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Political Parties in America

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Title: Chapter 1 The Political Landscape Author: Alixandra Yanus Last modified by: Margaret East Created Date: 8/12/2008 10:00:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Parties in America


1
Political Parties in America
2
American Political Parties
  • bring people together to achieve control of the
    government
  • develop policies favorable to their interests or
    to the groups that support them
  • organize and run campaigns
  • persuade voters to elect their candidates to
    office
  • give cues to voters
  • represent their constituents
  • attempt to put philosophy into practice through
    legislation
  • formulate policy through a national party
    platform

3
Political Parties are aLinkage Institution
  • the channels through which peoples concerns
    become political issues on the governments
    policy agenda
  • Parties can be thought of in three parts
  • 1) Party in the electorate
  • 2) Party as an organization
  • 3) Party in government

4
1) Party in the Electorate
  • Party identification is a citizens
    self-proclaimed preference for one party or the
    other
  • Party identification shapes political worldview
  • May be shaped by demographic characteristics
  • South, middle-aged, and white-collar lean
    Republican
  • Evangelicals and married lean Republican
  • Women, minorities, and Jews lean Democratic
  • Unions, advanced degrees, and single lean more
    Democratic

5
Four Eras of Political Parties
Era of the Democrats Era of the
Republicans Era of the Democrats Era of
Divided Govt 1800 - 1860
1860 - 1932 1932 - 1968
1968 - Today
Divided Government Since 1968, neither
Republicans nor Democrats have consistently held
the presidency and the Congress is often
controlled by the opposing party.
6
American Party History
?
7
Party Identification
8
Growing Party Polarization Ideological
Partisanship Between the Two Major Parties
9
Intense Ideas Relate to more Substantive
Political Participation
10
Ideology of Independents
11
The Role of Minor Parties A third party or minor
party is any party other than the two major
parties. Their common thread is that they
believe that neither party is meeting certain
needs. A third party runs a candidate to propose
a remedy to the situation and/or to draw
attention to their specific issue(s) or
ideology.
single-issue party focuses exclusively on one
major economic, social, or moral issue
ex Free Soilers, Prohibition Party, Womens
Suffrage Party, Right to Life Party ideological
party focuses on overall change in society rather
than on one single issue ex Communist
Party, Socialist Party, Libertarian
Party splinter party splits away from one of the
two major parties because of some disagreement
ex Progressive (Bull Moose) Party,
Dixiecrats, Green Party
12
Third-Party Presidential Candidates The following
are all third-party candidates in the 20th
century who received at least 5 of the vote in
a presidential election.
Candidate Party of Vote E Teddy
Roosevelt (1912) Progressive Party
27.4 88 Eugene Debs (1912) Socialist
Party 6.5 Robert LaFollete
(1924) Progressive Party 16.6
13 Strom Thurmond (1948) States Rights
(Dixiecrats) 2.4 39 George
Wallace (1968) American Independent 13.5
46 John Anderson (1980) National Unity
Campaign 6.6 H. Ross Perot
(1992) Independent 18.7 H. Ross Perot
(1996) Reform Party 8.5 Ralph Nader
(1996) Green 1.0 Ralph Nader
(2000) Green 3.0
13
No candidate received gt 1 in 2012 election
14
Major Third Parties
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_party_28United
_States29
15
  • Graphic Source http//teamrussell4norwich.com/lib
    ertarian-party-best-of-democrat-republican/

16
2) Party Organization
?
17
The Party Organization From the Grass Roots to
Washington
  • The Local Parties
  • Party Machines A type of political party
    organization that relies heavily on material
    inducements to win votes and to govern
  • Patronage A job, promotion or contract given for
    political reasons rather than merit. Used by
    party machines.
  • Now urban party organizations are generally weak
  • County organizations have partially filled the
    void

18
The Party Organization From the Grass Roots to
Washington
  • The 50 State Party Systems
  • Closed primaries voters must be registered with
    their party in advance and can only vote for that
    party
  • Open primaries voters decide on election day
    which party to participate in, and then only that
    party
  • Blanket primaries voters get a list of all
    candidates and can vote for one name for each
    office, regardless of party label
  • State party organizations are on an upswing in
    terms of headquarters and budgets

19
The Party Organization From the Grass Roots to
Washington
  • The National Party Organizations
  • National Convention The meeting of party
    delegates every four years to choose a
    presidential ticket and the partys platform
  • National Committee One of the institutions that
    keeps the party operating between conventions
  • National Chairperson Responsible for day-to-day
    activities of the party

20
3) Party in Government
  • Parties play a major role in organizing Congress
  • Parties shape perceptions of presidents
  • Presidents--to varying degrees--act as party
    leaders

21
20th Century Party System
  • 1876-1912 was Golden Age of parties (due to
    machines)
  • Parties weakened in the modern era
  • Change in civil service laws
  • Development of direct primary system
  • Growth of candidate-centered and issue-oriented
    politics
  • Increase in ticket-splitting and independent
    voters

22
Dealignment and Party Strength
  • Are we in a period of dealignment? Many say
    YES.
  • Voters are much less likely to identify with a
    party
  • Result of the growth in issue-oriented politics
  • Parties are important in electorate and in
    government
  • Parties continue to be competitive with one
    another

23
Political parties try to appeal to as many
people as possible
African Americans
teachers
women
farm workers
organized labor
soccer moms
small business owners
big business
law enforcement agencies
Hispanics
Christian organizations
gay community
college students
NASCAR Dads
24
  • Party Coalitions Today

25
Party Identification by Group
?
26
Party in Government Political Party Platform A
party platform is made up of planks that explain
where the party stands on issues of importance.
Party Platform
abortion
tax cuts
gun control
social security
gay marriage
education
health care
foreign policy
27
Platform Comparisons Main Two PartiesIdeas
on Abortion
28
On Energy
29
On Immigration
30
On Taxes
31
On Marriage
Since 2012, Dems won part of this argument over
DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act) in 2013 parts of
it were declared illegal by Supreme Court
32
FYI 2013, Supreme Court Ruling on DOMA
The Supreme Courts first rulings on same-sex
marriage produced historic gains for gay rights
Wednesday full federal recognition of legally
married gay couples and an opening for such
unions to resume in the nations most-populous
state. The divided court stopped short of a more
sweeping ruling that the fundamental right to
marry must be extended to gay couples no matter
where they live. But in striking down a key part
of the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), the
court declared that gay couples married in states
where it is legal must receive the same federal
health, tax, Social Security and other benefits
that heterosexual couples receive.
33
Update! 6/26/2015
  • Supreme Court in a case called Obergefell v.
    Hodges ( 3 related cases) justices ruled in a
    5-4 decision that same-sex couples could marry
    across all 50 states.
  • Prior to this it was legal (to varying degrees)
    in 37 places though only made such by voting
    booths or state legislatures in only 11 states.
    The rest where forced to change laws by courts.
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