Human Growth and Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Human Growth and Development

Description:

Human Growth and Development – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:303
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 110
Provided by: AES99
Learn more at: http://mrsabma.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Human Growth and Development


1
Human Growth and Development
2
Human Growth and Development
  • Explore Go
  • Genetics (Lessons 1-3) Go
  • Prenatal and Neonatal (Lessons 4-6) Go
  • Childhood (Lessons 7-10) Go
  • Adolescence (Lessons 11-12) Go
  • Adulthood (Lessons 13-16) Go
  • Aging and Death (Lessons 17-20) Go
  • Reflect Go

TABLE OF CONTENTS
3
Explore
  • Unit Overview Go
  • Activity Go

4
Explore Unit Overview
  • In this unit, you will
  • Explore the basics of genetics.
  • Examine the four areas of human growth throughout
    the lifespan.
  • Learn about the grief process.

5
Explore - Activity
  • You will watch a role-play and participate in a
    class discussion.

6
Genetics
  • 1. Introduction Go
  • 2. Genetics Go
  • 3. Quiz Go

7
Lesson 1 Human Growth and Development
  • Human growth and development is the study of how
    people change as they go through life.
  • Development is similar for everyone, but each
    person grows and develops at an individual rate.

8
Lesson 1 Areas of Development
  • Physical development - all the bodily changes
    that occur as a person grows and ages.
  • Intellectual development - a persons ability to
    learn something and then apply this knowledge to
    new problems and experiences.
  • Emotional development - changes in a persons
    ability to establish a unique identity and
    express feelings.
  • Social development - learning to interact with
    other people.

9
Lesson 1 Hierarchy of Human Needs
  • A psychologist named Abraham Maslow developed a
    system of basic human needs.
  • Hierarchy of human needs
  • Food, shelter, bodily comfort
  • Safety, security
  • To feel loved, have a sense of belonging
  • Self-esteem, approval
  • Desire to live up to ones potential

10
Lesson 2 Genetics
  • Genetics is an area of biology that deals with
    the passing of genes from parents to children.
  • Genes contain DNA
  • DNA consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes
  • Each pair is made up of one chromosome from the
    mother and one from the father.

11
Lesson 2 Genetic Diseases
  • Genes can mutate, or break, and become the basis
    of disease.
  • Two types of genetic diseases
  • Single-gene
  • Chromosomal

12
Lesson 2 Single Gene Diseases
  • A single-gene disease results from an individual
    mutant gene.
  • This type of mutant gene may either create an
    abnormality or fail to make something that is
    necessary.
  • Examples
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Hemophilia
  • Albinism
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Red-green color blindness
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • Huntington disease

13
Lesson 2 Chromosomal Diseases
  • Chromosomal diseases are the result of
    chromosomal breakage, an abnormal chromosome, or
    a missing chromosome
  • Two categories of chromosomal diseases are
    trisomy and monosomy.
  • Examples
  • Down syndrome
  • Klinefelter syndrome
  • Turner syndrome

14
Lesson 2 Genetic Research
  • Gene therapy - treatment of single-cell disease
    by replacing the mutant gene.
  • Genetic engineering - imitation and artificial
    manipulation of DNA to create recombinant DNA.

15
Lesson 3 Quiz
  • In this lesson, you will take a quiz on human
    growth and development and genetics.

16
Prenatal and Neonatal
  • 4. Prenatal Go
  • 5. Neonatal Go
  • 6. Quiz Go

17
Lesson 4 Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal development lasts approximately 38 weeks
    from conception to birth.
  • Three periods of development
  • Zygote
  • Embryo
  • Fetus

18
Lesson 4 Zygote Period
  • The zygote is formed at conception and continues
    to develop for the first two weeks.
  • The zygote travels from the fallopian tube to the
    uterus and implants itself in the uterine wall.
  • After 2 weeks, the placenta begins to grow and is
    attaches to the zygote via the umbilical cord.

19
Lesson 4 Embryo Period
  • The embryo period begins at the end of the second
    week and ends at the end of the eighth week.
  • First half of this period
  • The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm layers
    develop.
  • The heart begins to pump.
  • Second half of this period
  • Facial features, arms, legs, fingers, and toes
    form.
  • Can respond to touch.

20
Lesson 4 Fetus Period
  • The fetus period begins in the ninth week and
    continues through birth.
  • At the beginning of this period
  • Organs, muscles, and the nervous system organize.
  • The lungs expand and contract.
  • The external genitals are distinguishable.
  • The fingernails, toenails, tooth buds, and
    eyelids develop.

21
Lesson 4 Fetus Period (continued)
  • 18 Weeks - Fetal movements are felt by the
    mother.
  • 20 Weeks - The fetus can hear sounds and react to
    them.
  • 24 Weeks - All the brain neurons are developed.
  • 25 to 38 Weeks The fetus has a chance for
    survival outside the womb. This is called the age
    of viability.

22
Lesson 4 Prenatal Health Issues
  • Teratogens - environmental substances that cause
    damage during prenatal development
  • Medications
  • Drugs, cigarettes, and alcohol
  • Radiation and pollution
  • Infectious disease
  • Other health issues can include
  • The mothers nutrition and stress level
  • Rh blood incompatibility
  • The mothers age and previous pregnancy
    experiences

23
Lesson 4 Medications
  • Almost all medications that are taken by the
    mother can reach the embryo or fetus through the
    bloodstream.
  • Medications can cause
  • Low birth weight
  • Lower intelligence later in life
  • Death
  • Mothers must consult doctors before taking any
    medications.

24
Lesson 4 Illegal Drugs
  • Fetuses exposed to illegal drugs in the womb are
    at risk of
  • Low birth weight
  • Numerous defects
  • Death
  • If the fetus manages to survive through birth,
    the baby is likely born with a drug addiction.

25
Lesson 4 Cigarettes
  • Cigarette smoking while pregnant can cause
  • Low birth weight
  • Cancer in childhood
  • Miscarriage
  • Death
  • Second-hand smoke can also put children at risk

26
Lesson 4 Alcohol
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious effect
    caused by the mother consuming alcohol during
    pregnancy.
  • Children with FAS may have
  • Mental retardation
  • Poor attention
  • Hyperactivity,
  • Facial abnormalities
  • Slow growth

27
Lesson 4 Radiation
  • Pregnant women should avoid exposure to
    radiation, including medical X-rays.
  • Exposure to radiation can cause
  • Miscarriage
  • Poor physical growth
  • Brain damage
  • Cancer

28
Lesson 4 Pollution
  • Some environmental pollution dangers include
    mercury, lead, and PCBs.
  • Exposure to pollutants can cause
  • Brain damage
  • Mental retardation
  • Low birth weight

29
Lesson 4 Infectious Disease
  • Infectious disease can be difficult for pregnant
    mothers to evade.
  • Common illnesses such as the cold and flu are
    essentially harmless to the fetus as long as the
    mother is well-rested and continues to get
    nutrients.
  • Serious infectious disease can cause
  • Birth defects
  • Low birth weight
  • Miscarriages

30
Lesson 4 Non-Teratogen Prenatal Health Issues
  • Pregnant women must be certain to get proper
    nutrition. The level of malnutrition of the
    mother is directly linked to brain weight in the
    child.
  • Pregnant women should also try to remain
    stress-free. Anxiety can have harmful effects on
    the fetus.

31
Lesson 4 Non-Teratogen Prenatal Health Issues
(continued)
  • Rh blood incompatibility between the mother and
    fetus can cause
  • Mental retardation
  • Heart damage
  • Death
  • Blood tests and vaccines are given to prevent
    illness or injury resulting from Rh
    incompatibility.

32
Lesson 5 Neonatal Development
  • The first four weeks of life are called the
    neonatal, or newborn, stage.
  • In this stage, special attention is given to
  • Parent-child bonding
  • Reflexes
  • Temperament
  • States of arousal
  • Sensory capabilities

33
Lesson 5 The Apgar Scale
  • The Apgar scale rates newborns in the following
    areas
  • Appearance
  • Pulse
  • Grimace
  • Activity
  • Respiration
  • Apgar scores
  • 7 to 10 Healthiest
  • 4 and 6 Need assistance with breathing or other
    vital signs
  • 0 and 3 Need serious emergency medical
    attention

34
Lesson 5 Bonding
  • Bonding is a parents deep affection and concern
    for the newborn.
  • Parents and children develop a special bond that
    allows the infant to grow and develop with
    confidence.
  • Some parents instantly bond, while other parents
    bond over the first few weeks.

35
Lesson 5 Reflexes
  • Reflexes are expected, automatic responses to
    specific stimulants.
  • Newborn reflexes include
  • Rooting reflex
  • Sucking reflex
  • Palmer reflex
  • Most of these reflexes should disappear as the
    baby grows and develops.

36
Lesson 5 Sensory Capabilities
  • Touch most important sense for newborns
  • Taste prefer sweet over salty
  • Smell respond to good and bad smells
  • Sound special interest in the human voice
  • Vision least developed sense in a newborn

37
Lesson 5 Newborn States of Arousal
  • Newborns continually cycle through five states of
    arousal
  • Regular sleep deep sleep with little movement
  • Irregular sleep light sleep with body movement
  • Drowsiness waking up or falling asleep
  • Quiet alertness awake and attentive
  • Waking activity and crying uncoordinated
    movements and irregular breathing

38
Lesson 5 Neonatal Health Issues
  • The transition from the womb into the world does
    not occur smoothly.
  • Neonatal health issues include
  • Premature birth
  • Respiratory issues
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

39
Lesson 5 Premature Birth
  • Premature birth is used to describe infants that
    are preterm or small-for-date.
  • Preterm babies are born 3 weeks or more before
    the 38-week due date.
  • Small-for-date babies weigh less than expected
    compared to their length of time in the womb.
  • With proper care and special attention, many
    premature babies go on to lead normal, healthy
    lives.

40
Lesson 5 Respiratory Issues
  • In respiratory distress syndrome, a babys air
    sacs collapse, which makes breathing very
    strenuous
  • Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in
    premature or full-term babies.
  • Babies with respiratory distress syndrome are
    attached to respirators until they can breathe
    comfortably on their own.

41
Lesson 5 SIDS
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) occurs when
    an infant dies during sleep.
  • Death occurs with no trauma to the child and no
    indication from the child, such as crying, prior
    to death.
  • No cause, cure, or prevention has been found for
    SIDS.

42
Lesson 6 Quiz
  • In this lesson, you will take a quiz on prenatal
    and neonatal development.

43
Childhood
  • 7. Infants and Toddlers Go
  • 8. Early Childhood Go
  • 9. Middle Childhood Go
  • 10. Quiz Go

44
Lesson 7 Infants and Toddlers
  • Infancy generally refers to the first year of
    life.
  • Toddler refers to the second year of life.
  • During this time, children continue to progress
    rapidly in all areas of development.

45
Lesson 7 Infants and Toddlers Physical
Development
  • Infants
  • Establish a day and night sleeping pattern
  • Hold up their heads, roll over, and reach for
    things
  • Hearing and depth perception improve
  • Crawl and then walk
  • Toddlers
  • Gain weight and height
  • Run, jump, and climb
  • Scribble and stack blocks

46
Lesson 7 Infants and Toddlers Intellectual
Development
  • Infants
  • Imitate facial expressions
  • Recognize people, places, and objects
  • Make sounds that resemble spoken language
  • Toddlers
  • Experiment with objects
  • Play make-believe
  • Imitate adults
  • Begin to speak and communicate
  • Build a 200-word vocabulary

47
Lesson 7 Infants and Toddlers Emotional
Development
  • Infants
  • Show basic emotions
  • Anger and fear increase
  • Develop stranger anxiety
  • May develop separation anxiety
  • Toddlers
  • Show empathy
  • Able to cooperate
  • Begin to express shame, embarrassment, and pride
  • Self-control emerges

48
Lesson 7 Infants and Toddlers Social
Development
  • Infants
  • Begin to smile and laugh
  • Match emotional facial expressions of adults
  • Able to interpret others emotions
  • Toddlers
  • Play with siblings
  • Show signs of gender-stereotypical toy choices

49
Lesson 7 Infant Health Issues
  • Infants and toddlers should have a series of
    immunizations to prevent several diseases, such
    as hepatitis B and polio.
  • Children are also susceptible to accidental
    injuries, such as choking, drowning, and
    poisoning.
  • These fatal situations are often avoidable when
    children are given proper care and watched
    closely.

50
Lesson 8 Early Childhood
  • Early childhood generally occurs between the ages
    of 2 and 6.
  • During this time, children continue to develop
    physically, intellectually, emotionally, and
    socially.

51
Lesson 8 Early Childhood Physical Development
  • Physical growth slows down.
  • Motor skills improve, allowing for greater
    coordination and balance.
  • A preference for the left or right hand develops.
  • They begin to lose primary teeth and grow adult
    teeth.

52
Lesson 8 Early Childhood Intellectual
Development
  • They can see simple situations from someone
    elses point of view.
  • A greater attention span develops.
  • The ability to count up and down develops along
    with the capability to perform simple addition
    and subtraction problems.
  • Language and memory skills improve.

53
Lesson 8 Early Childhood Emotional Development
  • They tend to shift quickly from confident to
    unsure.
  • The feeling of frustration erupts easily due to
    the increasing intellectual abilities that are
    developing faster than physical abilities.
  • They develop self-esteem and learn to express
    their emotions in acceptable ways.

54
Lesson 8 Early Childhood Social Development
  • Children in this stage generally become better
    communicators.
  • Most children understand sharing and begin to
    play with other children, which is called
    cooperative play.

55
Lesson 8 Early Childhood Health Issues
  • Children at this age have a considerable drop in
    appetite as their growth slows down.
  • Because they are eating less, it is particularly
    important to make sure that all that they eat is
    good for them.
  • Children in this stage still need plenty of adult
    supervision and guidance about safety issues.

56
Lesson 9 Middle Childhood
  • Middle childhood generally occurs between the
    ages of 6 and 11.
  • During this time, children continue to develop
    physically, intellectually, emotionally, and
    socially.

57
Lesson 9 Middle Childhood Physical Development
  • Children can write smaller and neater.
  • Their drawings become more detailed.
  • Motor skills become more developed, including the
    abilities to run, jump, kick, throw, and catch.

58
Lesson 9 Middle Childhood Intellectual
Development
  • Children in this stage display great strides in
    intellectual growth.
  • Their ability to think logically and understand
    more complex ideas develops.
  • They can employ strategies to remember things.

59
Lesson 9 Middle Childhood Emotional Development
  • Children in this stage of development become more
    independent and responsible as their confidence
    grows.
  • They may be able to describe their own
    personalities and explain their emotions.
  • They also have more self-esteem than younger
    children.

60
Lesson 9 Middle Childhood Social Development
  • They understand that peoples perspectives on
    issues are caused by the information that they
    have.
  • They can view their relationships with others
    from a third-partys point of view.
  • They develop friendships that are based on trust.
  • Their personalities and interests become more
    gender stereotypical.

61
Lesson 9 Middle Childhood Health Issues
  • Nearsightedness
  • Ear infections
  • Obesity
  • Malnutrition
  • Bedwetting

62
Lesson 10 Quiz
  • In this lesson, you will take a quiz on childhood
    development.

63
Adolescence
  • 11. Adolescence Go
  • 12. Quiz Go

64
Lesson 11 Adolescence
  • Adolescence generally occurs between the ages of
    11 and 20.
  • Most attention is paid to the first half of this
    stage of development.
  • Adolescence is a time of transitioning from
    childhood to adulthood in each area of
    development.

65
Lesson 11 Adolescence Physical Development
  • Females
  • Gain up to 40 pounds
  • Grow up to 10 inches
  • Begin to menstruate
  • Develop secondary sexual characteristics
  • Males
  • Grow much taller and develop muscle mass
  • Reproductive organs mature
  • Develop secondary sexual characteristics

66
Lesson 11 Adolescence Intellectual Development
  • Adolescents develop better critical thinking
    skills, which enable them to interpret and
    evaluate information.
  • They become idealistic about the world around
    them. However, they may also become more
    critical, when the world does not live up to
    their ideals.

67
Lesson 11 Adolescence Emotional Development
  • Adolescence is a challenging and confusing time
    for many young people. They seek to establish
    their identities.
  • They are self-conscious and often influenced by
    the thought that everyone is watching them.
  • They are often and easily embarrassed.

68
Lesson 11 Adolescence Social Development
  • Adolescents love to socialize with their friends.
  • They each develop their own sense of morals and
    values largely based on what their parents have
    taught them.
  • They also develop an awareness and interest in
    the opposite sex.

69
Lesson 11 Adolescent Health Issues
  • Feelings of inadequacy are often displayed in the
    form of eating disorders, such as anorexia
    nervosa and bulimia.
  • Some adolescents turn to chemical substances for
    stress relief, because of peer pressure, or to
    escape from problems.
  • Suicide is a leading cause of death in
    adolescence.

70
Lesson 12 Quiz
  • In this lesson, you will take a quiz on
    adolescent development.

71
Adulthood
  • 13. Early Adulthood Go
  • 14. Middle Adulthood Go
  • 15. Late Adulthood Go
  • 16. Quiz Go

72
Lesson 13 Early Adulthood
  • Early adulthood generally occurs between the ages
    of 20 and 40.
  • During this time, adults continue to develop and
    change physically and intellectually.
  • They also continue to change socially and
    emotionally. However, at this point in life,
    these two areas become difficult to distinguish.

73
Lesson 13 Early Adulthood Physical Development
  • Early in this stage
  • In prime physical condition
  • Typically stronger and faster
  • Later in this stage
  • Body need to be stretched and warmed up to
    prevent injury
  • Metabolism slows down
  • Decline in vision and hearing
  • Hair begins to thin and gray
  • Women may have fertility problems

74
Lesson 13 Early Adulthood Intellectual
Development
  • People typically settle in a career and develop
    expertise in that field.
  • Creativity tends to increase.
  • Later in this stage, people are better able to
    manage many responsibilities at one time and to
    balance work and home life.

75
Lesson 13 Early Adulthood Emotional and Social
Development
  • Adults develop an image of themselves in relation
    to the adult world around them.
  • Adults develop values, skills, and credentials in
    the workplace.
  • They acquire fulfilling adult friendships and
    work contacts.
  • They might get married and have children.

76
Lesson 14 Middle Adulthood
  • Middle adulthood generally occurs between the
    ages of 40 and 60.
  • They continue to develop and change physically
    and intellectually.
  • They also continue to change socially and
    emotionally. As in early adulthood, at this point
    in life, these two areas are difficult to
    distinguish.

77
Lesson 14 Middle Adulthood Physical Development
  • People typically experience some high-frequency
    hearing loss, declining vision, and loss of lean
    body mass.
  • The hair continues to thin and gray and weight
    gain occurs. Skin begins to wrinkle and sag due
    to loss of elasticity.
  • Disks in the spinal column begin to collapse,
    which could result in shrinking as much as an
    inch in height.
  • In women, menopause occurs.

78
Lesson 14 Middle Adulthood Intellectual
Development
  • Middle adults experience an increase in
    problem-solving abilities and expertise.
  • However, there are decreases in the ability to
  • Remember large quantities of information
  • Retrieve information from memory
  • Multi-task

79
Lesson 14 Middle Adulthood Emotional and
Social Development
  • Middle adults become concerned about the next
    generation and have a desire to guide and connect
    with it.
  • Self-acceptance is at its best.
  • Some people retire.
  • Family relationships change
  • Children become independent.
  • Parents begin to age and need assistance.
  • Sibling relationships become more satisfying.

80
Lesson 15 Late Adulthood
  • Late adulthood generally occurs between the ages
    of 60 and 80.
  • During this time, adults continue to develop and
    change physically and intellectually.
  • They also continue to change socially and
    emotionally. However, at this point in life,
    these two areas become difficult to distinguish.

81
Lesson 15 Late Adulthood Physical Development
  • The body continues to decline
  • Vision and hearing decline.
  • Senses of taste, smell, and touch become less
    sharp.
  • The immune system ages.
  • Bone mass continues to diminish.
  • Neurons die at a faster rate. However, the brain
    compensates with new synapses.

82
Lesson 15 Late Adulthood Intellectual
Development
  • Late adults continue to experience a decline in
    their ability to recall from their memories.
  • Finding the right words and organizing them into
    speech become increasingly challenging
  • Although late adulthood includes the continued
    decline of some functions, people in this stage
    of life are at their most wise.

83
Lesson 15 Late Adulthood Emotional and Social
Development
  • People at this stage may be widowed. If they are
    not widowed, they are probably more satisfied
    with their marriages than in the past.
  • Their relationships with siblings become even
    stronger.
  • They may become grandparents or
    great-grandparents.
  • Their faith and spirituality may become more
    important.
  • They also have an increased interest in politics
    and are more likely to vote.

84
Lesson 16 Quiz
  • In this lesson, you will take a quiz on adult
    development.

85
Aging and Death
  • 17. Aging Go
  • 18. Death and Grief Go
  • 19. Mortuary Science Go
  • 20. Quiz Go

86
Lesson 17 Aging
  • The study of aging is called gerontology.
  • As people age, their bodies begin a process of
    decline in every major system.
  • There are several theories in regards to the
    cause of aging.
  • Decline of cell reproduction
  • Nutrition, injury, disease, and the environment
  • Aging viruses
  • Free radicals

87
Lesson 17 Skeletal System
  • As early as age 40, the bone mass and density
    begin to diminish.
  • People can lose some height as the cartilage
    disks between the vertebrae shrink.
  • The shortening of the spinal column causes a
    shift in weight, which alters posture.
  • Range of motion and flexibility decrease as
    joints lose water and start to fuse and ligaments
    and tendons harden.

88
Lesson 17 Muscular System
  • Atrophy is the wasting away of tissue.
  • Regular exercise can do much to counteract the
    affects of aging on the muscular system.

89
Lesson 17 Cardiovascular System
  • Fibrous tissue begins to replace the muscle
    tissue of the heart. As a result
  • The heart becomes less adept at contracting and
    expanding.
  • The valves become thicker, making it more
    difficult to fully close.
  • In general the heart becomes far less efficient
    at pumping blood. Therefore, the output of the
    heart decreases.

90
Lesson 17 Nervous System
  • The cerebral cortex portion of the brain slowly
    decreases in size, which causes impaired
    thinking, reasoning, and remembering.
  • Neurons die at an increased rate and those that
    remain are degenerating, which results in
  • Slower nerve conduction
  • Slower reaction times
  • Decreases in motor and sensory abilities

91
Lesson 17 Integumentary System
  • Glands produce less lubrication to the skins
    surface, leaving the skin dry and fragile.
  • Skin loses elasticity due to the shrinking of
    elastin fibers.
  • The loss of subcutaneous fat produces sagging,
    wrinkles, and lines.
  • The skin becomes more sensitive to UV rays from
    the sun.

92
Lesson 17 Reproductive System
  • Sexual dysfunction could appear in the form of
    function, pleasure, and desire.
  • Females
  • Menopause
  • Decrease of estrogen and progesterone
  • Androgen continues to be produced
  • Males
  • Decrease of testosterone
  • Decrease of sperm count
  • Difficulty maintaining an erection

93
Lesson 17 Urinary System
  • The kidneys shrink.
  • A decrease in blood flow to the kidneys
    diminishes its ability to cleanse the blood
    stream of waste.
  • People may experience a loss of muscle control in
    the bladder and sphincters.
  • Problems with glucose control could lead to
    hyperglycemia.

94
Lesson 17 Digestive System
  • Peristalsis decreases, which can cause
  • Constipation
  • Diverticulosis
  • Difficulty swallowing and digesting food
  • Ability to taste decreases with age.
  • Less saliva is produced, and gum disease and loss
    of teeth can occur.

95
Lesson 17 Endocrine System
  • Both men and women experience a decline in
    adrenal gland production.
  • Women also experience a reduction of estrogen and
    progesterone.
  • For men, the prostate gland becomes larger while
    the production of testosterone from the testes
    diminishes.

96
Lesson 17 Immune System
  • The immune system becomes weaker, which leaves
    the elderly vulnerable to infectious diseases.
  • Because of their weakened immune systems, the
    elderly are encouraged to get flu vaccinations
    prior to flu season.

97
Lesson 17 Respiratory System
  • The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
    decreases.
  • As a result
  • Irregular activity quickly leaves the elderly
    breathless.
  • The elderly are at much greater risk of
    respiratory disease.

98
Lesson 18 The Terminally Ill Patient
  • The final stage of growth is death.
  • For some people, life ends abruptly and
    unexpectedly. But for others, they are diagnosed
    with a terminal illness.
  • A terminal illness is an incurable disease that
    results in death.

99
Lesson 18 Stages of Grief
  • Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross has established five
    stages of grieving.
  • Many terminally ill patients and their family
    members experience these stages of grief as they
    cope with a terminal illness.
  • People may not experience all the stages, they
    may experience them out of order, or they may
    cycle through them or some of them several times.

100
Lesson 18 Denial
  • Denial is often the immediate reaction to being
    told of a terminal illness.
  • A person in denial will reject the idea that they
    are dying, or insist that the doctor has made a
    mistake.
  • Health care workers who deal with terminally ill
    patients who are in denial should allow the
    patient to speak and provide comfort without
    confirming or denying the situation.

101
Lesson 18 Anger
  • Anger often follows denial, specifically when the
    patient is no longer able to deny the truth.
  • Patients can become hostile and direct it towards
    anyone with whom they come in contact.
  • Health care workers must provide support and
    understanding during this time.

102
Lesson 18 Bargaining
  • Once patients accept death, they often desire
    more time to live.
  • The will to live is strong and they set goals for
    themselves that they want to meet.
  • To achieve these goals, many patients turn to
    religion and make bargains or promises in hopes
    of having more time to live.
  • Health care workers should be sensitive and
    attentive to patients in this stage.

103
Lesson 18 Depression
  • Depression can occur when a patient realizes that
    death is imminent.
  • Depression can take the form of quiet withdrawal,
    spoken regrets, or great sadness.
  • Health care workers should be particularly
    sensitive during this time and allow patients to
    express their grief.

104
Lesson 18 Acceptance
  • The final stage of grief is acceptance. During
    this stage, patients accept the fact that they
    are going to die.
  • They may spend the rest of their days settling
    unfinished business and helping family and
    friends cope.
  • Health care workers should be sure to continue to
    provide emotional support and gentle touches of
    reassurance.

105
Lesson 19 Mortuary Science
  • After people die, their bodies must be cared for
    in a specific, scientific manner.
  • Mortuary science is the scientific care of the
    body and the emotional and ceremonial needs of
    the remaining family members.

106
Lesson 19 Funeral Directors
  • Funeral directors run funeral homes.
  • Funeral directors perform many jobs, such as
  • Mortician and undertaker
  • Funeral planner
  • Director of activities at a funeral home

107
Lesson 20 Quiz
  • In this lesson, you will take a quiz on aging,
    death, and grief.

108
Reflect
  • According to Maslow, what are the needs of
    humans? As a health care worker, how can you help
    to ensure that a patients needs are being met?
  • You are preparing a patient for an examination.
    How might you approach the patient differently
    based on the patients age? How would your
    expectations differ?
  • What is the grief process? How would you respond
    to a patient experiencing each stage of grief?

109
Reflect Key Questions
  • What do developmental tasks and health issues of
    life stages tell us about overall human growth
    and development?
  • As a health care worker, why is it important to
    understand the stages of grief?
About PowerShow.com