Chemical Basis of Life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chemical Basis of Life PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7cb558-YTk0Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chemical Basis of Life

Description:

Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life ... Times New Roman MS P Arial Wingdings Tahoma Dad`s Tie 1_Dad`s Tie 2_Dad`s Tie Chapter 2 I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:63
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: KimR160
Category:
Tags: basis | chapter | chemical | life

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chemical Basis of Life


1
Chapter 2
  • Chemical Basis of Life

2
I. Elements Matter
  • Matter
  • - Matter refers to anything that has mass and
    takes up space.
  • - Atoms are the smallest particles of matter.

3
Elements and Atoms
  • B. Elements
  • 1. All matter is composed of elements
  • 2. Elements are the basic substances that make
    up matter
  • 3. Atoms are the smallest particles of matter
  • 4. Living Organisms require about twenty
    elements
  • 95 of human body is made of oxygen, carbon,
    hydrogen, and nitrogen

4
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Make up
the bulk of living matter
0
Table 2.1
5
  • 5. Trace elements are common additives to food
    and water
  • Dietary deficiencies in trace elements can cause
    various physiological conditions

0
Figure 2.2B
Figure 2.2A
6
C. Atomic Structure
  • 1. Protons ()
  • 2. Neutrons (neutral)
  • 3. Electrons (-)

7
  • 4. Electron arrangement determines the chemical
    properties of an atom
  • 5. Are arranged in shells, which may contain
    different numbers of electrons
  • 1st- 2 electrons 2nd- 8 electrons
  • 3rd- 18 electrons 4th- 32 electrons

0
8
Drawing Bohr Models of Atoms
9
D. Periodic Table of Elements
10
Periodic Table of Elements
11
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons?
  • Step 1
  • Use your periodic table to find and element.
  • Step 2
  • The number of protons ( charge)
  • The atomic number 36
  • Kr has 36 protons

12
  • Step 3
  • The number of electrons (- charge)
  • Remember atoms have no overall charge
  • Atoms must have an equal number of protons and
    electrons
  • Number of protons number of electrons
  • Kr has 36 electrons

13
  • Step 4
  • The number of neutrons (neutral/no charge)
  • Mass number (atomic weight rounded to the nearest
    whole number)
  • Neutrons mass number protons
  • Kr neutrons 84 36 48

14
  • Summary
  • Number of protons atomic number
  • Number of electrons protons
  • Number of neutrons
  • mass number protons

15
  • Problems
  • Find the protons (p), electrons (e-), and
    neutrons (n) of Oxygen.

16
  • Problems
  • Find the p, e-, n of Xenon (Xe).

17
  • Problems
  • Find the p, e-, and n of Zirconium (Zr).

18
E. Atom Rules
  • of Protons Atomic number
  • of Protons of Electrons
  • Mass Protons Neutrons

Symbol Atomic Mass p n e-
U 92 192
Na 11 23
Mg 24
Cu 65
19
F. Isotopes
  • 1. Isotopes have a different number of neutrons
    but the same number of protons
  • 2. Radio active isotopes are used to detect
    problems with the thyroid, treat cancer, and
    detect problem with digestion

20
  • Isotopes

0
Table 2.4
21
G. Molecules and Compounds
  • 1. Molecule when two or more atoms combine
    (usually for nonmetals)
  • 2. Compound when two or more atoms of different
    elements combine
  • Two types
  • Ionic
  • Covalent

22
  • 3. Elements can combine to form compounds

0
23
II. Bonding
  • A. Atoms whose shells are not full, tend to
    interact with other atoms and gain, lose, or
    share electrons. These interactions form chemical
    bonds

24
B. Types of Bonding
  • 1. Ionic
  • A metal and non metal
  • Form ions
  • Na
  • O2-
  • Transfer of electrons
  • Ionic compounds
  • Ions are important muscle contraction, nerve
    impulse transmission, etc.

25
  • Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of
    opposite charge

0
Figure 2.7A
26
  • 2. Covalent
  • 2 or more non metals
  • Sharing of electrons forms a bond.
  • Single double or triple
  • Molecules formed when two or more atoms combine

27
0
28
  • C. Unequal electron sharing creates polar
    molecules
  • A molecule is nonpolar
  • When its covalently bonded atoms share electrons
    equally

0
29
  • In a polar covalent bond
  • Electrons are shared unequally between atoms,
    creating a polar molecule

0
30
  • C. Hydrogen Bond
  • Occurs when an atom of hydrogen has a strong
    attraction to two atoms instead of one
  • The atoms must be highly electronegative
    (electron loving) like Oxygen, Flourine,
    Nitrogen, Chlorine and Bromine
About PowerShow.com