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Understanding the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ____________

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Title: Understanding the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ____________


1
Understanding the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change ____________
M. J. Mace 17 June 2010 Stakeholder
Forum London
2
Overview
  • History and overview of Key Provisions
  • Implementing Bodies
  • Negotiating Process
  • Status of Negotiating Process
  • Ways to Impact the Process

3
I. History the UN Framework Convention and
Kyoto Protocol
4
Life Cycle of a multilateral environmental
agreement
  • Negotiation INCs, PrepComs
  • Adoption
  • Deposit of text with Sec. General of the UN
  • Circulation of Depository Notification
  • Treaty opened for signature/ratification
  • Treaty closes for signature
  • Entry into force
  • Accession to treaty possible
  • Conferences of the Parties
  • Adoption of amendments, protocols to the treaty

5
Bangkok 2009
6
Treaty Evolution
  • Complex issues, evolve over time
  • Flexibility must be built in
  • Regime evolves through COP and COP/MOP decisions,
    SBI and SBSTA conclusions, treaty amendments,
    annexes
  • New agreements or Protocols, e.g.
  • 1997 Kyoto Protocol
  • Copenhagen? Cancun?

7
History of Negotiations
  • IPCC 1988 1990 First Assessment Report
  • INC 1990 1990-95 Intergovernmental Negotiating
    Committee
  • UNFCCC 1992 Rio UNFCCC opened for signature
  • UNFCCC 1994 -------- Entry into Force
  • COP 1 1995 Berlin Berlin Mandate (launched KP
    negs)
  • COP 2 1996 Geneva
  • COP 3 1997 Kyoto Kyoto Protocol adopted
  • COP 4 1998 Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Plan of
    Action (on rules)
  • COP 5 1999 Bonn
  • COP 6 2000 The Hague
  • COP 6 bis 2000 Bonn Bonn Agreements (core
    elements)
  • COP7 2001 Marrakech Marrakech Accords (KP
    rulebook)
  • COP 8 2002 New Delhi Delhi Declaration
  • COP 9 2003 Milan
  • COP 10 2004 Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Programme
    of Action on Adaptation and
    Response Measures
  • Kyoto Protocol 2005 ------- Entry into Force
  • COP 11 /MOP1 2005 Montreal First Meeting
    of the Parties to the KP
  • COP 12 /MOP2 2006 Nairobi Second MOP
    Review of the Protocol
  • COP 13 /MOP3 2007 Bali Third MOP Bali
    Action Plan

8
UNFCCC and Kyoto Goals
  • UNFCCC Annex I Parties aim to return
    individually or jointly their greenhouse gas
    emissions to
  • 1990 levels by 2000 (Art. 4)
  • Kyoto Protocol Annex I Parties to reduce
    overall emissions by at least
  • 5 below 1990 levels by 2008-2012 (Art. 3)

9
Country categories
  • Annex I (developed countries)
  • Annex II (wealthier developed)
  • Economies in Transition (EITs)
  • Non-Annex I (developing)
  • Least Developed Countries (48)
  • Small Island Developing States (40)
  • Others 132 in total

10
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
  • Objective Achieve stabilization of greenhouse
    gas concentrations at a level that prevents
    dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
    climate system.
  • in a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to
    adapt naturally, to ensure food production not
    threatened and to enable economic development to
    proceed in a sustainable manner

11
UNFCCC Definitions - Article 1
  • Climate change - a change of climate attributed
    directly or indirectly to human activity that
    alters the composition of the global atmosphere
    and which is in addition to natural climate
    variability.
  • Emissions - release of greenhouse gases and/or
    their precursors into the atmosphere over a
    specified area and period of time.
  • Reservoir - component or components of the
    climate system where a greenhouse gas or a
    precursor of a greenhouse gas is stored.
  • Sink - any process, activity or mechanism which
    removes a GHG, an aerosol or a precursor of a GHG
    from the atmosphere.
  • Source - any process or activity which releases
    a GHG, an aerosol or a precursor of a GHG into
    the atmosphere.
  • Concept of net emissions sources (emissions)
    less sinks (removals)

12
Developed and Developing Country Commitments
  • Differentiated commitments on
  • Mitigation
  • Adaptation
  • Reporting to COP

13
UNFCCC Commitments Article 4
  • 4.1 Commitments for all Parties
  • mitigation
  • adaptation
  • reporting
  • 4.3 Funding for developing countries
  • 4.4 Funding for particularly vulnerable
    developing countries
  • 4.5 Technology Transfer
  • 4.7 Links commitments to funding and TT
  • 4.8 Actions for developing countries
  • 4.9 Actions to consider special needs of LDCs

14
Mitigation Obligations
  • develop GHG inventories - 4.1(a)
  • formulate national and regional programmes
    containing mitigation and adaptation measures -
    4.1(b)
  • cooperate in development and transfer of
    technology in all relevant sectors that reduce or
    prevent emissions 4.1(c)
  • promote sustainable management of sinks - 4.1(d)
  • take climate change into consideration in social,
    economic and environmental policies - 4.1(f)

15
Adaptation Obligations
  • formulate national and regional programmes
    containing mitigation and adaptation measures
    4.1(b)
  • cooperate in preparing for adaptation develop
    integrated plans for coastal zone management,
    water resources and agriculture and for the
    protection of areas affected by drought and flood
    4.1(e)
  • take climate change into consideration in social,
    economic and environmental policies (4.1(f))

16
Reporting Obligations
  • National communications to the COP, reporting on
    implementation (Art. 4 (j))
  • National inventory of GHGs by sources and sinks
  • Steps taken or envisaged to implement the
    Convention
  • Staggered timeframes for different groups of
    countries

17
Obligations on Information Gathering and
Dissemination
  • promote and cooperate in scientific research,
    systematic observation, development of data
    archives (4.1(g) / Art. 5)
  • promote and cooperate in education, training and
    public awareness related to climate change
    (4.1(i) / Art. 6)

18
Funding Obligations under the UNFCCC
  • Article 4.3 Developed country Parties shall
  • provide new and additional financial resources
    to meet developing country costs in reporting on
    national needs
  • provide such financial resources needed by
    developing country Parties to meet the agreed
    full incremental costs of implementing planning
    and measures (under Art. 4.1)
  • Article 4.4 Developed country Parties shall
  • also assist the developing country parties that
    are particularly vulnerable to the adverse
    effects of climate change in meeting costs of
    adaptation to those adverse effects.
  • Article 12
  • All parties must submit national communications,
    detailing adaptation and mitigation efforts
  • Vulnerability and adaptation assessment, but
    limited funds provided for this assessment

19
Kyoto Protocol then adds
  • Annex I UNFCCC (Developed) Countries commit to
    reduce their aggregate emissions by at least 5
    percent below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012
  • Quantified Emission Limitation or Reduction
    Commitments (QELRCs) for each Annex I Party
  • Commitments set out in Annex B of the Kyoto
    Protocol
  • Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) (budgets for allowed
    emissions over a commitment period)
  • Covered basket of 6 gases
  • Flexible mechanisms

20
Annex B Countries and their emission targets

EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland -8
EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland  
EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland EU-15 plus Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland  
US     -7
Canada, Hungary, Japan, Poland Canada, Hungary, Japan, Poland Canada, Hungary, Japan, Poland -6
Croatia     -5
NZ, Russia, Ukraine NZ, Russia, Ukraine   0
Norway     1
Australia     8
Iceland     10
21
Original division of assigned amounts
if US had participated
22
Kyoto Protocol Flexibility Mechanisms
  • Three
  • Joint Implementation (Art. 6)
  • Clean Development Mechanism (Art. 12)
  • Emissions Trading (Art. 17 KP)
  • Do NOT reduce global emissions
  • but create flexibility WHERE and by WHOM
    reductions are made optimizing the use of cheap
    reduction options
  • Use of CDM increases total allowed domestic
    emissions in Annex I projects in developing
    countries generate credits to offset emissions in
    developed countries

23
Kyoto Protocol Flexibility
  • 3 Flexible Mechanisms

Joint Implementation Article 6 (ERUs)
Clean Development Mechanism Article 12 (CERs)
Emissions Trading Article 17 (AAUs)
A1
A1
A1
NA1
A1
A1
A1
A1
24
III. Implementing Bodies
25
UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol Bodies
26
A. Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI)
  • Mandate under Article 10
  • Assist the Parties in the assessment and review
    of the effective implementation of the Convention
  • Consider information from all Parties on their
    emissions inventories and on their steps taken to
    implement the Convention reported in national
    communications to assess the overall aggregated
    effect of the steps taken by Parties in the light
    of the latest scientific assessments concerning
    climate change
  • Consider information submitted by Parties through
    national communications

27
B. Subsidiary Body on Scientific and
Technological Advice (SBSTA)
  • Mandate under Article 9
  • To provide COP and other subsidiary bodies with
    timely information and advice on scientific and
    technological matters
  • Prepare scientific assessments on the effects of
    measures taken in the implementation of the
    Convention
  • Identify innovative, efficient and state of the
    art technologies
  • Provide advice on scientific programmes and
    international cooperation on RD

28
3 Expert Groups created by COP decision
  • Consultative Group of Experts on
    Non-Annex I Communications (CGE)
  • Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT)
  • Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG)
  • Limited membership
  • All assist with reporting or implementation

29
1. Mandate of the Consultative Group of Experts
on Non-Annex I National Communications (CGE)
  • To improve the preparation of national
    communications from developing countries
  • To examine technical problems and constraints
  • To provide inputs to ongoing review and
    implementation of the guidelines
  • To review existing activities and programmes
  • 8/CP.5
  • Membership of CGE 15 developing countries, 6
    Annex I parties, 3 international organisations

30
2. Mandate of the Expert Group on Technology
Transfer (EGTT)
  • To facilitate and support financial,
    institutional and methodological activities
  • To enhance coordination of stakeholders and
    engage stakeholders in cooperative efforts
  • To accelerate transfer of technologies
  • 4/CP.7 and 3/CP.13 (terms of reference)
  • Membership of EGTT
  • 9 developing countries, 1 small island state, 7
    Annex I parties, 3 international organisations

31
3. Mandate of Least Developed Countries Expert
Group (LEG)
  • To advise LDCs on the preparation and
    implementation strategy for NAPAs
  • To provide technical assistance in identifying
    data and information for synthesis
  • To advise on capacity building needs
  • 29/CP.7, 7/CP.9, 4/CP.11, 8/CP.13
  • Membership of LEG
  • 5 experts from African LDCs, 2 from Asian LDCs,
    2 from small island states, 3 from Annex II
    parties

32
Constituted Bodies under the Kyoto Protocol
  • Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board (CDM
    EB)
  • Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC)
  • Compliance Committee (CC)
  • Adaptation Fund Board (AFB)
  • All assist with emissions trading and compliance
    Adaptation Fund receives a share of the proceeds
    of CDM projects
  • All meet inter-sessionally

33
Mandate of the CDM Executive Board (EB)
  • Day to day operation of the CDM
  • including accreditation of operational entities
  • approval of methodologies
  • Applies decision 17/CP.7, Modalities and
    procedures for a clean development mechanism as
    defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Issues certified emission reduction units (CERs)
  • Membership 10 members (plus alternates), 1 from
    each of five UN regions, one small island State,
    two developing countries, 2 Annex I

34
Mandate of the Joint Implementation Supervisory
Committee (JISC)
  • Verifies emission reduction units (ERUs)
    transferred and acquired under Article 6, in host
    countries that are not fully meeting eligibility
    reqs relating to methodological and reporting
    obligations
  • Decision 9/CMP.1 , Guidelines for the
    Implementation of Article 6 of the Kyoto
    Protocol
  • Membership 10 members (plus alternates), 3 from
    countries with economies in transition (EIT),
    three from non-EIT countries, three from
    developing countries, and one small island State

35
Mandate of the Compliance Committee
  • Decision 27/CMP.1 procedures and mechanisms
    relating to compliance with Kyoto targets and
    eligibility for trading
  • Members serve in individual capacity
  • Membership 20 members (plus alternates)
  • 10 serve on enforcement branch
  • 10 serve on facilitative branch
  • Each branch one from each of 5 UN regional
    groups, one small island State, two developing
    countries, two from Annex I Parties.

36
Mandate of the Adaptation Fund Board
  • Decision 1/CMP.3
  • To supervise and manage the Adaptation Fund,
    develop strategic priorities, policies and
    guidelines decide on projects including
    allocation of funds.
  • Membership 16 members (plus alternates), two
    from each of 5 UN regional groups, one small
    island State, one LDC, two developing countries,
    two from Annex I Parties.

37
III. The Negotiating Process
38
Source ENB, www.iisd.ca
39
Montreal, COP 11 / MOP 1 Establishment of
AWG-KP and Dialogue on Long-term Cooperative
Action
40
Practical Questions
  • How can negotiations even take place on this
    scale?!!
  • What mechanisms enable countries to reach
    agreement?
  • How do negotiating blocs work?
  • How are decisions actually produced?
  • What is the role of a contact group?
    Informals? Who are friends of the chair?
  • Where is my issue being negotiated? How do I
    follow it?
  • Where does negotiating text come from? What is
    bracketed text?
  • What is the difference between recommendations,
    conclusions and decisions?
  • What is the value of side-events?

41
UNFCCC Structure negotiating process
COP
190 Parties to the UNFCCC
COP/M0P
170 Parties to the KP
SBI
SBSTA
Subsidiary bodies serve both COP and COP/MOP (CMP)
Contact Group
Contact Group
Contact groups formed to negotiate different
issues
Contact Group
Contact Group
Informals
Informals
42
For Cancun - 6 negotiating bodies each with its
own agenda
  • COP - Conference of the Parties
  • COP/MOP - COP serving as the meeting of the
    Parties to the Kyoto Protocol
  • SBSTA - Subsidiary Body on Scientific and
    Technical Advice
  • SBI - Subsidiary Body on Implementation
  • Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for
    Annex I Parties
  • Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative
    Action to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

43
Source ENB, www.iisd.ca
44
Overview of a negotiating session
45
Daily Programme Bali COP 3 December 3, first
day
46
Example of a Daily Programme Bali COP
47
Coalitions
  • EU European Union (27)
  • JUSCANNZ - Japan, US, Australia, Canada, NZ,
    Norway, Switzerland, Iceland
  • Umbrella Group JUSCANNZ plus Russia, Ukraine
  • Group of 77 China developing countries (132)
  • AOSIS Alliance of Small Island States (43)
  • LDC Group Least Developed Countries in Africa,
    Asia, Latin Am (48)
  • EIG Environmental Integrity Group (Mexico,
    Korea, Switzerland, Monaco, Lichtenstein)
  • GRULAC Latin American and the Caribbean and
    ASIAN for nominations to regional groupings

48
Upper end
OPEC 13


G-77
SIDS 43
LDCs 49
Lower end
  • Differentiation within the G-77

49
Provisional Annotated Agendas
  • Copenhagen Agendas for example
  • COP FCCC/CP/2009/1
  • CMP FCCC/KP/CMP/2009/1
  • SBI FCCC/SBI/2009/9
  • SBSTA FCCC/SBSTA/2009/4
  • AWG-KP FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/15
  • AWG-LCA FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/15
  • AWG-LCA Report of the AWG-LCA on its 7th
    Session
  • AWG-KP Documentation to Facilitate
    Negotiations

50
Which documentation for which issue?
  • COP, CMP, SBI, SBSTA annotated agendas provide
    citations to relevant documentation, issues ripe
    for decisions, conclusions
  • AWG-KP Documentation to facilitate
    negotiations
  • AWG-LCA Text to facilitate negotiations

51
Negotiating Process
  • 1. Opening Statements by Heads of Groups
    (Coalitions) and Delegations
  • - At a very general level
  • Adoption of Agenda, then proceed through each
    agenda item
  • - Oral interventions now more specific
  • Chairs listen to comments, then typically refer
    issues to contact groups or name persons to
    facilitate informal consultations
  • Contact groups open to the public informals are
    not
  • Most heated debates take place in informals
  • If Parties agree on conclusions or draft
    decisions, these conclusions or draft decisions
    are forwarded back to the bigger group (SBI,
    SBSTA, COP or CMP) for adoption

52
COP 10 Buenos Aires - 2004
Source ENB, www.iisd.ca
53
What outcomes?
  • COP and COP MOP take decisions, and meet once a
    year.
  • SBI and SBSTA deliver conclusions, and meet
    twice a year.
  • Often conclusions contain draft decision text,
    prepared with a view to adoption by the next COP
    or COP/MOP.

54
Provisional Annotated Agenda Example for REDD
55
Helpful materials during session
  • Annotated Agendas
  • Daily programmes
  • Earth Negotiations Bulletin
  • ECO
  • TWN Publications

Photo http//www.iisd.ca/climate (Accra session)
56
Negotiating etiquette
  • Hierarchy of speakers
  • Large groups speak first (G-77, EU, Umbrella
    Group, AOSIS, LDC Group, Envtl Integrity Group
  • Chair of group speaks
  • Individual countries take the floor to support
    what has been said and then elaborate
  • Diplomatic language
  • Mr. Chair, as I am taking the floor for the first
    time, let me express my delegations pleasure to
    see you once again leading this process. My
    delegation has full confidence in your abilities
    to steer us to a favorable outcome and pledges
    its full support to you over the coming days.

Photos www.unfccc.int http//www.iisd.ca/climate
57
Bracketing text
  • The Parties are urged to shall must
    should may submit their reports to the
    Secretariat before no later than
    January 1, 2005 June 30, 2005 the
    Xth session of the Subsidiary Bodies.
  • Text may be adopted only after brackets have been
    cleared.
  • L documents - limited circulation documents

58
AWG-KP Vienna August 2007
59
(No Transcript)
60
V. Status of the Post-2012 Negotiating Progress
61
  • . . . (ii) Nationally-appropriate mitigation
    actions by developing country Parties in the
    context of sustainable development, supported and
    enabled by technology, financing and
    capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable
    and verifiable manner
  • . . .
  • (c) Enhanced action on adaptation,
  • (d) enhanced action on technology development and
    transfer
  • (e) enhanced action on financing for mitigation,
    adaptation, technology transfer

62
Annex I Emission Trends 1990 - 2007
FCCC/SBI/2009/12 (Oct. 2009)
63
Annex I Party Emission Trends 1990-2007
FCCC/SBI/2009/12 (Oct. 2009)
64
Emission Trends 1990 - 2007
FCCC/SBI/2009/12 (Oct. 2009)
65
Projected Emissions of GHGs in 2025
Percent change from 2000
Source Figure 3.1. Projected Emissions of GHGs
in 2025, World Resources Institute
66
Source IPCC Third Assessment Report,
Summary for Policymakers, Figure SPM 5
(http//www.ipcc.ch/pub/un/syreng/spm.pdf)
67
Source IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
68
Political challenge
  • Kyoto Protocol Art. 3.9 requires Parties with
    targets to begin discussion of new targets no
    later than 7 years before the end of the first
    commitment period (by 2005).
  • Some developed country Convention Parties with
    major emissions have decided not to ratify Kyoto
    Protocol and thus are not working within an
    emissions reduction target
  • United States represented 36 of industrialised
    country emissions in 1990
  • Some developing countries that have ratified
    Kyoto do not have targets but have rapidly
    increasing emissions
  • e.g., China, India, Korea China is the worlds
    second largest polluter

69
How to address this dynamic?
  • In addition to Art. 3.9, another process had to
    be found for engaging US and developing
    countries.
  • Two parallel processes created in Montreal at COP
    11/MOP 1
  • 1. Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments
    for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
    (AWG-KP) (discussing targets)
  • 2. Dialogue on Long-term Cooperative Action
    to Enhance Implementation of the Convention under
    the Convention (Dialogue)
  • In Bali at COP 13, the Dialogue was converted to
    an Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative
    Action to Enhance Implementation of the
    Convention (AWG-LCA) (discussing efforts for all
    Parties under the Convention under 4 building
    blocks)
  • Both AWGs have work programmes to conclude in
    Copenhagen, 2009

70
Montreal, COP 11 / MOP 1 Establishment of
AWG-KP and Dialogue on Long-term Cooperative
Action
71
1. AWG on Further Commitments for Annex I
Parties (AWG-KP)
  • Analysis of mitigation potential of current and
    future policies, measures and technologies (what
    reductions are possible)
  • Identification of possible ranges of emission
    reductions by Annex I Parties, through their
    domestic and international efforts, and analysis
    of their contribution to the ultimate objective
    of the Convention (25-40 below 1990 levels
    discussed)
  • Analysis of means that may be available for Annex
    I Parties to reach their emission reduction
    targets and ways to enhance these means (e.g.,
    CDM, emissions trading, Joint Implementation,
    land use change and forestry, sectoral emissions,
    additional gases, sectors)
  • Agree upon ranges of emission reductions by Annex
    I Parties
  • Agree targets

72
2. Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative
Action (AWG- LCA)
  • Bali Action Plan launches a comprehensive process
    . . . to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a
    decision at its fifteenth session, by
    addressing, inter alia
  • A shared vision for long-term cooperative action,
    including a long-term global goal for emission
    reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of
    the Convention . .
  • (b) enhanced national/international action on
    mitigation, including consideration of
  • (i) Measurable, reportable, verifiable
    nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or
    actions, including targets, by all developed
    country Parties, while ensuring the comparability
    of effort among them, taking into account
    differences in their national circumstances
    (United States)

73
  • . . . (ii) Nationally-appropriate mitigation
    actions by developing country Parties in the
    context of sustainable development, supported and
    enabled by technology, financing and
    capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable
    and verifiable manner
  • . . .
  • (c) Enhanced action on adaptation,
  • (d) enhanced action on technology development and
    transfer
  • (e) enhanced action on financing for mitigation,
    adaptation, technology transfer

74
Key issues in the negotiating process
  • The objective of the Convention is to stabilize
    GHG emissions to avoid dangerous climate change.
  • At what level should GHG concentrations be
    stabilized?
  • Over what time frame? Should there be a peaking
    year for global emissions?
  • 2015? 2020?
  • Should there be a temperature limitation and/or a
    concentration limitation?
  • e.g., 2 degrees, 1.5 degrees?
  • e.g., 450 ppmv, 350 ppmv?
  • How to broaden participation of major-emitting
    developing countries in emission reductions?

75
  • How to bring in the United States?
  • How to bring in major-emitting developing
    countries?
  • How to achieve greater reductions from Annex I
    Parties that are already Parties to the KP?
  • Should new flexible mechanisms be created?
  • Should commitments be established through a
    top-down process as in the KP, or a bottom up
    process as with the Copenhagen Accords pledge
    and review format?
  • Should the KP disappear in favor of one broad
    Protocol?
  • What is lost if the KP is lost?
  • Can Parties agree to a second commitment period?
  • What happens to the existing flexible mechanisms?
    The adaptation fund?
  • What is the role of the Copenhagen Protocol?
  • How can financing for adaptation and mitigation
    be scaled up?

76
  • What can be done about emissions from aviation
    and bunker fuels?
  • Should the IMO and ICAO address, or the UNFCCC?
  • As the IMO and ICAO have different principles
    (principle of equal application), what role if
    any does the UNFCCC principle of CBDR have?
  • What about the impacts on developing countries of
    measures that are taken by developed countries to
    reduce emissions? (impact of response measures)
  • Should more market mechanisms be created to scale
    up private sector investment in emission
    reductions?
  • For example through sectoral rather than project
    based mechanisms?

77
Limiting temperature increase to 2 degrees C
above pre-industrial levels
CO2-equivalent Stabilization level (2005 375 ppm CO2e) Global Mean temperature increase at equilibrium (ºC) Global average sea level rise at equilibrium from thermal expansion only Year global CO2 needs to peak Reduction in 2050 global CO2 emissions compared to 2000
445 490 2.0 2.4 0.4 1.4 2000 2015 -85 to -50
490 535 2.4 2.8 0.5 1.7 2000 2020 -60 to -30
535 590 2.8 3.2 0.6 1.9 2010 2030 -30 to 5
590 710 3.2 4.0 0.6 2.4 2020 2060 10 to 60
710 855 4.0 4.9 0.8 2.9 2050 2080 25 to 85
855 1130 4.9 6.1 1.0 3.7 2060 2090 90 to 140
Source Fourth Assessment Report
78
Costs of Adaptation? Funds available?
Source WWF, Beyond Adaptation (2008)
79
COP 12 Nairobi 2006
Source ENB, www.iisd.ca
80
AWG Sessions - Vienna August 2007
81
(No Transcript)
82
AWG-KP Vienna August 2007
83
V. Ways to Impact the Process
  • Organise side events
  • Draft papers on current negotiating topics
  • Discuss issues with negotiators in advance of the
    negotiations
  • Make formal submissions to the process in
    response to a call for submissions
  • - for AWG-LCA Submissions from observer orgs
    see http//unfccc.int/meetings/ad_hoc_working_gro
    ups/lca/items/4381.php
  • - For examples of submissions by IGOs and
    NGOs, see http//unfccc.int/documentation/documen
    ts/document_lists/items/2960.php

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Side events
  • Sponsored by
  • Research organisations
  • Parties
  • Intergovernmental Orgs
  • NGOs
  • Trade associations

Informative and open to the public
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Thank you _____________
M.J. Mace mjmace02_at_yahoo.com
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Decision 1/CP.13 - Bali Action Plan elements
for consideration on Adaptation
  • (c) Enhanced action on adaptation, including,
    inter alia, consideration of
  • (i) International cooperation to support
    urgent implementation of adaptation actions,
    including through vulnerability assessments,
    prioritization of actions, financial needs
    assessments, capacity-building and response
    strategies, integration of adaptation actions
    into sectoral and national planning, specific
    projects and programmes, means to incentivize the
    implementation of adaptation actions, and other
    ways to enable climate-resilient development and
    reduce vulnerability of all Parties, taking into
    account the urgent and immediate needs of
    developing countries that are particularly
    vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate
    change, especially the least developed countries
    and small island developing States, and further
    taking into account the needs of countries in
    Africa affected by drought, desertification and
    floods

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  • (ii) Risk management and risk reduction
    strategies, including risk sharing and transfer
    mechanisms such as insurance
  • (iii) Disaster reduction strategies and means to
    address loss and damage associated with climate
    change impacts in developing countries that are
    particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of
    climate change
  • (iv) Economic diversification to build
    resilience
  • (v) Ways to strengthen the catalytic role of the
    Convention in encouraging multilateral bodies,
    the public and private sectors and civil society,
    building on synergies among activities and
    processes, as a means to support adaptation in a
    coherent and integrated manner.
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