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Western%20Europe%20in%20the%20Middle%20Ages

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Western Europe in the Middle Ages 600 to 1450 The Franks Franks were a Germanic tribe united after fall of Western Roman Empire Roman Catholic capital in Paris 732 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Western%20Europe%20in%20the%20Middle%20Ages


1
Western Europe in the Middle Ages
  • 600 to 1450

2
The Franks
  • Franks were a Germanic tribe united after fall of
    Western Roman Empire
  • Roman Catholic
  • capital in Paris
  • 732 Charles Martel defeated Muslims at Battle of
    Tours
  • Martel founded Carolingian Dynasty

3
The Franks
  • Charles I the Great
  • crowned Holy Roman Emperor by pope
  • Charlemagne
  • Holy Roman Empire
  • Otto the Great
  • Confederation of Germanic feudal states

4
Normans
  • Settled in Newfoundland, Russia, Sicily, and
    northern France (Normandy)
  • Fought with Byzantine Empire for control of
    southern Italy
  • 1066 William the Conqueror invaded Anglo-Saxon
    England

5
Norman Migrations and Invasions
6
Feudalism
  • Feudalism
  • Kings granted fiefs to vassals for military
    service
  • Swore oaths of fealty
  • Peasants worked land in exchange for protection

7
Feudalism
  • Chivalry honor-based system
  • Patriarchal male-dominated
  • Primogeniture oldest male son inherits land
  • Women and peasants had few rights

8
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9
Rise of the Middle Class
  • Towns
  • Independent of feudal estates
  • Middle class merchants burghers
  • Allied with other cities and towns for protection
  • Hanseatic League controlled trade throughout
    Northern Europe

10
Hanseatic League
11
Art and architecture
  • Romanesque? Gothic (flying buttresses, vaulted
    ceilings)
  • Gregorian chants

12
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13
Religion
  • Scholasticism use of reason to understand
    religion
  • St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
  • Summa Theologica
  • faith and reason are not incompatible, both are
    gifts from God
  • Heresy
  • religious practices or beliefs that do not
    conform to Church

14
The Crusades
  • First Crusade (1099 CE)
  • Letter from Byzantine Emperor Alexius I to Pope
    Urban II asking for help
  • Crusaders captured Nicaea, Antioch, Edessa, and
    Jerusalem
  • Second Crusade (1144 CE)
  • Crusaders defeated by Turks in Asia Minor
  • Survivors travel on to Holy Land
  • Ruined relations with the Byzantine Empire

15
Muslim Jihad
  • Re-Conquest
  • Saladin overthrows Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt and
    establishes Ayubbid Dynasty
  • Defeats Crusader army at Battle of Hattin in 1187
    CE
  • Recaptures city of Jerusalem in 1189 CE

16
The Crusades
  • Third Crusade (1189-97 CE)
  • English King Richard I the Lionheart defeats
    Saladin but cannot recapture Jerusalem
  • Treaty guaranteeing safety of pilgrims
  • Fourth Crusade (1204 CE)
  • Crusaders cannot afford to pay Venetians for
    their fleet
  • Campaign is diverted to Constantinople
  • Byzantine Empire is overthrown by Crusaders
  • Sixth Crusade (1213-21 CE)
  • Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen
    recaptures Jerusalem through diplomacy

17
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18
Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
  • Originated in China, where it killed est. 35
    million people
  • Spread via Mongol-controlled Silk Roads ? Italy
  • Crowded cities, poor sanitation, and limited
    medical knowledge
  • 1/3 of Europes population was dead in 30 years
  • People lost faith in the power of the Church

19
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20
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21
Emergence of Nation-States
22
Introduction
  • In Middle Ages, Europe was not organized in
    nation-states rather feudal kingdoms
  • By end of Middle Ages, western Europe starts to
    organize along cultural and linguistic lines
  • Germany and Italy became decentralized in a group
    of small independent townships and kingdoms

23
England
  • 1215 English nobles force King John to sign the
    Magna Carta
  • reinstated feudal rights of nobles
  • extended rule of law to other peoples
  • foundation for Parliament
  • House of Lords (nobles and Clergy)legal issues,
    advised king
  • House of Commons (knights and wealthy
    landowners)trade and taxation

24
France
  • England occupation of French-speaking lands led
    to revolts and statehood
  • Joan of Arc led French army to victory against
    British at Orleans
  • Hundred Years War (1337-1453) between England and
    France? England retreats
  • France unified under Bourbon Dynasty of monarchs

25
Spain
  • Spain was divided between three kingdoms and two
    religions (Christian and Muslim)
  • Isabella married Ferdinand of Aragon
  • Non-Christians (Jews and Muslims) forced to
    convert or leave start of Spanish Inquisition
  • New unity and energy led to imperial quest to
    spread Spanish language and religion to new lands
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