National Science and Technology Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – National Science and Technology Systems PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7c6712-MTg0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

National Science and Technology Systems

Description:

National Science and Technology Systems CANADA Graham Bell President, Academy of Science (RSC) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:151
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 43
Provided by: Academ234
Learn more at: http://www.ianas.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: National Science and Technology Systems


1
National Science and Technology Systems
CANADA
Graham Bell President, Academy of Science (RSC)
2
researchers
3
The first stage is to set priorities. This is a
political decision informed by advice given by
groups invited by the State, which may or may not
include the Academy.
researchers
?
4
Advice to the Government of Canada is provided by
the Science, Technology and Innovation Council
5
Reports on scientific and technical issues
requested by the Government of Canada are
prepared by the Council of Canadian
Academies The Council of Canadian Academies is
an independent, not-for-profit corporation that
began operation in 2006. The Council supports
independent, science-based, expert assessments
(studies) that inform public policy development
in Canada. Assessments are conducted by
independent, multidisciplinary panels (groups) of
experts from across Canada and abroad. The
Councils blue-ribbon panels serve free of charge
and many are Fellows of the Councils member
Academies. The Councils completed assessments
are published and made available to the public
free of charge in English and French. Director
Elizabeth Dowdeswell
6
Member Academies of the CCA The Councils Member
Academies are as follows RSC The Academies of
the Arts, Humanities and Sciences of Canada is
the senior national body of distinguished
Canadian scholars, artists and scientists. The
primary objective of the RSC is to promote
learning and research in the arts and sciences.
The RSC consists of nearly 2,000 Fellows men
and women who are selected by their peers for
outstanding contributions to the natural and
social sciences, the arts and the humanities. The
RSC exists to recognize academic excellence, to
advise governments and organizations, and to
promote Canadian culture. The Canadian Academy
of Engineering is the national institution
through which Canada's most distinguished and
experienced engineers provide strategic advice on
matters of critical importance to Canada. The
Academy is an independent, self-governing and
non-profit organization established in 1987.
Members of the Academy are nominated and elected
by their peers to honorary Fellowships, in
recognition of their distinguished achievements
and career-long service to the engineering
profession. Fellows of the Academy are committed
to ensuring that Canadas engineering expertise
is applied to the benefit of all Canadians. The
Canadian Academy of Health Sciences recognizes
individuals of great accomplishment and
achievement in the academic health sciences in
Canada. The Academy provides timely, informed and
unbiased assessments of urgent issues affecting
the health of Canadians. CAHS also represents
Canada on the InterAcademy Medical Panel (IAMP),
a global consortium of national health science
academies whose aim is to alleviate the health
burdens of the world's poorest people build
scientific capacity for health and provide
independent scientific advice on promoting health
science and health care policy to national
governments and global organizations.
7
Board of Governors The Board of Governors has a
unique structure. Each member academy appoints
two governors. These six governors then appoint
two additional governors from the general public.
The remaining four governors are proposed to the
Board by the federal Minister of Industry, but
are formally appointed by the Board.
Elizabeth Parr-Johnston, C.M., Chair President, Parr-Johnston Consultants (Chester Basin, NS)
Richard Drouin, C.C. Counsel, McCarthy Tetrault (Quebec City, QC)
Edna Einsiedel University Professor and Professor of Communication Studies, University of Calgary (Calgary, AB)
Henry Friesen, C.C., FRSC, FCAHS  Distinguished Professor Emeritus and Senior Fellow, Centre for the Advancement of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, MB)
John Leggat, FCAE Associate Consultant, CFN Consultants (Ottawa, ON)
Preston Manning, C.C. Fellow of the Fraser Institute and President and CEO of the Manning Centre for Building Democracy (Calgary, AB)
Thomas Marrie, FCAHS Dean of Medicine, Dalhousie University (Halifax, NS)
John McLaughlin, FCAE Professor of Engineering and President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of New Brunswick (Fredericton, NB)
Danial Wayner, FRSC Director General, NRC Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences (Ottawa, ON)
Catharine Whiteside, FCAHS Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Vice Provost Relations with Health Care Institutions, University of Toronto (Toronto, ON), and President-Elect, Canadian Academy of Health Sciences
8
SAC Membership Scientific Advisory Committee The
role of this 16-member Committee is to advise the
Councils Board with respect to assessment topic
selection, terms of reference, and peer review.
The Committee will also be among several sources
of advice on selection of expert panelists. The
members of SAC are eminent representatives of the
broad science community, drawing from the
academic, business and non-governmental sectors.
Membership reflects balance in terms of
discipline, geography, gender and official
language community. Members
Tom Brzustowski, O.C., FRSC, FCAE, Chair RBC Financial Group Professor in the Commercialization of Innovation, University of Ottawa
Michel G. Bergeron, FCAHS Director, Division of Microbiology and le Centre de recherche en infectiologieUniversité Laval
Margaret Conrad, O.C., FRSC Canadian Research Chair in Atlantic Canada Studies, University of New Brunswick
Marcel Côté Founding Partner, SECOR Inc.
Louis Fortier, O.C. Full Professor, Department of Biology, Université Laval
Jean Gray, C.M., FCAHS Professor of Medicine (Emeritus), Dalhousie University
Judith G. Hall, O.C., FCAHS Professor of Pediatrics and medical Genetics, University of British Columbia
John Hepburn, FRSC Vice-President of Research, University of British Columbia
Donald J. Johnston Former Secretary-General of the OECD
Daniel Krewski Professor of Epidemiology and Community Medicine and Scientific Director of the McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa
Susan A. McDaniel, FRSC Professor of Sociology and Prentice Research Chair in Global Population Economy University of Lethbridge
Norbert R. Morgenstern, C.M., FRSC, FCAE University Professor (Emeritus), Civil Engineering, University of Alberta
William Pulleyblank Vice President, Center for Business Optimization, IBM Global Business Services
John P. Smol, FRSC Co-Director of the Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Queens University
Joseph D. Wright, FCAE Retired President and CEO, Pulp Paper Research Institute (PAPRICAN)
9
Assessment Publications The Council of Canadian
Academies provides independent, science-based,
expert assessments that inform public policy
development and decision-making. As such, all
Council publications are available online free of
charge in English and French.
Better Research for Better Business (May 2009)
Energy from Gas Hydrates Assessing the
Opportunities and Challenges for Canada (July
2008)
Small is Different A Science Perspective on the
Regulatory Challenges of the Nanoscale (July 2008)
The Sustainable Management of Groundwater in
Canada (May 2009)
Innovation and Business Strategy Why Canada
Falls Short (April 2009)  
Influenza Transmission and the Role of Personal
Protective Respiratory Equipment An Assessment
of the Evidence (December 2007)
Vision for the Canadian Arctic Research
Initiative Assessing the Opportunities (November
2008)
The State of Science and Technology in Canada
(September 2006)
10
Assessments in Progress Approaches to Animal
Health Risk Assessment The Minister of
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, on behalf of
the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), has
asked the Council of Canadian Academies to assess
the state and comprehensiveness of risk
assessment techniques in animal health sciences.
Integrated Testing of Pesticides The Minister
of Health asked the Canadian Council of Academies
to assess the scientific status of integrated
testing strategies in assessing and regulating
the risks of pesticides to both humans and
environments. Research Integrity in the Canadian
Context Industry Canada asked the Council of
Canadian Academies to conduct an assessment
examining the key research integrity principles,
procedural mechanisms, and appropriate practices
for their application across research disciplines
and institutions in Canada. State and Trends of
Biodiversity Science in Canada The Minister of
Canadian Heritage, on behalf of the Canadian
Museum of Nature, asked the Council of Canadian
Academies to assess the state and trends of
biodiversity science in Canada. The charge to the
panel focuses specifically on the state of
taxonomic and biosystematics research in Canada
research that discovers, distinguishes,
identifies, and classifies species of organisms.
11
What is the RSC? RSC The Academies of Arts,
Humanities and Sciences of Canada is the senior
national body of distinguished Canadian scholars,
artists and scientists.  It is Canadas national
academy.  The primary objective of the RSC is to
promote learning and research in the arts and
sciences.  The RSC consists of nearly 2000
Fellows, men and women who are selected by their
peers for outstanding contributions to the
natural and social sciences, in the arts and in
the humanities. As Canadas national academy, the
RSC exists to recognize academic excellence, to
advise governments and organizations, and to
promote Canadian culture. Raison dêtre National
academies are cultural institutions with three
principal responsibilities.  The first
responsibility of a national academy is to
recognize excellence.  Most national academies do
this through the election of Fellows and the
presentation of awards.  The second
responsibility of a national academy is to
provide expert advice on matters of national
interest or urgency.  The third responsibility of
a national academy is to promote its national
culture abroad.  This occurs in a variety of
ways, and includes service on multilateral
agencies (G8, UNESCO, IAP), as well as exchange
lectureships with other national academies and
universities.
12
Anglophone Division
Academy I Academy of the Arts and Humanities
Francophone Division
Arts Division
Academy II Academy of Social Sciences
Anglophone Division
Royal Society of Canada
Francophone Division
Applied Science and Engineering Division
Atmosphere, Ocean and Earth Science Division
Academy III Academy of Science
Life Science Division
Mathematics and Physical Science Division
13
Main RSC events 2010
APRIL 2010 G8 Academies Summit (Closed-Door
Meeting)April 6-8, 2010Ottawa, Ontario 2010
Eastern Ontario regional meeting of the Royal
Society of Canada April 10, 2010 at 1000 am -
Queen's University Donald Gordon Centre, Union
St, Kingston, Ontario MARCH 2010 Women in
Science, Engineering, and Technology
(WISET)March 17-23, 2010Peterborough
Calgary March 18-24, 2010Montreal Ottawa   RSC
Symposium Atlantic Regional ConferenceMarch
26-27, 2010 - Saint Mary's UniversityScotiabank
Theatre - Sobey Building, Halifax, Nova
Scotia                                            
                                                  
              Taboo Topic Forum - Human Wrongs
Making Things RightMarch 31, 2010 - University
of ManitobaWinnipeg
AUGUST 2010 IANAS General Assembly Meeting August
26-28, 2010 Ottawa, Ontario OCTOBER 2010 Annual
Symposium Immigrating to Canada Who comes? Who
stays? Who decides? October 15, 2010 - Canadian
Museum of Civilization Gatineau - Ottawa
                                                  
                                                  
               NOVEMBER 2010 RSC Annual General
Meeting New Fellow Presentations, Induction
Awards Ceremony and Banquet November 26-28,
2010 Ottawa, Ontario
14
Public documents 2010 G8 Statements G8
Academies Joint Statement on Health of Women and
Children G8 Academies Joint Statement on
Innovation for Development Expert
Panels RSC/CAHS Expert Panel on Early Childhood
Development RSC/SRC Expert Panel on Ocean Climate
Change and Marine Biodiversity RSC/SRC Expert
Panel on End-of-Life Decision Making (Working
Terms of Reference - February 2010) RSC/SRC
Expert Panel on Environmental and Health Impacts
of Canadas Oil Sands Industry (Working Terms of
Reference) RSC Business RSC 2009 Medal and
Award Recipients September 2009, New Fellows
(Press Release) 2009 New Fellows (Citations)
15
Academy of Science
Published reports from independent Expert Panels
Royal Society of Canada
Scientific Advisory Committee
Science, Technology and Innovation Council
Council of Canadian Academies
Confidential advice as requested by government
State of the Nation review
Published reports commissioned by government
departments and agencies
Government of Canada
Conclusion the Academy of Science plays little
part in the formulation of science policy in
Canada.
16
There has been some external criticism of the
current Canadian system. In particular, the role
of the Academy is marginal.
Bodies that help to inform the government about
science, such as the Council of Canadian
Academies, have neither the membership of their
US equivalents nor the historical clout of those
in Britain. Another reason may be that so much of
Canadas wealth comes from natural resources,
including timber and the oil sands, rather than
from technical innovation. Perhaps this leads the
government to see scientists as just another
interest group, rather than as crucial
contributors to the economy.
17
(No Transcript)
18
The second stage is to put in place the
institutional structures necessary to achieve the
priorities that have been established.
researchers
priorities
19
Train
(external inputs)
Support
(lost from system)
Use
20
State
Train
(external inputs)
Support
State
(lost from system)
Use
State
Simple (in principle) with a sole provider and
end-user
21
Business
State
Train
(external inputs)
Support
State
Business
(lost from system)
Use
State
Business
More complex when the end-user is not necessarily
the provider
22
Training is a private good when it can be
directly applied within an enterprise that is
difficult to leave. The roles of State and
Business can diverge when the output of one group
of researchers is the input for another group.
Train
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
Business
R
(lost from system)
State
Business
Use
23
The State may choose to extend the range of
support provided by Business by providing a
subsidy.
Train
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
Business
R
(lost from system)
State
Business
Use
24
The State invests money into education, research
funding and subsidy to generate social benefits,
transfer of technology and advancement of
knowledge.
Train
State
Business
(external inputs)
EDUCATION
State
RESEARCH FUNDING
Support
SUBSIDY
Business
TRANSFER
R
SOCIALBENEFIT
(lost from system)
State
Business
Use
25
Business invests in specialized training and
targetted research support to generate profit.
Train
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
APPRENTICESHIP
Business
BERD
R
(lost from system)
PROFIT
State
Business
Use
26
Knowledge that leaves the system may or may not
drive enhanced external inputs. It is difficult
to compare the advancement of knowledge with
other outputs, and to measure how it contributes
to them.
Train
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
REINFORCEMENT
Support
COLLABORATION
Business
DISSEMINATION
R
(lost from system)
State
Business
Use
27
Inputs are Education, especially PhD
Research funding Subsidy Outputs are
Dissemination Social benefit, such as
monitoring and regulation Transfer from more
basic to more applied research Increased
business expenditure on RD
Train
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
Business
R
(lost from system)
The object of STI strategy is to adjust the
inputs so as to optimize the outputs subject to
the constraint that the sum of the inputs is
limited by the overall profit generated.
State
Business
Use
28
Inputs education. Canada has excellent basic
education, but the proportion of science and
engineering degrees is low
29
Inputs education. There is a low rate of PhD
graduation.
Note immigration of highly trained young people
into Canada is strongly encouraged. This has
large direct benefits to the country, but reduces
local demand and also reduces the value of PhD
training to source countries.
30
Inputs research funding. Both federal and
provincial funding programs exist. Federal
funding is administered by the Department of
Industry. There is currently a non-Cabinet
Minister for Science.
NSERC Natural Sciences and Engineering
Individual operating grants
Support for teams of researchers
CIHR Medical Bioscience
SSHRC Social Sciences
Partnerships between university and industry
researchers
CFI Canadian Foundation for Innovation large
grants for infrastructure
CRC Canada Research Chairs support for salary
and research
CERC upgraded CRC program
31
Inputs research funding. Canada has an average
rate of research funding.
32
Inputs research funding. Governments fund
research mostly at universities directly applied
research is funded by business.
33
Inputs research funding. A high proportion of
GDP is devoted to funding research in
universities.
34
Inputs research funding. Funding to government
labs is low and decreasing.
35
Inputs subsidy. State subsidy of business
research is high but mostly indirect.
36
Outputs dissemination. Canadian research is
highly cited.
37
Outputs transfer. There is a low level of
collaboration in Canadian business.
38
Outputs BERD. The level of in-house research is
modest.
(BERD is Business Expenditure on Research and
Development)
39
Train
State
The Canadian system has strong inputs but weak
outputs, except in the advancement of knowledge.
This has been found in other systems, including
Brazil.
Business
STRONG for basic education WEAK for science
degrees and PhD
State
(external inputs)
AVERAGE overall STRONG for universities, WEAK
for state labs
Support
R
STRONG, mostly indirect
Business
STRONG in most fields
WEAK
WEAK
R
(lost from system)
WEAK productivity and profitability
State
Business
Use
40
Train
The crucial link may be the transfer of knowledge
and skills from more basic to more applied
research programs.
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
R
Business
WEAK
R
(lost from system)
This has led to a shift towards more directly
applicable research funding. Communication
between research groups at different levels may
be at least as important, but has not often been
successfully achieved.
State
Business
Use
41
Train
A crucial insight may be that the output from one
group of researchers forms the input for another
group, and that planning this supply chain may be
an important aspect of future strategies.
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
R
Business
WEAK
R
(lost from system)
There is no good scientific reason that the
research groups in this supply chain should be in
the same country. There are political reasons
that might be overcome with the help of IANAS.
State
Business
Use
42
Train
One possibility might be to create programs
designed to support short visits to foreign
laboratories to acquire new skills. This would be
an element in an international strategy for
science and technology for the western hemisphere
as a whole.
State
Business
(external inputs)
State
Support
R
Business
WEAK
R
(lost from system)
A document drafted by IANAS, signed by its member
Academies, and presented to each government in
the region by its Academy might be an appropriate
way of preparing the way for programs of this
sort.
State
Business
Use
About PowerShow.com