    battles. By 1360, a truce gave much of SW France
    to England.
  • By 1375, the French, under Charles V, reclaimed
    all but Calais and a bit of Burgundy.

6
100 Years War, Continued
  • A big English victory at Agincourt in 1415 led
    Charles VI to sign the Treaty of Troyes (1420)
    which recognized English king Henry V as the
    rightful heir to the French throne. Henry died
    in 1422.
  • Joan of Arcs victories eventually led to a
    French victory, and the war ended in 1453 with
    England getting only Calais.

7
Results of the 100 Years War
  • French sovereignty
  • Strong French bureaucracy under Louis XI with
    high taxes, a strong army, and crown support of
    the merchant class.
  • A rise in the power of the English parliament and
    English disillusionment with their monarchy
  • The War of the Roses

8
The War of the Roses (1455-1485)
  • Yorks (White) vs. Lancasters (Red)
  • Won by Henry VII
  • Created the Tudor monarchy which lasted until the
    death of Elizabeth in 1603.
  • Curtailment of the power of the nobility--the
    establishment of the court of the star chamber.

9
Spain
  • By the 8th Century, the Moors (Moslems) had
    conquered most of modern-day Spain.
  • By the 11th Century, Spain was falling apart with
    many independent regions.
  • By 1212, the Re-conquest (Reconquista) of Spain
    by the N. Christians of Aragon, Castile, and Leon
    left the Moors with only Grenada, in S. Spain.
    (El Cid, et. al)

10
The Modern Spanish Nation
  • 1469 Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and
    Isabella of Castile unites the regions into
    Spain.
  • 1478 Inquisition began
  • 1492 Columbus sent to the new world--beginning
    of Spanish conquests.
  • 1492 The Moors were driven out of Spain.

11
Achievements of Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Limited the power of the Cortes (legislative
    Assembly) and weakened the power of the nobility
    by supporting the merchants.
  • Funded exploration, bringing great wealth from
    the New World
  • Monarchs appointed church officials and
    controlled religious policy.
  • Tried to establish religious unity in hopes of
    also fostering political unity.

12
Spanish Inquisition
  • Designed to suppress the corruption of the
    Spanish clergy and root out heretics. Heretics
    were any non-Catholics, especially Moslems and
    Jews.
  • Led by Cisneros and Torquemada
  • Used any means necessary to subdue dissent
  • Spread the inquisition to conquered territories,
    such as the Spanish Netherlands

13
Effects of the Inquisition
  • Expelled tens of thousands of Muslim and Jewish
    scholars and skilled traders and manufacturers.
  • Many of those expelled during the inquisition
    fled to Italy and were catalysts for developments
    in the Italian renaissance.
  • Their loss severely hurt Spanish development.

14
Portugal
  • Independence achieved in 1355.
  • Active in early exploration, especially with the
    leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator.
  • By 1525, Portugal had vast holdings in the New
    World (Brazil, Angola, parts of India and
    Pakistan)

15
Holy Roman Empire
  • The Hapsburg family 1st gained control in 1273
    with Count Rudolph of Hapsburg.
  • After his death, several families vied for
    control of Central Europe.
  • 1356 Golden Bull established the election of
    the Holy Roman Emperor by 7 electors.
  • By 1400, the Hapsburgs maintained continuous
    control of the Austrian part of the HRE until
    1918.

16
The HRE Falls Apart
  • During the Protestant Reformation, the HRE split
    into over 350 separate duchies.
  • The N. German princes were looking for an excuse
    to break away from the authority of the HR
    Emperor and the Pope, and used religion as a
    pretext for their developing autonomy.
  • The HREs disunity remained a problem until the
    19th century.

17
The Swiss Confederacy
  • The 13 cantons of Switzerland broke away from the
    HRE in a series of wars in the late 1300s.
  • Their independence was not officially recognized
    until the Treaty of Westphalia (1648).
  • The cantons were split between Catholicism and
    Calvinism.

18
The Baltic Confederation
  • The Baltic Confederation was originally a set of
    independent cities located on the Baltic Sea.
  • Eventually, about 80 of the small cities joined
    together to protect their commercial interests in
    the region.
  • The Hanseatic League was designed to allow these
    cities to control Baltic Sea trade.

19
RENAISSANCE ECONOMICS
  • During the middle ages, manorialism developed due
    to the fact that money virtually disappeared from
    use in Europe and trade nearly came to a complete
    halt.
  • Renaissance economic developments were dominated
    by the rise of capitalism and the disintegration
    of manorialism (feudal bargaining).

20
Renaissance Capitalism
  • As renaissance society became more settled, they
    began to produce surpluses and began to trade
    with other regions.
  • This growth of trade led to the development of
    towns and the rise of a merchant class.
  • Towns eventually became interdependent and needed
    trade to survive.
  • Money again was used and barter eventually came
    to a halt.

21
Reasons for the Growth of Capitalism
  • Crusades increased trade
  • Exploration As developing states got , they
    outfitted parties to explore and find routes to
    get to the riches in the east. This led to new
    riches, new trade routes, and new diseases, such
    as the plague.
  • Gold precious metals expanded the European
    economy, fueled inflation, and put more currency
    in European economies.

22
Another Reason The Growth of Towns/Merchant
Class
  • Led to the eventual decline of the power of the
    nobility and the shift away from land being the
    only source of wealth and power.
  • Led to the growth of trade
  • Led monarchs to develop stronger armies and
    navies to protect trade and commercial interests.

23
More Reasons Population Growth/Cottage
Industries
  • Population growth created a pool of laborers and
    possible consumers. This growth was partially
    checked by the plague during some decades.
  • Cottage Industries began to develop as the
    agricultural revolution allowed some families to
    leave the farm and concentrate on skills such as
    weaving, furniture making, etc.

24
Another Reason New Techniques and Inventions
  • Inventions such as the printing press, banking
    systems, bills of exchange, and double entry
    bookkeeping made transactions easier and capital
    more available. This encouraged the growth of
    trade and commerce.
  • New inventions also encouraged the growth of
    cottage industries, but the majority of Europeans
    were still farmers until the late 18th century.

25
Areas of Trade
  • Began in the Italian city states because they
    brought goods from the East through the
    Mediterranean and sent them overland to the rest
    of Europe.
  • Flanders center of cloth and woolen trade
  • Hanseatic League dominated Baltic trade
  • England, Netherlands, France dominated Atlantic
    trade by the 1500s.

26
Results of Economic Expansion
  • Decline of feudalism money economy, cash
    payment of rents, consolidation of smaller farms
  • New Business Organizations partnerships,
    chartered companies, and joint stock companies
  • Revival of Slavery (there was limited
    opposition to this by some church leaders)
  • Growth of secularism and individualism

27
RENAISSANCE CHARACTERISTICS (1350 - 1550)
  • Humanism emerges to challenge traditional church
    beliefs
  • interest in Greco-Roman civilization
  • emphasis placed on human abilities, not on
    religious dictates
  • tried to discover and copy forgotten classical
    manuscripts and tried to write in the classical
    style.

28
More Characteristics
  • Growth of Secularism Religious influence in
    science, economics, education, and daily life
    declined as the church became discredited due to
    the great schism, renaissance scientific
    discoveries, and the churchs refusal to accept
    change.

29
More Characteristics
  • The renaissance emphasized different qualities
    than the medieval period
  • Individualism People saw themselves as
    individuals who could gain wealth and fame due
    to their own efforts. They began to see that
    they could think for themselves and didnt need
    the church, the guild, or the nobility to tell
    them what to do.
  • Versatility good at many things (well-rounded)
  • Thirst for learning
  • Use of the vernacular

30
THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE
  • The Italian Renaissance differed somewhat from
    the Renaissance in Northern Europe.
  • While the Italian renaissance focused on art,
    humanism, and education, the N. European
    renaissance focused on the reformation of the
    church and the birth of Protestantism.

31
Why Italy?
  • Italy center of early European commercial life.
    So, Italians were constantly introduced to new
    ideas from other civilizations (esp. from the
    Moslems and the Byzantines).
  • Secularism fostered by Italys favorable econ.
    situation, political cynicism fostered by the
    reality of the feuding city states, and writers
    such as Machiavelli.

32
Why Italy?
  • Families made wealthy by trade and political
    power wanted to become the patrons of the arts.
    Many such as the Medicis sponsored a lot of art,
    because they wanted to prove they were more
    powerful than the other wealthy families.
  • Contact with past Roman glory was more immediate,
    due to Italys location.

33
Literature
  • Dante Divine Comedy - 1st major work in the
    vernacular
  • Petrarch known as the father of humanism
    focused on the study of classical civilizations
  • Machiavelli The Prince - all governments are
    flawed the ends justify the means beginning
    of realpolitik.

34
More Literature
  • Boccaccio Decameron 100 tales of people who
    had taken refuge in a country house in Florence
    when the plague struck. Shocking for its
    day--some stories nearly obscene.
  • Castiglione Book of the Courtier This work
    provided directions on how a renaissance
    gentleman should live. Emphasized civic duty,
    versatility, and moral conduct.

35
Art
  • Support from secular patrons led to the
    development of some non-religious work as well as
    the religious works sponsored by the church.
  • Renaissance art was more lifelike and realistic
    and used mathematical and scientific principles
    (proportion, vanishing point, etc.) chiaroscuro,
    sfumato

36
Famous RenaissanceArtists Sculptors
  • Artists Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel) and
    Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa, the Last Supper)
    Rafael (School of Athens)
  • Sculptors Donatello (David) Michelangelo
    (David)

37
The Scientific Revolution
  • The Scientific revolution began during the
    renaissance and challenged traditional scientific
    ideas that were held by the church, esp. those
    espoused by Aristotle.
  • Scientific discoveries were fueled by the new
    attitudes and confidence in human abilities and
    in turn encouraged secularism and the church
    largely refused to accept new findings.

38
Science
  • Copernicus heliocentric universe overturns the
    Ptolemaic (geocentric) system. (circular orbits)
  • Galileo improved the telescope supported
    Cops view. Experimented with the rate of speed
    of falling bodies (his findings were later used
    by Newton) and saw craters on the moon. Put
    under house arrest.

39
Science
  • Leonardo da Vinci An inventor whose ideas were
    beyond his time, he had notebooks full of
    drawings of plans for his inventions.
  • William Harvey Discovered the circulation of
    blood in the human body.

40
Education
  • Humanists favored a liberal arts education which
    was to include geometry, arithmetic, music,
    astronomy, literature, and history.
  • Humanists favored the use of the vernacular in
    education, so more merchants could be educated.

41
THE NORTHERN EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE
  • As trade grew and the medieval social, economic,
    and political institutions began to break down,
    the Renaissance spread northward.
  • Often, the Northern European renaissance is also
    referred to as the Reformation.

42
Northern Humanism
  • Similar to Italian humanism in that both rejected
    medieval scholarship and valued classical
    civilizations.
  • Different from Italian humanism because it placed
    more emphasis on purifying the Christian religion
    and encouraging a return to simple Christian
    piety.

43
Actions of N. Humanists
  • Attacked the abuses of the Catholic church.
  • De-emphasized the observance of ritual as the
    core of religious life.
  • Worked to produce new translations of the Bible
    from the original Hebrew and Greek texts and
    revived the study of these languages.
  • Supported changes in University curriculum in
    Germany.

44
Erasmus (1466-1536)
  • Nicknamed Prince of the Humanists
  • Dominated the intellectual thought of the N.
    renaissance
  • His book, In Praise of Folly, satirized
    ignorance, superstition, and many Church
    practices.
  • Criticized corruption of the church and called
    for men to lead simple Christian lives
  • Published a revised edition of the New Testament.

45
N. Renaissance Art
  • Dominated by the Dutch Masters, such as
    Rembrandt, Breughel and Van Eyck.
  • Simple art which usually depicted everyday life
    or people in society. (Nightwatch, Arnolfini
    Wedding, The Wedding Banquet)
  • Protestant churches were very plain in contrast
    to the baroque styles encouraged by the Catholic
    church (Bernini, etc.).

46
The Printing Press
  • The most important invention of the 15th century
    was the printing press, generally credited to
    Johann Gutenberg (c. 1450).
  • Printing by moveable type was cheap and greatly
    increased the circulation of books.
  • Printing also increased the need for education,
    fostered the use of propaganda, and allowed
    scholars from remote areas to share ideas and
    scientific findings.

47
The Protestant Reformation
  • Interconnected to the Renaissance and spurred on
    by rise of the merchant/middle class, the growth
    of individualism, and more activity in Biblical
    scholarship from original texts.
  • Urged a return to a stronger Christian faith
  • Had distinct political overtones and reflected
    the growth of nationalism.

48
Underlying Causes Religious
  • Religious abuses were rampant and Catholic
    reforms were too little, too late.
  • Simony sale of church offices
  • Immoral behavior of the clergy
  • sale of indulgences dispensations
  • Index of Prohibited Books

49
Underlying Causes Social and Political
  • Humanism
  • Many political rulers saw the Church as a foreign
    (Italian) imposition on their growing political
    control and hated the fact that the church had
    its own courts, owned much land, and was exempt
    from local taxes.
  • N. German princes saw religious reform as an
    excuse to pursue nationalistic desires to break
    away from the HRE.

50
Underlying Causes Economic
  • Papal taxes were a hated burden on European
    nations and the rulers, the merchants, and the
    peasants all resented the payments.
  • Thought they were getting very little for their
    money.
  • Popes, Cardinals, and bishops lived lavishly at
    the expense of other Europeans.

51
Martin Luther Lutheranism
  • 1517 Luther, a monk, posted the 95 Theses on the
    door of the church in Wittenberg to protest the
    sale of indulgences and its abuse by John Tetzel.
  • The printing press soon spread his ideas all over
    Germany.
  • Justification by faith alone salvation
    achieved by faith in God rather than by doing
    good works to earn ones way to heaven or by
    the purchase of indulgences.

52
Controversy and Support
  • Although Luther was quickly opposed by the pope
    and other church officials, he gained support
    from many German humanists and princes who
    resented the control of the church and the HR
    emperor.
  • Protected from Charles V by Frederick the Wise of
    Saxony

53
More Controversy
  • Charles V ordered Luther to recant at the Diet of
    Worms. He refused and was again protected by N.
    German princes.
  • Luther refused to support the Peasants Uprising
    (1524-25) and alienated many peasants, calling
    for their destruction.
  • Eventually married and started the Lutheran Church

54
Luthers Ideas
  • Separation of church and state
  • Denied the Catholic Church hierarchy
  • Bible is the final authority in religious matters
    (not what church officials said)
  • Recognized only 2 sacraments Baptism and
    Eucharist
  • Rejected Transubstantiation in favor or
    Consubstantiation.

55
Religious Warfare
  • 1530 council called at Augsburg by Charles V to
    reconcile Catholic and Lutheran differences.
  • The Augsburg confession was the Lutheran
    position, but it was rejected by the Catholics.
  • Protestants formed the Schmalkaldic League for
    protection.
  • 1546 War broke out between N. Protestant states
    and the Catholic HRE.

56
The Peace of Augsburg
  • After a series of stalemates, the Peace of
    Augsburg was signed in 1555.
  • cius regio, eius religio
  • provided religious freedom only to the princes
    everyone else was forced to abide by the religion
    of the ruler.
  • only Lutheranism and Catholicism were considered
    to be legal religions
  • denied Calvinism
  • Lutheranism soon spread all over Sweden, Norway,
    Finland, and N. Germany.

57
Zwingli (1484 - 1531)
  • Swiss Reformer from Zurich
  • Justification by faith alone
  • Bible is final authority, not the pope
  • differed from Luther by saying that the Eucharist
    was entirely symbolic.
  • War broke out between the 8 protestant cantons
    and the 5 catholic ones. They remained divided
    religiously, but made peace in 1531.

58
John Calvin (1509 - 1564)
  • Frenchman who was forced into exile in Geneva
    when his protestant ideas came into conflict with
    the catholic monarchy in France.
  • Main ideas were found in his book Institutes of
    the Christian Religion.
  • Founder of Calvinism, the basis of what is more
    commonly known as Puritanism.

59
Calvinism
  • Bible is the final authority
  • Predestination God has already decided who will
    be saved (the elect) and who will not be (the
    damned).
  • The elect will uphold Gods teachings and lead
    exemplary lives. Their good works are only an
    outward sign of their salvation.
  • People are saved by faith, not by good works.
  • Purely symbolic communion
  • Theocracy

60
Calvinism, continued
  • Calvins ideas spread to other locations and
    became popular in Europe
  • France Huguenots
  • Scotland John Knox - Presbyterian church
  • England Puritanism
  • Holland Dutch Reformed Church

61
The English Reformation
  • English humanists and pre-reformers (such as Hus
    and Wycliffe) called for an end to the
    materialism of the church.
  • Many English nobles strongly resented papal dues
    and church controls.
  • Englands remote location gave it more
    independence in religious matters.

62
Henry VIII Reformation
  • Henry sends Cardinal Wolsey to get him an
    annulment from the pope. The pope refused
  • (Charles Vs troops had sacked Rome in 1527, and
    the pope was under the control of Charles).
  • Henry arrested Wolsey for treason and appointed
    Thomas Cranmer as the new Archbishop of
    Canterbury.
  • Cranmer annulled the marriage.

63
Henry, Continued
  • 1534 Act of Supremacy - king replaces the pope
    as head of the English church and monasteries
    dissolved.
  • Church lands were confiscated
  • Formal establishment of the Anglican Church
    (Church of England)
  • After having a variety of wives, Henry died.

64
The Catholic Counter-Reformation
  • The Council of Trent (1545 - 1563) led by
    Charles V, this council 1st tried to achieve
    reconciliation with the Protestants and then
    tried to save the Catholic church from
    destruction.
  • Unsuccessful in stopping the reformation, but did
    encourage internal reform of the Catholic church.

65
Decisions
  • Faith and good works were both necessary for
    salvation
  • Although the Bible was an essential authority,
    Church tradition and law was supreme in
    interpreting it.
  • Reconfirmed the 7 sacraments
  • Ended internal corruption
  • Ended the sale of indulgences

66
Formation of the Jesuits
  • Formed in Spain by St. Ignatius Loyola, this
    religious order stressed absolute obedience to
    Catholic doctrine and beliefs, but combined these
    ideas with the need for humanist education.
  • Education for youth in schools/universities
  • moral influence of the church in rel. schools
  • missionary activity
  • winning political influence as advisors to princes

67
The Invasions of Italy
  • The Italian city-states were attractive to
    invaders for several reasons
  • They were wealthy territories which were a
    tempting target for stronger powers
  • They were quite small and were easy prey for
    larger powers.

68
The Empire of Charles V (1519 - 1556)
  • Charles inherited a huge empire from his father
    and grandparents which included the HRE, Spain,
    the Low Countries, and the Italian States.
  • Conquered much of Italy by 1525
  • Charles allowed his troops to sack Rome in 1527.
  • 1530 Charles made peace with the Pope and was
    given the title King of Italy.

69
Weaknesses of Charles Empire
  • Geographically, his empire was so spread out it
    was difficult to control.
  • N. German princes were striving for some measure
    of autonomy and were using religion as a pretext
    for rebellion.
  • The reformation had already begun when he became
    emperor, and this created religious division and
    wars.

70
The End of Charles Reign
  • 1555 The Peace of Augsburg established some
    measure of religious freedom in the HRE (cuius
    regio, eius religio)
  • 1556 Charles retired to a monastery
  • 1556 Ferdinand I (his brother) got the HRE and
    Philip II (his son) got Spain, Netherlands,
    Naples, Milan, and the New World colonies.

71
Spain Under Philip II (1556 - 1598)
  • Philip inherited a nation blessed with great
    wealth in the form of gold and silver from the
    New World. He squandered much of it by
  • spending huge amounts of resources by fighting
    religious wars to try to halt the spread of the
    Reformation
  • purchasing luxury items from other nations to
    keep the Spanish nobility happy.

72
The Dutch Revolt
  • Under the leadership of William of Orange
    (William the Silent), the Calvinist Dutch
    provinces (the Netherlands) united with the
    Catholic Dutch provinces (Belgium) to assert
    their independence from Spanish control.
  • The Calvinist provinces resented the Inquisition
    and all of the provinces resented the payment of
    taxes to Spain.

73
The Dutch, continued
  • Philip sent the Duke of Alva, whose actions
    included the sacking of Antwerp.
  • Following the sacking of Antwerp, the Catholic
    provinces left the Dutch alliance and joined with
    the Spanish.
  • The Catholic provinces eventually became Belgium,
    while the Calvinist ones became the Netherlands.

74
The Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Great rivalry existed between Spain and England
    over control of the seas and control of new world
    wealth.
  • Relations between the two nations had not been
    very good for a long time.
  • Philip decided to attack England in an attempt to
    restore Catholicism to the nation in 1588.

75
Reasons for the Attack
  • Philip had been married to Mary I (Eng). After
    her death, Philip made some overtures to
    Elizabeth I and she refused to marry him.
  • Wanted to restore Catholicism to England.
  • Angry that England had aided the Dutch in their
    fight against Spain.
  • Resented English power in the new world and
    resented the attacks of the English sea dogs on
    Spanish galleons.

76
The Defeat of Spain
  • The English decisively defeated the Spanish
    Armada in 1588, thus preventing any Spanish
    acquisition of England.
  • This defeat forever weakened Spain and led to its
    decline in the next century.

77
The Dutch Republic
  • Secured de facto independence from Spain by the
    late 1500s due to weakening of Spanish power.
  • This was made official in 1648.
  • Golden Age of the Dutch Republic early 1600s
    due to political stability, economic prosperity,
    and cultural achievements.

78
The Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648)
  • Forever weakened the HRE and paved the way for
    French continental supremacy.
  • Approx. 1/3 of the population died and approx.
    1/2 of the wealth of the German states was
    depleted.
  • This decimation set the stage for the long-term
    fragmentation of central Europe.

79
The Bohemian Phase (1618 - 1625)
  • Protestant, Frederick V of Bohemia demanded more
    autonomy for Bohemia from Ferdinand II (HRE)
  • Defenestration of Prague
  • Rebellion drove the Imperial forces from Bohemia
  • The Protestant forces were decisively defeated at
    the Battle of White Mountain and Frederick was
    deposed.

80
The Danish Phase (1625 - 1629)
  • Danish King Christian IV stepped up to lead the
    Protestants who were nearly wiped out after phase
    I.
  • The protestant forces experienced more losses at
    the hands of Tilly and Wallenstein.
  • The Edict of Restitution forced protestants to
    restore to the Catholic church all lands that had
    been taken from it since 1552. This was a major
    defeat.

81
The Swedish Phase (1630 - 1635)
  • Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus and his army
    landed in Germany, starting phase III of the war.
  • Cardinal Richelieu of Catholic France supported
    Gustavus and the Protestant forces in an attempt
    to control the power of the Hapsburgs.
  • Many early protestant victories, but Gustavus was
    killed in battle in 1632.
  • Ferdinand had Wallenstein assassinated in 1634.
  • Phase was a costly one for both sides.

82
The French Phase(1635 - 1648)
  • Sweden was attacked by Denmark in 1635, because
    Denmark hoped to break the power of the Swedish
    empire.
  • France sent troops to help Sweden.
  • Cath. France Prot. Sweden vs. Cath. HRE Prot.
    Denmark Cath. Spain
  • 1645 Denmark surrendered
  • 1648 Germans called for a truce.

83
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
  • Renewed the Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius
    religio).
  • Officially recognized Calvinism as a legal
    religion
  • nullified the Edict of Restitution (whoever owned
    the land in 1624 got it back)
  • Recognized the independence of Switzerland and
    the Netherlands

84
Westphalia, continued
  • German princes given more sovereignty (they now
    had the right to raise armies and conclude
    foreign alliances)
  • All agreed to settle their religious disputes
    through negotiation, rather than edict or
    majority vote.
  • This treaty permanently weakened and fragmented
    the HRE.

85
THE FRENCH CIVIL WARS
  • Although France had only a small minority of
    Huguenots (approx. 9 in 1560), they had far more
    power than their numbers, because most
    protestants were upper middle class persons or
    members of the nobility.
  • Many of these Huguenots became Calvinist as an
    excuse to take a stand against the power of the
    Valois family.

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Francis I and Henry II
  • Both of these kings were concerned about the
    growing Protestant minority and actively
    persecuted the Calvinists.
  • Unfortunately, Henry II died while his sons were
    quite young, leaving Catherine de Medici as the
    queen mother. Catherine had a difficult time
    dealing with the various political and religious
    factions in France and her religious policies
    were disastrous for the nation.

87
Political and Religious Problems in France
  • Three political factions were competing to
    control France by 1560
  • Bourbons (Protestants)
  • Guises (Catholics)
  • Chatellions (Protestants)
  • Religious war broke out in 1562. Catherine would
    switch sides, for a time supporting the
    Protestants, then the Catholics, etc.

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More Wars
  • Religious intolerance culminated in the St.
    Bartholomews Day massacre in 1572 when Coligny
    (Prot. advisor) and several thousand Parisian
    Protestants were killed.
  • This again ignited more warfare and led France
    into the War of the Three Henrys.

89
The War of the Three Henrys
  • In this war, England helped the Protestant
    forces, and Spain helped the Catholics.
  • King Henry III (Cath.) and Henry of Navarre
    (Prot.) vs. Henry Guise (Cath.)
  • Henry III was killed, and Henry of Navarre won a
    series of military victories which established
    him as King Henry IV and created a new ruling
    dynasty in France--the Bourbons.

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King Henry IV (1589 - 1610)
  • When he took over, France was in a state of
    religious and political disorder, and the central
    government was severely weakened.
  • Henry rebuilt a devastated France with the help
    of his advisor, the Duke of Sully.
  • 1593 Henry became Catholic (Paris is worth a
    mass).

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Achievements of Henry IV
  • 1598 Edict of Nantes granted religious
    toleration to Protestants (1st legal recognition
    of Calvinism in any nation).
  • Catholicism was still the national religion (The
    religion of most Frenchmen)
  • Protestants could worship freely in Protestant
    cities and could again own property.

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More Achievements
  • Strengthened the power of the monarch by
    weakening the power of the nobility.
  • Restored the bankrupt government to solvency
  • Began an extensive program for economic
    improvements--repairing and constructing roads,
    bridges and harbors, reclaiming marsh lands, and
    fostering agriculture.
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