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Introduction%20to%20Anatomy%20

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Title: Chapter 2: body structure Author: Richland School District Two Last modified by: Christy Miller Created Date: 8/31/2009 2:13:33 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Anatomy%20


1
Introduction to Anatomy Physiology Body
Organization
  • C. Miller
  • John Milledge Academy
  • Human A P

2
I. Introduction
  • Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts
    and their relationship to each otherWHAT is
    it?
  • Physiology the study of the function of body
    parts (often focuses on cellular and molecular
    events)HOW does it work?
  • The Principle of Complementarity states
  • Function is dependent on structure
  • Form is related to function

3
II. Structural Organization
http//academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_Mc
Kinley/chapte1.jpg
4
Ii. structural Organization
  • Cells
  • Basic unit of life
  • Perform vital body functions through
    reproduction, respiration, metabolism, and
    excretion
  • May be specialized (i.e. muscle cells for
    contraction nerve cells conduct electrical
    impulses)

5
Ii. structural Organization
  • Tissues groups of cells working together for one
    purpose (Ex neurons form nerve fibers)
  • Histology study of tissues
  • Types
  • Muscular produces movement
  • (1) Voluntary skeletal muscle
  • (2) Involuntary cardiac and smooth (digestive
    organs)

http//mmm.moody.edu/genmoody/Media/MediaStore/Mus
cular20System.gif
6
II. Structural Organization
  • Tissues
  • Types
  • Epithelial lines organs
  • (1) Includes skin and mucous membranes
  • c. Connective supports and protects body
    structures
  • (1) Includes adipose (fat) tissue, bone, blood,
    and cartilage

http//asweknowit.net/images_edu/dwa20520connect
ive20tissue.gif
7
II. structural Organization
  • Tissues
  • Types
  • Nervous conducts electrical impulses to and from
    the brain and body

http//www.morphonix.com/software/education/scienc
e/brain/game/specimens/images/neuron_parts.gif
8
II. structural Organization
  1. Organs groups of tissues working together for a
    common function (Ex cardiac muscle tissue forms
    the heart)
  2. Organ Systems groups of organs working together
    for a common function (Ex heart and blood
    vessels work together to form the cardiovascular
    system)
  3. Organisms

9
III. Body Systems Integumentary
  • Function Protection Body temperature regulation
  • Primary organs skin, hair, nails
  • Specialty dermatology

http//www.liposuction4you.com/images/anatomy-of-t
he-skin.jpg
10
III. BODY SYSTEMS Skeletal
  • Function Framework for support
  • Primary organs bones, connective tissues that
    make up joints
  • Specialty Orthopedics

http//www.merriam-webster.com/art/med/skeleton.gi
f
11
III. BODY SYSTEMS Muscular
  • Function movement
  • Primary organs muscles
  • Specialty orthopedics

http//www.medical-look.com/systems_images/Muscula
r_System.jpg
12
III. BODY SYSTEMS Cardiovascular
  • Function transport of oxygen and nutrients to
    body cells via blood
  • Primary organs heart and blood vessels
  • Specialty cardiology, hematology, internal
    medicine

http//www.thewellingtoncardiacservices.com/images
/TheHeart/200177291-001_4.jpg
13
III. BODY SYSTEMS Respiratory
  • Function exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • Primary organs lungs, bronchi, trachea, larynx,
    pharynx, nose
  • Specialty pulmonology, otorhinolaryngology,
    internal medicine

http//visual.merriam-webster.com/images/human-bei
ng/anatomy/respiratory-system/respiratory-system.j
pg
14
III. BODY SYSTEMS Nervous/senses
  • Function transmit electrical impulses to and
    from the brain and body
  • Primary organs Brain, spinal cord, nerves
    (sensory eyes, ears)
  • Specialty Neurologist, Neurosurgery,
    Ophthalmology

15
III. BODY SYSTEMS digestive
  • Function converts food into nutrients for energy
  • Primary organs mouth, pharynx, esophagus,
    stomach, SI, LI (Accessory liver, pancreas, gall
    bladder)
  • Specialty Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine,
    Proctology

http//www.pediatricfeeding.org/images/gi_anatomy/
A_digestive_system.png
16
III. BODY SYSTEMS urinary
  • Function filters and excretes wastes from the
    blood
  • Primary organs kidneys, ureters, urinary
    bladder, urethra
  • Specialty Nephrology, Urology

http//www.comprehensive-kidney-facts.com/images/U
rinarySystem.jpg
17
III. BODY SYSTEMS endocrine
  • Function glands secrete enzymes that help
    regulate metabolic processes
  • Primary organs pancreas, thyroid, pituitary,
    adrenal, parathyroid, thymus, pineal
  • Specialty Endocrinology

http//www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine/Physiol
ogy/Endocrine/endocrine_system.jpg
18
III. BODY SYSTEMS reproductive
  • Function Reproduction
  • Specialty Gynecology/ Obstetrics Urology
  • Primary organs
  • Female vagina, ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes,
    mammary glands
  • Male testes, prostate, urethra vas deferens

19
III. BODY SYSTEMS lymphatic
  • Function Immunity
  • Primary organs spleen, lymph, thymus gland
  • Specialty Immunology

http//www.naturalhealthschool.com/img/immune.gif
20
IV. Maintaining LIFE A. Necessary Life functions
  • Boundaries allow organisms to maintain distinct
    internal and external environments or separate
    internal environments.
  • Cellular membrane
  • Skin
  • Movement allows the organism to travel through an
    environment and allows transport of molecules
    within the organism.
  • Musculoskeletal movement
  • Peristalsis

http//www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/
pastrans.gif
21
IV. Maintaining LIFE A. Necessary Life functions
  • Responsiveness (irritability) ability to detect
    changes in the environment and respond
  • Reflexes
  • Digestion process of breaking down food into
    usable nutrients
  • Metabolism all chemical reactions occurring in
    the body
  • Excretion process of removing wastes
  • Reproduction process of producing more cells or
    organisms
  • Growth increase in size in body parts or organism

22
IV. Maintaining LIFE b. Survival needs
  • Nutrients consumed chemical substances used for
    energy and cell building
  • EX Carbs, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals
  • Oxygen required by chemical reactions that
    release energy from food
  • 20 of air is O2
  • Water provides an environment for chemical
    reactions and a fluid medium for
    secretions/excretions
  • Most abundant chemical substance in the body at
    60-80

http//www.the-perfectshape.com/wp-content/uploads
/2007/01/Nutrients-table.jpg
http//faithsforsafewater.org/yahoo_site_admin/ass
ets/images/water_drop.65140537_std.jpg
23
IV. Maintaining LIFE B. Survival Needs
  • Normal Body Temperature required for chemical
    reactions in the body to occur at the appropriate
    rate
  • 98.6F/37 C
  • Atmospheric Pressure must be within appropriate
    range for proper gas exchange in the lungs

http//altered-states.net/barry/update274/temp.png
24
IV. Maintaining LIFE C. Homeostasis the ability
of the body to maintain a relatively constant
internal environment, regardless of environmental
changes
  • Nervous and Endocrine systems play a large role.
  • Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
  • Components
  • Variable the regulated factor or event
  • Receptor structure monitoring changes (stimuli)
    in the environment and sends info to the control
    center.
  • Control Center structure determining the set
    point for a variable, analyzes, input, and
    coordinates an appropriate response
  • Effector structure carrying out the response
    directed by the control center

25
IV. Maintaining LIFE C. Homeostasis 2.
Homeostatic Controls B. TYPES
  • Negative Feedback Mechanism
  • (most common)
  • Goal prevent sudden, severe changes in a system
  • Causes the variable to change in a way that is
    opposite the initial change
  • EX body temperature, blood pressure, respiratory
    rate

http//www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Homeosta
sis/Feedback_Loop.htm
26
IV. Maintaining LIFE C. Homeostasis 2.
Homeostatic Controls B. TYPES
  • Positive Feedback Mechanism
  • Causes the variable to change in the same way
    as the original change
  • Results in a greater deviation from the set
    pointcascade event is self-perpetuating
  • Typically are NOT related to homeostatic
    maintenance
  • EX labor pains (oxytocin) and blood clotting
    (clotting factors)
  • Homeostatic imbalance often results in disease
    and becomes more common with aging due to
    decrease in efficiency and stability.

http//renz.fosterscience.com/ap/Chapt1/Chapter1T
heHumanBodyAnOrientation_files/slide0050_image017.
jpg
27
V. Anatomical Terminology
  • Anatomical Position
  • Standing erect, facing forward, arms at sides,
    palms forward

http//www.emergencymedicaled.com/images/Anatomica
l20Position.gif
28
B. Body regions - Anterior
Acromial
Pollex
http//academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mc
kinley/chapter1.htm
Hallux
29
B. Body regions - Posterior
DORSAL
Cubital
Manual
http//academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mc
kinley/chapter1.htm
Plantar
30
C. Body Planes
  • Sagittal divides body into R and L
  • midsagittal divides into equal R and L
  • Frontal (coronal) divides into front and back
    (anterior and posterior)
  • Transverse (horizontal) divides into top and
    bottom (superior and inferior) cuts parallel to
    ground
  • Always referred to using anatomical position.

http//www.yachigusaryu.com/blog/pics/top_ten_prin
ciples/10/image003.jpg
31
D. Directional/ positional terms
  • Location
  • Toward the head above
  • Toward the feet or tail below
  • Near or on the front side of the body
  • Near or on the back or spinal cord side of the
    body
  • Position
  • Superior/ Cephalic
  • Inferior/ Caudal
  • Anterior/ Ventral
  • Posterior/ Dorsal

http//media.photobucket.com/image/anatomical20po
sition/nursingassistant/anatom1.jpg
32
D. Directional/ positional terms
  • Location
  • Middle or near the midline
  • To the side
  • Closer to the point of attachment on the body
  • Farthest from the point of attachment to the body
  • Position
  • Medial
  • Lateral
  • Proximal
  • Distal

http//media.photobucket.com/image/anatomical20po
sition/nursingassistant/anatom1.jpg
33
D. Directional/ positional terms
  • Location
  • Toward the surface of the body
  • Away from the surface of the body
  • Body position lying horizontally and face down
  • Body position lying horizontally and face up
  • Position
  • Superficial
  • Deep
  • Prone
  • Supine

http//www.medtrng.com/supineprone.gif
34
E. Body Cavities
http//www.themesotheliomalibrary.com/visceral-ple
ura.jpg
  1. The diaphragm, a muscle used during respiration,
    separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic
    cavities
  2. Internal organs are referred to as viscera, and
    are lined with a visceral membrane.
  3. Cavities are lined with an outer parietal
    membrane.
  4. Membranes in the thoracic cavity are called
    pleural membranes membranes in the
    abdominopelvic cavity are called peritoneal
    membranes.

35
E. Body Cavities
Cavity Major Organs
Dorsal
Cranial Brain, pituitary gland
Spinal Spinal cord
Ventral
Thoracic Lungs Mediastinum heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, aorta
Pericardial Heart ONLY
Pleural Lungs ONLY
Abdominopelvic
Abdominal Stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, some SI and colon
Pelvic Urinary bladder, ureters, urethra, some SI and colon Reproductive organs
36
E. Body Cavities
37
E. Body Cavities Anatomical Divisions
38
e. Body Cavities Clinical Divisions
Liver Spleen L Kidney Stomach Colon Pancreas
Liver R Kidney Colon Pancreas Gallbladder
Colon SI Femoral Art/Vein Ureter Appendix
Colon SI Femoral Art/Vein Ureter
39
F. The Spine
40
Superior and Inferior
SUPERIOR
  • Superior toward the head
  • The head (cephalic) is superior to the neck
    (cervical).
  • Inferior toward the feet
  • The mouth (oral) is inferior to the nose (nasal).

INFERIOR
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