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The Rise of the Atlantic World, 1400-1625

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Title: The Rise of the Atlantic World, 1400-1625


1
Chapter 2
  • The Rise of the Atlantic World, 1400-1625

2
Introduction
  • Oct. 12, 1492
  • Columbus and crew landed on the island of San
    Salvador
  • Ended isolation of the Western Hemisphere from
    Europe and Asia

3
4 important questions
  • What forces were transforming West Africa before
    the advent of the Atlantic slave trade?
  • How did European monarchs use commerce and
    religion to advance their nations fortunes?

4
4 important questions (cont.)
  • What role did the Columbian exchange play in the
    formation of an Atlantic world?
  • How did relations with Native Americans affect
    the success of early European colonizing efforts?

5
African and European Peoples
  • West Africa Tradition and Change
  • Grasslands of the Sahara Dessert and east of the
    West African coast, kingdoms arose that rivaled
    those in Europe in size and wealth
  • 14th Century
  • Mali
  • Dominated entire region
  • Lucrative trade with Europe and the Middle East
  • Timbuktuleading city (center of Islamic learning)

6
West Africa Tradition and Change (cont.)
7
West Africa Tradition and Change (cont.)
  • By 16th century Mali was conquered by Morocco
  • 15th centurysmall states on Guinea and
    Senegambian coast grew in population and
    importance
  • Gold was mined and traded
  • mid-1400sPortuguese arrived on the coast
    looking for gold and slaves

8
West Africa Tradition and Change (cont.)
  • West African leaders ranged from powerful
    emperors (who claimed demigod status) to heads of
    small states (who ruled by persuasion)
  • Kinship groups formed the most important unit
    holding people together

9
West Africa Tradition and Change (cont.)
  • Men could marry more than one woman
  • Allowed high-status men to establish kinship
    networks with other important families through
    their several wives
  • High mortality rate in West Africaled to many
    marriages
  • Frequent famines and tropical disease epidemics
  • Shortage of people placed a high premium on the
    production of children

10
West Africa Tradition and Change (cont.)
  • Children helped with food production
  • Most food was obtained by farming
  • Children, men, and women all farmed
  • Yams, rice, other grains
  • 15th centurymarket economy had developed
  • Farmers trading surplus crops for artisan-made
    goods

11
West Africa Tradition and Change (cont.)
  • Religion and spirituality permeated African
    culture and inspired artistic endeavors
  • Sophisticated art and music (much of 20th century
    jazz is based on)
  • 1500sIslam was starting to spread beyond the
    kings and upper class to the common people of the
    grasslands
  • Christianity (intro. by Portuguese in 1400s and
    1500s) made limited headway until the 19th
    century

12
European Culture and Society
  • Europe was at height of the Renaissance (a great
    cultural revival) in the late 1400s
  • Trying to map the world and understand natural
    science and astronomy
  • Society was hierarchical (kings at the top and
    peasants-75 of the people at the bottom)
  • Population increases in the 16th and 17th
    centuries made land in Europe scarce and valuable

13
European Culture and Society (cont.)
  • Upper classes enclosed more of the fields and
    made them private property
  • Displaced country people drifted to the small
    towns (dirty, crowded, diseases)
  • Nuclear families were replacing kinship networks
  • Father ruled over wife and children as the king
    ruled over his subjects

14
European Culture and Society (cont.)
  • New business enterprises and organizations (joint
    stock companies) broke the bonds of social
    reciprocity
  • Emerging entrepreneurs favored unimpeded
    acquisition of wealth and unregulated
    competition
  • They insisted that individuals owed one another
    nothing but the money necessary to settle each
    market transaction.

15
Religious Upheavals
  • Most Europeans in 1492 were Christians
  • Roman Catholic Church
  • Headed by a pope
  • Administered by a hierarchy of clergy who did not
    marry
  • By 15th century, selling indulgences (blessings
    that would shorten the repentant sinners time in
    purgatory) for donations to the church

16
Religious Upheavals (cont.)
  • Protestant Reformation
  • 1517
  • Martin Luther
  • Denounced indulgences and other corrupt practices
  • Broke from the Catholic Church
  • Preached that one could not buy or earn salvation
    good works (or donations to the church)

17
Religious Upheavals (cont.)
  • God alone decided who was saved and who was
    damned
  • Christians must have faith in his love and justice

18
Religious Upheavals (cont.)
  • John Calvin
  • French Protestant leader
  • Emphasizing the doctrine of predestination (Gods
    foreknowledge of who was saved and who was damned)

19
Religious Upheavals (cont.)
  • Counter-Reformation
  • Modern Roman Catholic Church was born
  • Aimed to clean out corruption and stimulate
    religious zeal
  • Attempting to suppress Protestantism
  • European countries divided into rival Protestant
    and Catholic camps

20
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625
  • King Henry VIII
  • Ruled 1509-1547
  • Reformation began in England under Henry VIII
  • Asked the pope to annul his marriage
  • Pope refused

21
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Henry VIII then pushed through Parliament the
    laws of 1533-1534, which dissolved his marriage
  • Also, the laws declared the king head of the
    Church of England (Anglican)

22
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Religious strife continued in England for more
    than 100 years
  • Henrys son and successor (Edward VI) leaned
    toward Protestantism
  • 1547-1553

23
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Mary I
  • Bloody Mary
  • tried to restore Catholicism
  • Often burned Protestants at the stake
  • 1553-1558
  • Turned majority of English against Catholicism

24
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Elizabeth I
  • 1558-1603
  • 1/2 sister of Mary I
  • Anti-Catholicism

25
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • The English differed on how Protestant the Church
    of England should be
  • Puritans (Calvinistic Puritans)
  • Wanted to remove all vestiges of Catholicism
  • Believed in predestination
  • Felt that only the saved should belong to the
    church
  • Each congregation to be self-governing and free
    from interference from bishops and church
    hierarchy

26
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Nonseparating Puritans
  • Remained with the Church of England
  • Hoping to reform the Church of England
  • Separatists
  • Withdrew
  • A pure church had to be entirely free of
    Anglican pollution

27
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Puritanism with its message of righteousness and
    self-discipline appealed to landowning gentry,
    small farmers, university-educated clergy,
    intellectuals, merchants, shopkeepers, and
    artisans

28
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625 (cont.)
  • Elizabeth managed to satisfy most of English
    Protestants (both Puritan and Anglican)
  • Her successor (James I) did not
  • James I (1603-1625) was completely against
    Puritans

29
Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600
  • Portugal led the way in Europes ocean expansion
    (1400-1500)
  • Advances in maritime technology
  • Caravel
  • Magnetic compass
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Sent Portuguese sailors farther down the coast of
    Africa

30
Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 (cont.)
  • Fought Muslims
  • Seek opportunities for profitable trade
  • Established a gold-processing factory at Arguin
  • Rounded Africas Cape of Good Hope
  • Developed valuable commercial links with India

31
Europe and the Atlantic World, 1400-1600 (cont.)
  • These Portuguese voyages brought Europeans face
    to face with black-skinned Africans and an
    entrance into the already flourishing slave trade

32
The New Slavery and Racism
  • Slavery existed in West Africa before the arrival
    of Europeans
  • Not based on racial differences between masters
    and slaves
  • Slaves were often eventually absorbed into the
    owners families
  • First Muslims from North Africa, then Europeans
    turned African slavery into an intercontinental
    business

33
The New Slavery and Racism (cont.)
  • European slavers bought war captives from African
    slave-trading kings
  • This encouraged those rulers to engaged in
    warfare with their neighbors, using the guns they
    had obtained from earlier slave sales

34
The New Slavery and Racism (cont.)
  • Nearly 12 million Africans were shipped across
    the Atlantic under horrific conditions to labor
    in the Western Hemisphere
  • The new slavery was based on race
  • Dehumanized black Africans in the eyes of white
    Europeans
  • Regarded slaves as property (not as persons)

35
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522
  • Christopher Columbus insisted that Europeans
    could reach Asia by sailing westward across the
    Atlantic
  • King and Queen of Spain were anxious to break
    Portugals monopoly of trade around Africa
  • They financed Columbus voyages

36
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522 (cont.)
  • 1492 tripColumbus landed on the island of
    Guanahani in the West Indies (he called it San
    Salvador)
  • On a subsequent voyage, he claimed and colonized
    for Spain the island of Hispaniola
  • Even after his last expedition (1498-1502), he
    did not realize he had discovered a new world

37
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38
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522 (cont.)
  • John Cabot
  • 1497
  • Explored and claimed the north Atlantic coast for
    England

39
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522 (cont.)
  • Later explorers eventually realized that a big
    landmass (America) blocked the way to Asia
  • They focused discovering a water route through or
    around the Americas to reach Asia

40
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522 (cont.)
  • Balboa
  • Crossed the Isthmus of Panama
  • Reached the Pacific
  • 1513
  • Magellan
  • 1519
  • sailed around the tip of South American and
    reached the Philippines before being killed

41
To American and Beyond, 1492-1522 (cont.)
  • Verrazano
  • Explored the coast of North America
  • 1524
  • Cartier
  • Sailed up the St. Lawrence
  • Looking for supposed Northwest passage to Asia
  • 1534

42
Spains Conquistadores, 1492-1536
  • Early Spanish explorers soon became conquerors
  • Columbus
  • Exported Indian slaves from Hispaniola
  • Gave grants to Spaniards to extract labor from
    native population

43
Spains Conquistadores, 1492-1536 (cont.)
  • Hernan Cortes
  • 1519
  • Landed in Mexico
  • Subjugated the mighty Aztec Empire
  • Francisco Pizarro
  • 1532-1536
  • Conquered the Incas

44
Spains Conquistadores, 1492-1536 (cont.)
  • Spanish conquerors were awestruck by the
    civilizations they encountered (size, govt.,
    wealth, etc.)
  • Spanish conquerors fanned out over the Caribbean
    and the Americans from Mexico to Chile
  • Subduing and enslaving the native peoples and
    enriching themselves and Spain

45
Spains Conquistadores, 1492-1536 (cont.)
  • The Indian population was nearly decimated
  • Forced labor
  • Warfare
  • Starvation
  • Alien diseases (small pox measles)
  • When shortages of Indian slaves developed, the
    Portuguese delivered African substitutes
  • In 1519Central Mexicos population was between
    13 and 25 million
  • By 1600it was 700,000

46
The Columbian Exchange
  • Columbian Exchange or the biological
    encounter of Europe, Africa, and America had
    tremendous impact on the peoples, animals, and
    plants of all 3 areas

47
The Columbian Exchange (cont.)
  • Diseases
  • Disease-causing microbes
  • Europeans and Africans brought with them
  • Wiped out whole tribes of Indians who lacked
    natural immunity
  • Made it easier for Europeans to conquer and
    colonize
  • Animals
  • Horses, cattle, sheep

48
The Columbian Exchange (cont.)
  • Plants
  • Wheat, coffee, sugar
  • Food
  • Rice and yams from Enslaved Africans
  • Corn, potatoes, tobacco, turkeys
  • Transplanted crops and animals enriched human
    diets but also caused environmental change and
    damage to the new habitants

49
The Columbian Exchange (cont.)
  • Peoples mingled
  • 300,000 Spanish colonists who arrived in the
    Americas in the 16th century were 90 male
  • Many took Indian wives and produced mestizo
    populations of Mexico and Latin America
  • European planters begot mulatto children with
    enslaved African women
  • Children of mixed Indian-African ancestry were
    also common

50
The Columbian Exchange (cont.)
  • The Americas produced fabulous wealth for Spain
    and her colonists in the 16th century
  • Gold and silver from Mexican mines
  • sugar cane from West Indians plantations
  • sheep and cattle from Mexican ranches
  • Spans kings became wealthy
  • Failed to use the wealth wisely limited the
    long-term benefit for their nation

51
Footholds in North America, 1512-1625
  • Spains Northern Frontier
  • 1500s, looking for gold, sliver and slaves
    penetrated areas that would become the United
    States
  • Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanicotraveled from
    Florida to Texas to New Mexico
  • de SatoTampa Bay to Appalachians then to Texas
  • First lasting European post was established at
    St. Augustine

52
Spains Northern Frontier (cont.)
  • No gold was found
  • Spread European diseases that wiped out most of
    the surviving Mississippian communities, most
    before they even laid eyes on the newcomers
  • Coronado plundered pueblos and searched for
    riches from the Grand Canyon to Kansas
  • 1598Juan de Onate proclaimed the royal colony of
    New Mexico which barely survived Indian
    resistance and uprisings

53
France Colonizing Canada
  • Attempted to create permanent colonies
  • 1541St. Lawrence
  • 1562South Carolina
  • 1564Florida
  • All failed
  • French carried on a lucrative fur trade with the
    Indians from Newfoundland to Maine and along the
    St. Lawrence

54
France Colonizing Canada (cont.)
  • Sensing the importance of this fur trade and
    determined to beat their rivals, the English and
    Dutch, to its profits, the French found Quebec in
    1608
  • First permanent French settlement in Canada

55
France Colonizing Canada (cont.)
  • Samuel de Champlain
  • Founded Quebec
  • Allied it with the local Huron, Algonquins, and
    Montagnais

56
England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603
  • Late 1500s, England took an interest in the
    Western Hemisphere
  • Queen Elizabeth encouraged English sea dogs
    (like Francis Drake) to raid Spanish treasure
    ships and ports in the Western Hemisphere
  • She split the riches with them

57
England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603 (cont.)
  • English searched for the Northwest Passage
  • Scoured America for gold and colony sites
  • 1st English settlement was in Newfoundland
    (1583)it did not last
  • Sir Walter Raleigh
  • Settlement on Roanoke Island (VA)
  • 1584

58
England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603 (cont.)
  • The English colonists antagonized the initially
    friendly Indians and failed to plant crops to
    feed themselves
  • Colonists requested more supplies be sent by
    English govt.pleas went unanswered because of
    the Anglo-Spanish War

59
England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603 (cont.)
  • England won Anglo-Spanish War and defeated
    Spanish Armada in 1588
  • Established the English as a major power in the
    Atlantic
  • In 1590relief ship landed in Roanoke only it
    find no Englishmen
  • Roanoke became the lost colony

60
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625
  • Jamestown settlement
  • May 1607
  • VA
  • 105 English landed
  • Virginia Company of London
  • Joint-stock company
  • Organized and financed Jamestown

61
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • The only role English government played was to
    grant a charter to the company giving it right to
    land anywhere from Cape Fear to the Hudson River

62
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • Jamestown settlers
  • Most were gentlemen
  • Refused to farm
  • Looking for gold
  • Failure to secure foodstuffs combined with the
    companies failure to adequately supply them, led
    to starvation and conflict with the Powhatans

63
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • During the 1st several years, majority of
    settlers died
  • Survivors were on the verge of leaving several
    times
  • The discipline and forced work imposed worked for
    a while but settlers started to rebel
  • Captain John Smith helped to save the colony by
    acquiring food from Powhatan

64
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • Settler John Rolfes development of a tobacco
    palatable to Europeans gave the colony the
    profitable export that ensured its financial
    success

65
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • At first stockholders in England treated the
    settlers as company employees
  • Denied them any say in the colonys government or
    ownership of any of its land
  • To get more people in VA and get more
  • Started to award land to people who paid their
    own and other peoples passage to VA
  • Called headrights system

66
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • headlights system allowed planters who imported
    many indentured servants to acquire large estates
  • 1619company also granted inhabitants the right
    to elect delegates to a legislative assembly
  • Beginning of representative govt. in North America

67
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • 1622an Indian attack killed many of English
    settlers
  • 1624charges or mismanagement of Virginia Company
    of London led King James I to revoke the charter
  • VA became a royal colony

68
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625 (cont.)
  • 1624VA had about 500 colonists
  • Most were indentured servants
  • Did not live long
  • Poor diet
  • Diseases
  • overwork

69
New England Begins, 1614-1625
  • Plymouth Bay
  • 1620
  • Mayflower landed
  • 102 English
  • Founded Plymouth
  • http//www.history.com/media.do?actionclipidtdi
    h_dec18_broadband

70
New England Begins, 1614-1625 (cont.)
  • Settlement was financed by some London merchants
    who received a charter from the Virginia Company
    of London to establish a colony
  • English Separatists who had been living in
    Holland to escape Anglican persecution

71
New England Begins, 1614-1625 (cont.)
  • The Separatists and other non-Puritan Englishmen
    who joined the expedition promised to send
    lumber, furs, and fish back to Weston for 7 years
    in return for his investment

72
New England Begins, 1614-1625 (cont.)
  • Winter storms blew the Mayflower off course
  • The colonists landed outside the boundaries of VA
    and the jurisdiction of its govt.

73
New England Begins, 1614-1625 (cont.)
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Adult males of the Mayflower signed it
  • Created their own civil govt. and pledged to
    abide by its laws
  • http//www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolutio
    n/mayflower.htm
  • Half the Pilgrims died during the 1st winter in
    Plymouth

74
New England Begins, 1614-1625 (cont.)
  • Those still alive in spring of 1621 were greatly
    helped by 2 friendly Indians (Squanto and
    Samoset)
  • Taught them how to plant corn
  • Arranged treaties with neighboring tribes

75
New England Begins, 1614-1625 (cont.)
  • Plymouth never grew wealthy or large
  • Vanguard of a mighty Puritan migration to New
    England in 1630s
  • Proved that a self-governing farm community could
    survive in New England

76
A New Netherland on the Hudson, 1609-1625
  • 1614
  • Dutch traders
  • Fort Nassau (near present-day Albany)
  • 1626
  • local Munsee Indians allowed the Dutch to settle
    on an island at the mouth of the Hudson
  • Dutch named it Manhattan
  • Started settlement of New Amsterdam

77
A New Netherland on the Hudson, 1609-1625
(cont.)
  • Most of the settlers lived by fur trade,
    competing with the French
  • They dealt primarily with the Iroquois (enemies
    of the French-backed Hurons)

78
Conclusion
  • 1500s an Atlantic world developed
  • Connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas
  • Through exploration, trade, and conquest,
    emerging Western European nation-states exploited
    for their benefit the peoples and resources of
    West Africa and the Americans

79
Conclusion (cont.)
  • By 1600Spanish had planted their empire firmly
    in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South
    America
  • Indian peoples north of Mexico still held back
    European conquerors and colonizers

80
Conclusion (cont.)
  • Between 1600 and 1625
  • the Spanish made a few settlements to the north
    of Mexico to protect the borders of New Spain
  • French and Dutch established fur-trading colonies
  • English had begun farming on formerly Indian land
    in VA and Plymouth
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