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The Case For the Deity of Christ: Part IV

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Title: The Case For the Deity of Christ: Part IV


1
The Case For the Deity of Christ Part IV
  • The Gospel of John, Revelation, and Ignatius of
    Antioch

2
Outline
  • The Gospel of John
  • Revelation
  • Ignatius of Antiochs Epistles
  • Summary

3
The Gospel of John(95-100 C.E.)
4
John 11-3
  • "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was
    with God, and the Word was God. 2He was in the
    beginning with God  

5
John 11-3
  • 3All things came into being through him, and
    without him not one thing came into being.

6
John 114
  • And the Word became flesh and lived among us,
    and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a
    fathers only son, full of grace and truth.

7
John 852-58
  • The Jews said to him, Now we know that you have
    a demon. Abraham died, and so did the prophets
    yet you say, Whoever keeps my word will never
    taste death. 53Are you greater than our father
    Abraham, who died? The prophets also died. Who do
    you claim to be?

8
John 852-58
  •  54Jesus answered, If I glorify myself, my glory
    is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, he
    of whom you say, He is our God, 55though you do
    not know him. But I know him if I were to say
    that I do not know him, I would be a liar like
    you

9
John 855-58
  • But I do know him and I keep his word. 56Your
    ancestor Abraham rejoiced that he would see my
    day he saw it and was glad. 57Then the Jews
    said to him, You are not yet fifty years old,
    and have you seen Abraham? 

10
John 852-58
  • 58Jesus said to them, Very truly, I tell you,
    before Abraham was, I am (ego eimi). 59So they
    picked up stones to throw at him, but Jesus hid
    himself and went out of the temple.

11
A New Testament Scholar Writes
  • It appears that Jesus is not simply claiming to
    be very old here (Abraham lived some 1,800 years
    earlier) by calling himself I am he may
    actually be taking the name of God

12
The New Testament Scholar Continues
  • In the Jewish Scriptures when Moses is sent by
    God to assist the Israelites, he asks God his
    name. God replies I am who I amThus you shall
    say to the Israelites, I am has sent me to you
    (Exod 314)

13
The New Testament Scholar Continues
  • If Gods name as revealed to Moses was I am,
    and Jesus in John calls himself I am, is he
    claiming to be God? His hearers appear to
    understand it in this way. They immediately pick
    up stones to execute him for blasphemy.

14
This New Testament Scholar Is
  • Bart Ehrman, The New Testament A Historical
    Introduction to the Early Christian Writings.
    Fourth Edition (New York, Oxford Oxford
    University Press, 2008), 170.

15
John 1030-33
  • 30The Father and I are one.31 The Jews took up
    stones again to stone him. 32Jesus replied, I
    have shown you many good works from the Father.
    For which of these are you going to stone me? 

16
John 1030-33
  • 33The Jews answered, It is not for a good work
    that we are going to stone you, but for
    blasphemy, because you, though only a human
    being, are making yourself God. 

17
John 1239-41
  • And so they could not believe, because Isaiah
    also said, 40 He has blinded their eyes   and
    hardened their heart,

18
John 1239-41
  • so that they might not look with their eyes,
    and understand with their heart and turnand I
    would heal them. 41Isaiah said this when he saw
    his glory and spoke about him.

19
Larry Hurtado Writes
  • Then we are told in 1241 that Isaiah saw his
    glory and spoke about him. In the immediate
    context, the antecedent of his and him has to
    be Jesus

20
Larry Hurtado Continues
  • For example, in 1237 there is the complaint
    about this unbelief in spite of Jesus many
    signsThus 1241 seems to claim baldly that Jesus
    was the glorious figure seen in the prophetic
    vision described in Isaiah 61-5!Larry Hurtado,
    Lord Jesus Christ, 374-375.

21
Who Does Isaiah See in Isaiah 61?
22
Isaiah 61
  • In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw YHWH
    sitting on a throne, high and lofty and the hem
    of his robe filled the temple.

23
Jesus is YHWH
  • John 1241 says that Isaiah saw Jesuss glory
    and he spoke about him.
  • Isaiah 61 says that Isaiah saw YHWH.
  • Therefore, John is teaching that Jesus is YHWH.

24
John 2028-29
  • 28Thomas answered him, My Lord and my
    God! 29Jesus said to him, Have you believed
    because you have seen me? Blessed are those who
    have not seen and yet have come to believe.

25
John 2028
26
The God
  • John uses the definite article (ho) with the word
    God (theos).
  • This deflates the objection that Jehovahs
    Witnesses frequently raise to the notion that
    Jesus is equated with God in John 11.
  • Unlike the case in John 11, John applies the
    definite article to theos in reference to Jesus
    in John 2028.

27
Significance of John 2028-29
  • Does Jesuss response imply that Jesus was upset
    with Thomass exclamation?
  • Jesus interprets Thomass comment as an
    expression of Thomass belief in Jesus.

28
Larry Hurtado Writes
  • It is, however, the final clause of John 11,
    already noted above as an unparalleled
    expression, that has probably provoked the most
    intense puzzlement and the Word was God kai
    theos en ho logos.

29
Hurtado Continues
  • As Brown noted, in the literary structure of
    GJohn, this phrase is almost certainly meant to
    anticipate and correspond to Thomass acclamation
    in 2028, My Lord and my God ho theos
    mou.Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ, 369.

30
John 2117
  • He said to him the third time, Simon son of
    John, do you love me? Peter felt hurt because he
    said to him the third time, Do you love me? And
    he said to him, Lord, you know all things you
    know that I love you. Jesus said to him, Feed
    my sheep.

31
Jesuss Omniscience
  • This verse makes it clear that Jesus knows all
    things in His divine nature.
  • Remember, though, that Jesus was also fully
    human.
  • This means that on some occasions Jesus also
    spoke from his human natures perspective.
  • This is why the Gospels sometimes depict Jesus as
    not knowing certain information.

32
Revelation(95-100 C.E.)
33
Revelation 49-11
  • And whenever the living creatures give glory and
    honor and thanks to the one who is seated on the
    throne, who lives for ever and ever, 10the
    twenty-four elders fall before the one who is
    seated on the throne

34
Revelation 49-11
  • and worship the one who lives for ever and ever
    they cast their crowns before the throne,
    singing, 11 You are worthy, our Lord
    and God,   to receive glory and honor
    and power,

35
Revelation 49-11
  • for you created all things,   and by your will
    they existed and were created.

36
Revelation 56
  • Then I saw between the throne and the four
    living creatures and among the elders a Lamb
    standing as if it had been slaughtered, having
    seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven
    spirits of God sent out into all the earth.

37
Revelation 58
  • When he had taken the scroll, the four living
    creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before
    the Lamb, each holding a harp and golden bowls
    full of incense, which are the prayers of the
    saints.

38
Revelation 513-14
  • Then I heard every creature in heaven and on
    earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all
    that is in them, singing,To the one seated on
    the throne and to the Lamb

39
Revelation 513-14
  • be blessing and honour and glory and mightfor
    ever and ever! 14And the four living creatures
    said, Amen! And the elders fell down and
    worshipped.

40
Revelation 228
  • I, John, am the one who heard and saw these
    things. And when I heard and saw them, I fell
    down to worship at the feet of the angel who
    showed them to me

41
Revelation 228
  • 9but he said to me, You must not do that! I am a
    fellow-slave with you and your brothers the
    prophets, and with those who keep the words of
    this book. Worship God!

42
Ignatius of Antioch(107-118 C.E.)
43
Ignatius of Antioch
  • Ignatius was an early second-century church
    leader.
  • He served as a bishop of Antioch in Syria.
  • He wrote many letters during his journey to his
    place of execution.
  • He was killed for his Christian beliefs sometime
    between 98 and 117 C.E.

44
Ephesians Greeting
  • Ignatius, who is also called God-bearer, to the
    church that is blessed with greatness by the
    fullness of God the Father, a church foreordained
    from eternity past to obtain a constant glory

45
Ephesians Greeting
  • which is enduring and unchanging, a church that
    has been unified and chosen in true suffering by
    the will of the Father and

46
Ephesians Greeting
  • of Jesus Christ, our God.The Apostolic
    Fathers Vol. 1 1 Clement, 2 Clement, Ignatius,
    Polycarp, Didache, ed. Bart D. Ehrman, trans.
    Bart D. Ehrman (Cambridge, Massachusetts Harvard
    University Press, 2003), 219.

47
Ephesians Greeting
48
(No Transcript)
49
Ephesians 1.1
  • Now that I have received God your greatly loved
    name, which you have obtained because of your
    upright nature, according to the faith and love
    that is in Christ Jesus our Saviorfor

50
Ephesians 1.1
  • you are imitators of God and have rekindled,
    through the blood of God, the work we share as
    members of the same family, and brought it to
    perfect completion.Ignatius, Ephesians, in The
    Apostolic Fathers, 219.

51
Ephesians 7.2
  • For there is one physician, both fleshly and
    spiritual, born and unborn, God come in the
    flesh, true life in death, from both Mary and
    God, first subject to suffering and then beyond
    suffering, Jesus Christ our Lord.Ignatius,
    Ephesians, in The Apostolic Fathers, 227.

52
Ephesians 18.2
  • For the God of us, Jesus the Christ, was
    conceived by Mary according to the plan of God
    he was from the seed of David, but also from the
    Holy Spirit. He was born and baptized, that he
    might cleanse the water by his suffering.Ignatiu
    s, Ephesians, in The Apostolic Fathers, 237.

53
Ephesians 19.3
  • Ignorance was destroyed and the ancient realm
    was brought into ruin, when God became manifest
    in a human way, for the newness of eternal
    life.Ignatius, Ephesians, in The Apostolic
    Fathers, 239.

54
Magnesians 8.2
  • there is one God, who manifested himself
    through Jesus Christ his Son, who is his Word
    that came forth from silence, who was pleasing in
    every way to the one who sent him.The Apostolic
    Fathers, 249.

55
Romans Greeting
  • And I extend warmest greetings blamelessly in
    Jesus Christ, our God, to those who are united in
    both flesh and spirit in his every commandment,
    filled with the gracious gift of God without
    wavering, and filtered from every unsuitable
    taint.The Apostolic Fathers, 271.

56
Romans 3.3
  • For our God Jesus Christ, since he is in the
    Father, is all the more visible.The Apostolic
    Fathers, 273.

57
Ignatiuss Letter to Polycarp 8.3
  • I bid you constant farewell in our God Jesus
    Christ.The Apostolic Fathers, 321.

58
Summary
  • The Gospel of John, Revelation, and Ignatius all
    indicate that Jesus is God.
  • The Gospel of John attributes omniscience to
    Jesus and calls Jesus God.

59
Summary
  • Revelation portrays Jesus as being an object of
    worshipeven though Revelation also specifies
    that people should only worship God.
  • Ignatius (107-110 C.E.) calls Jesus our God
    Jesus Christ throughout his letters.

60
Resources
  • Jehovahs Witnesses, Jesus Christ, and the Gospel
    of John (Baker, 1989), by Robert M. Bowman
  • Lord Jesus Christ Devotion to Jesus in Earliest
    Christianity (William B. Eerdmans, 2003), by
    Larry Hurtado

61
Resources
  • Reasoning From the Scriptures With the Jehovahs
    Witnesses (Harvest House Publishers, 2009), by
    Ron Rhodes
  • Why You Should Believe in the Trinity An Answer
    to Jehovahs Witnesses (Harvest House
    Publishers), by Robert M. Bowman
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