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Darwin

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Darwin s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Galapagos Islands Darwin arrived at the Galapagos Islands in 1835. Collected birds and other animals on the 4 islands. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Darwin


1
Darwins Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
2
Galapagos Islands
  • Darwin arrived at the Galapagos Islands in 1835.
  • Collected birds and other animals on the 4
    islands. He noticed that different islands had
    their own slightly different varieties of animals.

3
Charles Darwin
  • Darwin was a naturalist
  • (collected biological and geological
  • specimens for study)
  • Developed a widely accepted theory of evolution
    through the process of natural selection.
  • Other theories were in place
  • before Darwin developed his theory
  • What two ways did people think change
  • occurred? (think back to our Earth unit)

4
  • Years later, Darwin determined that the finches
    didnt live anywhere else. He suspected that
    populations of the birds from the mainland
    changed after reaching the Galapagos.
  • Darwin thought that perhaps artificial selection
    (process of breeding to produce desired traits in
    offspring) could work in nature.

5
Natural Selection
  • Natural selection- The process whereby organisms
    better adapted to their environment tend to
    survive and produce more offspring. If you dont
    adapt, youll die.
  • Nature selects traits for organisms to aid in
    survival.

6
What is natural selection
  • This explains Darwins observations of different
    finch birds and their beaks.
  • Darwin thought the different species of finches
    evolved from the same original species in
    response to adaptation to their environment.
  • The overall goal for natural selection and
    evolution is so that animals will be more likely
    to survive and reproduce in the future.

7
More about natural selection and adaptation
  • Variation is a difference in a physical trait.
  • Galápagos tortoises that live in areas with tall
    plants have long necks and legs. Why would that
    be an advantage?
  • Galápagos finches that live in areas with
    hard-shelled seeds have strong beaks. Why would
    that be an advantage?

8
Types of adaptations
  • Structural adaptation
  • Protective coloration (Camoflauge)
  • Mimicry 
  • Behavior adaptations (Herds)
  • Hibernation

9
Structural adaptation
  • A structural adaptation involves some part of an
    animal's body.
  • Teeth
  • Body coverings   
  • Movement

10
Protective Coloration
  • Also called camouflage
  • Their camouflage makes it hard for enemies to
    single out individuals.  

11
Mimicry
  • Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act
    like another animal to fool predators into
    thinking it is poisonous or dangerous.

12
Behavior Adaptations
  • Behavior adaptations include activities that help
    an animal survive. 
  • Behaviour adaptations can be learned or
    instinctive.
  • Social behaviour  
  • Behavior for protection  

13
Hibernation
  • This is deep sleep in which animals body temp
    droops, body activities are slowed to conserve
    energy.
  • E.g. Bats, woodchucks bears.

14
Origin of Species
  • In 1859, Darwin published On the Origin of
    Species by Means of Natural Selection.
  • Used the term evolution only on the last page.
  • Evolution- Cumulative changes in groups of
    organisms through time.
  • Natural Selection is the mechanism evolution can
    occur.
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