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The Cold War

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The Cold War Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy demanded that the missiles be removed from Cuba. He said that any missile attack from Cuba would send an all-out nuclear ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The Cold War
2
Soviet Way of Life
  • Communismeconomic and political where the
    government controlled all property and economic
    activity.
  • Totalitarian government meaning there was no
    opposition to the Communist Party in USSR (they
    controlled everything)

3
American Way of Life
  • Capitalismprivate citizens control almost all
    the economic activity. People have a choice.
  • In America there are elections and multiple
    parties have a say in what is done in the
    government.
  • At the end of WWII, we were upset at USSR because
    they were different than us.
  • The USSR was upset at America because we had not
    acted fast enough to help during WWII and we kept
    the Atomic Bomb a secret.

4
United Nations
  • Was created after WWII in hopes that we would
    never have another world war.
  • 50 nations were at a meeting in San Francisco,
    all of them were trying to figure out a way to
    create a lasting peace.
  • Joseph Stalinleader of the USSR did not like the
    UN and would not be apart of it.

5
Yalta Conference
  • USSR, GB, and USA met to decide what would happen
    after WWII.
  • Stalin had promised that he would allow free
    elections in all of the countries east of Russia
    (Poland, etc..). Stalin did not follow through
    with this, all of those countries would create
    communist governments.

6
After the Yalta Conference
  • Harry Truman (American President) and others
    decided to split Germany into Occupational Zones.
  • Both the USA and USSR emerged from WWII as the
    most powerful economic countries in the world.
  • The Soviet Union felt that they should be able to
    claim many of the Eastern European lands as
    payment for the huge death toll during WWII.

7
Iron Curtain
  • Stalin installed communist governments in the
    following countries (Albania, Bulgaria,
    Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland.
  • These countries would become known as Satellite
    Nationsnations that were controlled by the USSR.
  • ContainmentUS policy in which we would do
    anything in our power to prevent the extension of
    communism. This would define most of US foreign
    policy during the Cold War
  • Iron Curtainthe division between Eastern and
    Western Europe

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9
Cold War
  • The USA and the USSR never fought each other
    during this conflict, which is why it is called
    the cold war.
  • This conflict lasted from 1945-1991.

10
Truman Doctrine
  • The United States was very concerned about Turkey
    and Greece falling to USSR.
  • Truman gave around 400 million dollars to those
    countries to fight off communism.
  • Truman DoctrineUS would support free people
    throughout the world against communism.
  • Marshall PlanUS gave 13 billion dollars in aid
    to European Countries to help them rebuild after
    WWII. This was done to help ensure that
    communism would not occur within Western Europe.
  • Link

11
Issues with Germany
  • The United States wanted to reunify Germany (get
    rid of the Occupational Zones)..the Soviet Union
    wanted none of this.
  • Stalin closed all access to Berlin (half of
    Berlin was controlled by USA/GB). Berlin was
    located within USSR Zone of Germany.
  • Berlin AirliftAmerican and British troops
    dropped supplies to West Berlin (2.3 million tons
    of supplies) over a years span.
  • Eventually, the USSR lifted its blockade of
    Berlin, however, Germany was still divided (East
    Germany and West Germany)

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13
Military Alliances
  • NATOmilitary alliance between all of the
    countries of Western Europe (Belgium, Denmark,
    France, GB, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg,
    Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, USA and Canada.
    These countries pledged to come together if one
    was threatened by Communism.
  • The USSR would do the same thing with the Warsaw
    Pact.

14
China
  • Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the Nationalist
    Government within China. He had been fighting a
    communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
  • As time went on, the Communist Party was able to
    take control of China (except Taiwan).
  • This made many people in America very afraid of
    communism spreading throughout the world, even
    into America.

15
The Korean War
  • In 1948, Korea was divided into 2 areas (South
    Koreacontrolled by the US and North
    KoreaControlled by the USSR)
  • In 1949, the USSR decided to try to take over all
    of Korea.
  • 38th ParallelLine that divided North and South
    Korea.

16
The Korean War
  • Truman ordered American troops to go to South
    Korea and push back the communists.
  • 520,000 troops went to Korea and were placed
    under the command of Douglas McArthur.
  • The North Koreans were able to invade into much
    of South Korea. Over time, McArthur was able to
    drive them back into North Korea.
  • McArthur was able to drive the North Korean
    troops all the way to the border of Korea and
    China. It appeared as though they would
    surrender.

17
The Korean War
  • The Chinese (who were communist) decided to help
    the North Koreans and were able to help drive the
    American troops out of North Korea. For 2 years
    both sides fought to about a stalemate.
  • McArthur really wanted to attack China, Truman
    did not like this idea because he thought it
    would start WWIII.

18
The Korean War
  • Truman eventually fired McArthur (who was still
    very popular in America).
  • June 23rd, 1951, the USSR offered a cease fire
    agreement that would end the fighting.
  • The compromise created 2 countries in Korea
    (North and South).
  • 54,000 American Soldiers died in the Korean War
    and it cost 67 billion dollars
  • Truman was not re-elected President in
    1952Dwight Eisenhower (Rep) won
  • http//users.erols.com/mwhite28/images/korean_w.gi
    f

19
America during the Cold War
  • Many Americans became suspicious that there were
    communist within the American Government.
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were Americans who
    were accused of being Russian spies (giving
    secrets to the USSR about the Atomic Bomb). They
    were found guilty and sentenced to death.
  • Joseph McCarthySenator from Wisconsin accused
    many people in Congress of being secretly
    communist.
  • Millions of Americans had to take loyalty oaths,
    labor unions started to decline, people were
    afraid to speak out against the government

20
Race for the H-Bomb
  • H-BombHydrogen Bomb, it would have the force of
    1 million tons of TNT (67 times more powerful
    then the atomic bomb on Hiroshima). Scientist
    argued about the moral issues.
  • USA made the first H-Bomb in November of 1952,
    USSR responded by Sept. of 1953

21
Brinkmanship
  • Brinkmanshipthe idea that the United States
    would use whatever force necessary to stop the
    spread of communism (Eisenhower and Dulles).
  • The United States began to trim the army and navy
    while making the air force stronger.
  • Great fear within America

22
Spread of the Cold War
  • CIACentral Intelligence Agency, used spies to
    gather as much information on other countries as
    possible.
  • CIA also began to do many secret operations
    designed to protect America.
  • Guatemala and Iran

23
Tensions in the Middle East
  • Suez WarEgyptian leader Gamal Nasser wanted help
    building a dam on the Suez Canal. He wanted to
    get help from both America and the USSR.
  • Once American leaders found out about this, the
    withdrew their loan. Nasser responded by taking
    control of the whole canal.
  • This also really hurt Israel because Nasser would
    not allow ships for Israel to pass through.war

24
Tensions in the Middle East
  • The Soviet Union had a lot of interest in actions
    within the Middle East (Egypt, Iran)
  • Eisenhower Doctrinesaid that the United States
    would defend the Middle East from any attack by a
    communist country.
  • Hungary wanted a democratic government, the USA
    would not help them in their revolt because it
    was a Satellite Nation of the Soviet Union.

25
Other venues of the Cold War
  • Nikita KhrushchevSoviet leader after Stalin
    died. He favored a peaceful competition between
    the two countries (science and economically)
  • Space Racecompetition to see who could get into
    space and the moon the quickest.
  • Sputnikfirst satellite into space launched by
    the Soviets.

26
Spying Issues
  • The CIA was making secret high altitude flights
    over the Soviet Union using a plane called the
    U-2 (no radar detection).
  • This was a very controversial program that had a
    lot of opposition within the American and Soviet
    Governments.
  • The Soviet Union shot down one of these planes
    (both sides had promised not to do these
    missions).
  • This significantly increased the tension between
    the 2 sides heading into the 1960s.

27
JFK
  • John F Kennedy was elected President in 1961.
    This was a very influential time because many
    Americans thought we were losing the Cold War
    (Sputnik, U-2, bad economy, Cuba and the USSR
    were aligning)beat Nixon (one of the closest
    ever)
  • Kennedy used television to gain many supporters
    (overcame doubts of him)
  • African American vote helped Kennedy
  • Kennedy was very much in the public eye
  • He surrounded himself with the best and
    brightest

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29
JFKs military policy
  • Kennedy saw how communism was popular to poorer
    countries (Republicans didnt)
  • Flexible Responsemain military strategy in which
    nuclear weapons would not be the answer/threat to
    every situation
  • Increased dollars spend on other factions of the
    military
  • Allowed the US to fight limited wars while
    keeping pace with USSRs nuclear capability
  • Extra CreditWrite a two page paper comparing and
    contrasting Kennedy to Barack Obama

30
Cuba
  • Fidel Castroleader of a Cuban revolutionary
    force had taken control of the country and
    declared the country communist.
  • This caused the US to cut off ties with Cuba
  • Hundreds of thousands of Cubans left the country
    for America, Castro and the United States were at
    odds, USSR would help.
  • Extra CreditWrite a two page paper detailing the
    main event of Castros life. You will also need
    to include the direction that Cuba is going in
    after Castros resignation.

31
Extra Credit
  • Extra CreditWrite a two page paper comparing and
    contrasting Kennedy to Barack Obama
  • Extra CreditWrite a two page paper detailing the
    main event of Castros life. You will also need
    to include the direction that Cuba is going in
    after Castros resignation.
  • These will be due next Friday. If you do both
    papers, you will not have to take the exam. If
    you do one, it will go as extra credit. (up to
    15 points)

32
Bay of Pigs
  • CIA began to train Cubans who had left the
    country because they were opposed to Castro. The
    plan was to have the Cuban exiles go into Cuba
    and start a revolution.
  • This plan was a complete failure, the invading
    group met around 25,000 Cuban soldiers. Most of
    the invading forces were either killed or jailed.
  • Kennedy took a lot of heat, America was
    embarrassed, and we had to give Cuba 50 million
    dollars to get our prisoners back.

33
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Khrushchev sent all sorts of weapons to Cuba to
    help them defend themselves (including nuclear
    weapons).
  • Kennedy responded by saying that America would
    not let this happen.
  • In October of 1962, American planes revealed that
    the Soviets had missiles ready to launch that
    could strike any American city within minutes.

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36
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Kennedy demanded that the missiles be removed
    from Cuba.
  • He said that any missile attack from Cuba would
    send an all-out nuclear attack on the Soviet
    Union.
  • For 6 days the world waited for something to
    happenmeanwhile, American ships were not
    allowing Soviet ships access to Cuba.
  • Finally, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet
    Union would remove missiles if the US would
    promise not to invade Cuba. (US would removed
    missiles from Turkey as well)

37
Results of the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Both Kennedy (brinkmanship, not invading) and
    Khrushchev (being too weak) took a lot of
    criticism for what happened with Cuba.
  • Cuban exiles blamed the Democrats for losing
    Cuba and voted Republican.
  • Many Cubans left Cuba, Cuban population in Miami
    increased to around 300,000

38
Berlin
  • Berlin Wallconcrete wall that split Berlin in
    two. This was done to prevent people from East
    Germany from escaping to West Germany. (3 million
    had fled)
  • Soviets decided to do this after Kennedy had
    threatened to attack if the Soviets cut off all
    access to Berlin.
  • Became an ugly symbol of the Cold War

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43
Things get better
  • Neither the Soviet Union or America wanted to go
    to nuclear war.
  • Hot Linedirect phone connection between the
    Soviets and Americans.
  • Limited Test Ban Treatyagreed on by both
    countries, barred nuclear testing in the
    atmosphere.
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