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Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed)

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Title: Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed)


1
Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work
(APA, 6th Ed)
  • Hesham S. Abdul Maguid
  • Faculty of Social Work
  • Helwan University
  • 4 April 2015

2
First session
  • Introduction Title- Author(s) name(s) and
    Affiliation(s)
  • Abstract and Keywords
  • References format
  • Types of articles
  • Articles sequences (Steps)
  • Introduction (theoretical framework).

3
Introduction Title of the Article
  • Title should
  • summarize the main idea of the manuscript simply
  • It should be a concise statement of the main
    topic and should identify the variables or
    theoretical issues under investigation and the
    relationship between them.
  • Avoid words that serve no useful purpose
  • Example the words method and results do not
    normally appear in a title- A Study of or An
    Experimental Investigation of

4
Author's Name and Institutional Affiliation
  • First name- sec.-Family name- institutional
    affiliation

Hesham S. Abdul Maguid Faculty SW- Helwan University One author
Hesham S. Abdul Maguid and Gamal S. Mohamed. Faculty SW- Helwan University Two authors- one affiliation. (also more
Hesham S. Abdul Maguid Faculty SW- Helwan University Hendawy M. Abdul Lahy Higher Institution of Social work- Cairo Two authors- two affiliation. (also three or more)
Hesham S. Abdul Maguid and Gamal S. Mohamed. Faculty SW- Helwan University Hendawy M. Abdul Lahy Higher Institution of Social work- Cairo Two authors- two affiliation.
5
An Abstract
  • An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of
    the contents of the article it allows readers to
    survey the contents of an article quickly
  • An abstract of an empirical study should describe
  • the problem under investigation, in one sentence
    if possible
  • the participants, specifying pertinent
    characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnic
  • the essential features of study method-you have
    a limited number of words so restrict your
    description to essential and interesting features
    of the study methodology particularly those
    likely to be used in electronic searches
  • the basic findings, including effect sizes and
    confidence intervals and/or statistical
    significance levels and
  • the conclusions and the implications or
    applications.

6
References format
  • According to Publication Manual of the American
    Psychological Association (APA) 6th Edition, we
    have two styles of citation
  • 1- Citations within Quotations
  • 2- References List

7
Citations within Quotations
  • APA uses the author-date method of citation. The
    last name of the author and the date of
    publication are inserted in the text in the
    appropriate place.
  • If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words
    incorporate it into text and enclose the
    quotation with double quotation marks. If the
    quotation appears in mid-sentence, end the
    passage with quotation marks, cite the source in
    parentheses immediately after the quotation marks
    and continue the sentence. Use no other
    punctuation unless the meaning of the sentence
    require such punctuation.
  • Example Interpreting these results, Robbins et
    al. (2003) suggested that the therapists dropout
    cases may have inadvertently validated parental
    negativity about the adolescent  without
    adequately responding to the adolescents needs
    or concerns (p. 541), contributing to an overall
    Climate of negativity.

8
Citations within Quotations
  • If the quotation appears at the end of a
    sentence close the quoted passage with the
    quotation mark, Cite the source in parentheses
    immediately after the quotation mark and end with
    a period or other punctuation outside the final
    parenthesis.
  • Example Confusing this issue is the overlapping
    nature of roles in palliative care whereby
    medical needs are met by those in the medical
    disciplines non-medical needs may be addressed
    by anyone on the team (Csikai Chaitin, 2006,
    p. 112).

9
Citations within Quotations
  • If the quotation comprises 40 or more words
    display it in a freestanding block of text and do
    not use quotation marks. Start such a block
    quotation in a new line and indent the block
    about a half inch from the left margin (in the
    same position as a new paragraph.
  • Example
  • Co-presence does not ensure .intimate interaction
    among all group members, Consider large-scale
    .social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands
    of people gather in a location to perform a
    ritual or celebrate an event.
  • In these Instances, participants are able
    to see the visible manifestation of the group,
    the physical gathering, yet their ability to make
    direct intimate connections with those around
    them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the
    assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)

10
Citations within Quotations
  • One work by one author
  • In one developmental study (Smith, 1990),
    children learned (P.19) OR
  • In the study by Smith (1990), primary school
    children (P.19) OR
  • In 1990, Smiths study of primary school
    children (P.19)
  • Children learned from your parents how to deal
    with social problems..(Smith R,1990, P.19),

11
Citations within Quotations
  • Works by multiple authors
  • When a work has, two authors cite both names
    every time you reference the work in the text.
    When a work has three to five authors cite all
    the author names the first time the reference
    occurs and then subsequently include only the
    first author followed by et al. For example
  • First citation Masserton, Slonowski, and
    Slowinski (1989) state that
  • Subsequent citations Masserton et al. (1989)
    state that
  • For six or more authors, cite only the name of
    the first author followed by et al. and the year.

12
Citations within Quotations
  • Works by no identified author
  • When a resource has no named author, cite the
    first few words of the reference entry (usually
    the title). Use double quotation marks around the
    title of an article, chapter, or Web page.
    Italicize the title of a periodical, book,
    brochure, or report. For example
  • The site seemed to indicate support for
    homeopathic drugs (Medical Miracles, 2009). The
    brochure argues for homeschooling (Education
    Reform, 2007).
  • Treat reference to legal materials such as court
    cases, statutes, and legislation like works with
    no author.

13
 Citation IN A References List (Books)
  • One author
  •  Maguire, L (2008). Clinical Social Work,
    (2nd Ed) Canada Brooks/ Cole.
  • Mattaini, M (1997). Clinical Practice with
    Individual, Washington, DC, NASW Press.
  • Two authors
  •  Strunk, W., Jr., White, E. B. (1979). The
    guide to everything and then some more stuff. New
    York, NY Macmillan.
  • Gregory, G., Parry, T. (2006). Designing
    brain-compatible learning (3rd Ed.). Thousand
    Oaks, CA Corwin.
  •  

14
Citation IN A References List (Books)
  • Three Authors
  • Schermerhorn, J., Hunt, G., Osborn, R (2010).
    Basic Organizational Behavior, (2nd Ed) New York,
    John Wiley Sons. INC
  • More than three authors
  • Schermerhorn, J., et al (2010). Basic
    Organizational Behavior, (2ndEd) New York, John
    Wiley Sons. Inc.
  •  Chapter of a Book (Eds.)
  • Bergquist, J. M. (1992). German Americans. In J.
    D. Buenker L. A. Ratner (Eds.),
    Multiculturalism in the United States A
    comparative guide to acculturation and ethnicity
    (pp. 53-76). New York, NY Greenwood.

15
Citation IN A References List (Journal Article)
  • Journal Article (printed)
  • Becker, L. J., Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to
    the energycrisis. Journal of Social Issues,
    37(2), 1-7.
  • Journal Article (internet)
  • Journal Article with DOI
  •  Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons
    through the minds eye. Memory Cognition, 3,
    635-647. doi10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
  • Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not
    available)
  •  Hamfi, A. G. (1981). The funny nature of dogs.
    E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38 -48.
    Retrieved from http//ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.ph
    p/fdo

16
Citation IN A References List (Others)
  • Online Newspaper Articles
  • Becker, E. (2001, August 27). Prairie farmers
    reap conservations rewards. The New York Times.
    Retrieved from http//www.nytimes.com
  • Encyclopedia Articles
  • Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology.
    In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
    psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 319-327). New York
    Wiley.
  • Developmental genetics. (2005). In Cambridge
    encyclopedia of child development. Retrieved from
    http//www.credoreference.com.library.muhlenberg.e
    du80/entry/cupchilddev/developmental_genetics
  •  Technical and Research Reports (often with
    corporate authors)
  • Hershey Foods Corporation. (2001, March 15). 2001
    Annual Report. Retrieved from http//www.hersheysa
    nnualreport.com/2000/index.htm

17
Types of Articles
  • As the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of
    the American Psychological Association (APA)
    (P.P. 10-11), The Type of article that you can
    publish in Egyptian Journal of Social Work are
  • 1- Empirical Studies
  • 2-Literature Reviews
  • 3- Theoretical Articles
  • 4-Methodological Articles

18
Types of Articles
  • Empirical Studies Are reports of original
    research include secondary analyses that test
    hypotheses by presenting novel analyses of data
    not considered or addressed in previous reports.
    They typically consist of distinct sections that
    reflect the stages in the research process.
  • Theoretical Articles Authors draw on existing
    research literature to advance theory. Literature
    reviews and theoretical articles are often
    similar in structure, but theoretical articles
    present empirical information only when it
    advances a theoretical issue. Authors of
    theoretical articles trace the development of
    theory to expand and refine theoretical
    constructs or present a new theory or analyze
    existing theory, pointing out flaws or
    demonstrating the advantage of one theory over
    another. In this type of article, authors
    customarily examine a theory's internal
    consistency and external validity.

19
Types of Articles
  • Methodological Articles Present new
    methodological approaches, modifications of
    existing methods, or discussions of quantitative
    and data analytic approaches to the community of
    researchers. These articles focus on
    methodological or data analytic approaches and
    introduce empirical data only as illustrations of
    the approach. Methodological articles are
    presented at a level that makes them accessible
    to the well-read researcher and provide
    sufficient detail for researchers to assess the
    applicability of the methodology to their
    research problem.
  • Literature Reviews Including research syntheses
    and meta-analyses, are critical evaluations of
    material that has already been published. In
    meta-analyses, authors use quantitative
    procedures to statistically combine the results
    of studies. By organizing, integrating, and
    evaluating previously published material, authors
    of literature reviews consider the progress of
    research toward clarifying a problem. In a sense,
    literature reviews are tutorials, in those
    authors
  • define and clarify the problem
  • summarize previous investigations to inform the
    reader of the state of research
  • identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and
    inconsistencies in the literature and
  • suggest the next step or steps in solving the
    problem

20
Articles sequences (Steps) Introduction
  • The importance of the problem
  • Theoretical or practical implications
  • Review of relevant scholarship
  • Relation to previous work
  • If other aspects of this study have been reported
    on previously, how the current report differs
    from these earlier reports
  • Specific hypotheses and objectives
  • Theories or other means used to derive hypotheses
  • Primary and secondary hypotheses, other planned
    analyses
  • How hypotheses and research design relate to one
    another

21
Second session
  • Method
  • Methods subsection
  • Sample characteristic
  • Sample procedures
  • Result
  • Discussion (Conclusion)

22
Method (Sample)
  • Participant characteristics
  • Eligibility and exclusion criteria, including any
    restrictions based on demographic characteristics
  • Major demographic characteristics as well as
    important topic-specific characteristics (e.g.,
    achievement level in studies of educational
    interventions)
  • Sampling procedures
  • Procedures for selecting participants, including
  • The sampling method if a systematic sampling plan
    was implemented
  • Percentage of sample approached that participated
  • Self-selection (either by individuals or units,
    such as schools or clinics)
  • Settings and locations where data were collected
  • Agreements and payments made to participants
  • Institutional review board agreements, ethical
    standards met, safety monitoring

23
Method (Measures and tools)
  • Definitions of all primary and secondary measures
    and tools
  • Include measures collected but not included in
    this report
  • Methods used to collect data
  • Methods used to enhance the quality of
    measurements or other tools
  • Training and reliability of data collectors
  • Use of multiple observations. .. .
  • Information on validated or ad hoc instruments
    created for individual studies, for example,
  • Psychometric and biometric properties.

24
Method (Research design)
  • Whether conditions were manipulated or naturally
    observed
  • Type of research design Randomized experiments
  • Quasi-experiments.
  • Other designs would have different reporting
    needs associated with them 

25
Results
  • Participant flow
  • Total number of participants
  • Flow of participants through each stage of the
    study (Exp. Quasi Exp.)
  • Recruitment Statistics and data analysis
  • Dates defining the periods of recruitment and
    repeated measurements or follow up.
  • Information concerning problems with statistical
    assumptions and/or data distributions that could
    affect the validity of findings
  • Missing data
  • Frequency or percentages of missing data. .
  • Empirical evidence and/or theoretical arguments
    for the causes of data that are missing for
    example, missing completely at random (MCAR),
    missing at random (MAR), or missing not at random
    (MNARJ
  • Methods for addressing missing data, if used

26
discussion (conclusion)
  • Statement of support or nonsupport for all
    original hypotheses
  • Distinguished by primary and secondary hypotheses
  • Post hoc explanations
  • Similarities and differences between results and
    work of others
  • Interpretation of the results, taking into
    account
  • Sources of potential bios and other threats to
    Internal validity
  • Imprecision of measures
  • The overall number of tests or overlap among
    tests, and
  • Other limitations or weaknesses of the study
  • Generalizability (external validity) of the
    findings, taking into account
  • The target population
  • Other contextual issues
  • Discussion of implications for future research,
    program, or policy

27
  • Goodbye and good luck
  • Hesham S. Abdul Maguid
  • Editor in chief
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