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Chapter 18 Classification

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Chapter 18 Classification The diversity of life Why is it necessary to classify? 1.5 million species on the planet so all creatures must be organized with a universal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18 Classification


1
Chapter 18 Classification
  • The diversity of life

2
Why is it necessary to classify?
  • 1.5 million species on the planet so all
    creatures must be organized with a universal
    system. We call this taxonomy.
  • Scientists cannot use common names because they
    change depending on where you live.
  • For example cougar, panther, puma, mountain
    lion all represent the same animal. It has a
    scientific name Felis concolor

3
Scientific Names
  • Carolus Linneaus Swedish botanist who began the
    modern naming system.
  • Developed a two word naming system called
    binomial nomenclature (latin)
  • 2 name naming system
  • Scientific names are
  • Descriptive
  • In Latin
  • 2 words capitalize the first letter of the
    first word and lowercase everything else.
  • First word is Genus second word is species

Ursus maritimus
4
Examples scientific name genus species
  • Homo sapien
  • Canis familiarius
  • Felis domesticus
  • Drosophilia melanogaster

Human Dog Cat Fruit fly
5
Classification System
  • We organize all life on Earth into 9 levels.
    Each level is called a taxon.
  • Domain is the largest 3 large groups (see
    below)
  • Species is the smallest

6
Classification Levels Example Grizzly bear
7
Human Taxonomy Levels
8
Changing Number of Kingdoms
  • History of Kingdoms
  • 1700s - 2 kingdoms Plants and Animals
  • 1800s 3 kingdoms Plants, Animals, Protists
    (pond water critters)
  • 1950s 5 kingdoms Monera (bacteria),
    Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals
  • 1990s 6 kingdoms - Eubacteria, Archaebacteria,
    Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals.

9
Section 18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Shown below are the three domains and the 6
    modern kingdoms we use today.

10
Domain Bacteria and Archaea
  • 1. Kingdom Bacteria
  • unicellular
  • prokaryotic
  • cell wall contains a special molecule called
    peptidoglycan.
  • 2. Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Live in extreme environments
  • Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan

11
Domain Eukarya 3. Kingdom Protista
  • Eukaryotic organisms (most are
  • one celled)
  • Shows the greatest variety of organisms
  • Photosynthetic or heterotrophic

12
Domain Eukarya 4. Kingdom Fungi
  • Absorptive heterotrophs absorb nutrients
    through their bodies
  • Feed on dead or decaying organic matter
  • Many are multicellular
  • Yeast is unicellular

13
Domain Eukarya 5. Kingdom Plantae
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophs (do photosynthesis)
  • Cellulose in cell wall

14
Domain Eukarya 6. Kingdom Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Eukaryotic
  • Invertebrates and Vertebrates
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