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The Olmec and Teotihuacan

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Montezuma was the Aztec Ruler Montezuma Section 3 Early Civilizations in South America Moche Sometime ... Chapter 11 The Americas ... 6_Organic 7_Organic 8_Organic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Olmec and Teotihuacan


1
The Olmec and Teotihuacan
  • Signs of Mesoamerica before the Spaniards arrived
    first appeared around 1200 BCE
  • Mesoamerica is the name used for Mexico and
    Central America.
  • The Olmec people were located in the swampy
    lowlands along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico
    south of Veracruz.
  • They farmed along the muddy riverbanks in the area

2
Mesoamerica
  • The first major city in Mesoamerica was
    Teotihuacan. Known as the place of the Gods.

3
Teotihuacan
  • Located near Mexico City in a fertile valley,
    Teotihuacan had as many as 200,000 inhabitants at
    its height.
  • The pyramid of the sun, rose in four tiers to a
    height over 200 feet.

4
Pyramid of the Sun
5
The Maya and the Toltec
  • Far to the east of Teotihuacan, on the Yucatan
    Peninsula, another major civilization had arisen.
  • It was known as the Maya and flourished between
    CE 300 and 900.
  • It was one of the most sophisticated
    civilizations in the Americas.

6
Mayan Pyramid
7
Mayan
  • Mayan cities were so protected they were not
    discovered until the 19th and 20th century.
  • Location and the jungle being the reason

8
Writings and Calendar
9
Mayan cities
  • Cities were built around a central pyramid topped
    by a shrine to the Gods.
  • Some scholars believe that urban centers such as
    Tikal in present day Guatemala may have had
    100,000 inhabitants.
  • Mayan cities were always at war. Captured
    soldiers became slaves and captured nobles were
    used for human sacrifice to the Gods.

10
Temple at Tikal
11
Mayan people
  • Most Mayan people were peasant farmers
  • Most Mayan people believed that all life was in
    the hands of divine powers.
  • The name of the supreme God was Itzamna. It means
    Lizard House

12
Picture of Itzamna
13
Writings and Calendar
  • The Maya created a sophisticated writing system
    based on hieroglyphs or pictures.
  • The Spanish conquerors in the 16th century made
    no effort to decipher the language or respect the
    Mayans writings.
  • One of the most important collections of Mayan
    hieroglyphs is at Palenque

14
The Toltec
  • The Toltec were a fierce and warlike people who
    extended their conquests into the Mayan lands of
    Guatemala.
  • The center of the Toltec empire was at Tula,
    built in present day Mexico

15
The Aztecs
  • The origins of the Aztecs are uncertain.
  • They had a long migration and finished with their
    capital in Tenochtitlan.
  • They eventually ran to Lake Texcoco which was
    made up of swamps after running from an attack.
    They bulit there for the next 100 years.
  • Huitzilopochtli was the Aztec God of War
  • Tenochtitlan also means place of prickly pear
    cactus

16
The aztecs
17
Aztecs cont
  • Tribute was something Aztecs were big believers
    of
  • Tribute was goods or money paid by conquered
    peoples to their conquerors
  • By 1500 as many as four million lived in the
    valley of Mexico and the surrounding valleys of
    central mexico

18
The legend of Quetzalcoatl
  • Quetzalcoatl was an Aztec God and was known as a
    feathered serpent.
  • According to tradition he had left his home in
    the tenth century promising to return in triumph.
  • The story told of a prince whose return from
    exile would be proceeded by the sign of an arrow
    through a sapling.

19
Quetzalcoatl was an Aztec God
20
Spanish conquerors
  • When the Aztecs saw a similar crest from the
    Spaniards they thought that represenatives of
    Quetzalcoatl had returned.
  • Were they right or wrong?????

21
Aztec Religion
  • The Aztec religion was based on a belief in an
    unending struggle between the forces of good and
    evil throughout the Universe.

22
Here comes Cortez
  • In 1519, a Spanish force under the command of
    Hernan Cortes landed at veracruz on the Gulf of
    Mexico.
  • 550 soldiers and 16 horses was all he had
  • He made alliances with the enemies of the Aztecs
    along the way

23
Montezuma
  • Montezuma was the ruler of the Aztecs who offered
    the Spaniards gold and a beautiful palace to live
    in.
  • Tensions rose and the Europeans brought a very
    powerful weapon with them!!!
  • In 1520 city fell and the Spanish now ruled what
    is modern day Mexico.

24
Montezuma was the Aztec Ruler
25
Montezuma
26
Section 3
  • Early Civilizations in South America

27
Moche
  • Sometime around 200 BCE another advanced
    civilization appeared near the Pacific coast just
    south of the border of Ecuador.
  • It was known as Moche and had the Moche river
    which flowed from the Andes into the Pacific
    Ocean.
  • Corn was known as Maize to these people of this
    area

28
The Inca
  • The Inca civilization took place about 1000 CE in
    the mountains of Southern Peru.
  • Most lived at Cuzco a city that was located
    11,000 feet high.

29
Picture of Maccu Pichu
30
The main man of the Inca empire
  • The powerful ruler of the Inca empire was a man
    named Pachacuti.
  • He launched a conquest that brought the entire
    region around them under control.
  • He ruled in the 1440s

31
Pachacuti
  • His empire extended the boundaries of the Incan
    empire as far as Ecuador, central Chile,and the
    Edge of the Amazon basin.
  • The Incan empire at this time had as many as 12
    million people in it.

32
Statue of Pachacuti
33
Quecha
  • Quecha was the language people were forced to use
    once they were conquered by the Incas.
  • A noble of high rank was sent out to govern the
    region.

34
Machu Picchu
  • Nothing shows the genius architecture of the
    Incas more than Machu Picchu.
  • Machu Picchu was built 8,000 feet off the ground
    and was surrounded by mountain tops.
  • Quipu was the Incas writing system that was used
    by a system of knotting strings

35
The fall of the Inca
  • In 1531, the Spanish attackers of 180 men led by
    Francisco Pizzaro attacked the Incan people.
  • He used horses, Gun powder and small pox to kill
    the Incas.
  • By 1535, Pizzaro had established a new capital
    for Spain after matching on Cuzco in modern day
    Lima.

36
These Inca are nothing to me!
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