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King Charles II of England gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York, ... The Duke of York soon realized that his new colony was too big to govern. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Middle%20Colonies

What does the picture tell you about geography,
society and economics in the Middle colonies?
Write your answer in the warm-up section of your
binder! Title the page the Middle Colonies
Color the 4 Middle Colonies YELLOW New York,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
The Middle Colonies
  • Chapter 4, Section 2

As we have seen, during exploration, the
Netherlands were only able to claim a small
portion of North America. This area was called
New Netherland. The original territory included
present-day New York, Connecticut and New Jersey.
New Netherland was created for economic reasons.
Early settlers traded with the Indians for furs
and eventually created the port city of New
Because of New Netherlands location, there was
rivalry with England for trade and colonies. In
August 1664, English warships entered New
Amsterdam Harbor. The governor, Peter Stuyvesant,
said he would defend the port, but could not get
help from his citizens because he had been such a
harsh ruler. He surrendered without ever firing a
King Charles II of England gave New Netherland to
his brother, the Duke of York, who soon named the
colony New York.
The Duke of York soon realized that his new
colony was too big to govern. He gave some of
the territory to his friend George Carteret, who
called it New Jersey. This new territory had
fertile farm land, which attracted many people.
These new settlers came from Finland, Ireland,
Scotland, Germany and Sweden.
New England settlers moved to New Jersey hoping
to find better farmland.
The owner then pays the king a yearly fee.
New Jersey was originally set up as a proprietary
The king gives land to someone.
The farmers pay the land owner a monthly fee.
The person divides up the land to rent to farmers.
Then, in 1702, it then became a royal colony,
where the land is under direct control of the
In 1681, William Penn founded Pennsylvania. Penn
was also a Quaker. In England, Quakers had been
persecuted for their radical beliefs - all
people were equal in Gods eyes - women could
preach in public - opposed war/refused to serve
military - called for fair treatment of Native
Penn carefully planned the capital city,
Philadelphia, which is a Greek word, meaning
brotherly love. Government Holy Experiment
created a colony of religious freedom and peace
In 1709, William Penn allowed settlers in a
southern region of Pennsylvania, known as the
Lower Counties, to set up a separate assembly to
govern themselves. It would later be called
Life in the Middle Colonies
Geography- - soil was much richer and more
fertile than in New England - the growing season
was much longer - winter was milder than New
England Economics- -most people made a living by
farming - most farmers raised wheat, barley and
rye, which were cash crops (crops sold at the
market for money) - so much grain was exported
that the Middle Colonies were known as the
Breadbasket Colonies - farmers also raised
herds of cattle and pigs - this area also had
skilled artisans and trades people
Life in the Middle Colonies
Religion Pennsylvania Quakers -Pacifists
Peaceful -Religious Tolerance Society
-Multi-Cultural Society Finland, Ireland,
Scotland, Germany and Sweden -Peaceful
existence with Native Americans -Most
Egalitarian (Equal Rights) Politics -Royal
Colonies governed by Representative
legislatures Education -No public
schools -Private Schools- little education for
What does the picture tell you about geography,
society and economics in the Southern colonies?
Write your answer in the warm-up section of your
binder! Title the page the Southern Colonies
Color the 5 SouthernColonies GREEN Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Jamestown was founded in 1607 by the Virginia
Company. They were seeking economic opportunity
until John Smith came to lead them. The colony
soon started planting tobacco, which made them
very successful. The House of Burgesses was
created in 1619 as the first representative
Maryland was founded in 1634 by Lord
Baltimore. The colony was founded for religious
freedom, as a place where Catholics could
practice their religion freely.
In 1649, the Elected Assembly created the Act of
Toleration provided the right to worship freely
to all Christians. This freedom did not extend
to Jews though.
The region south of Virginia and Maryland was
settled in 1663 when King Charles II gave a land
grant to 8 English nobles that wanted to trade
and farm. North Carolina was settled by poor
tobacco farmers from Virginia in 1712. South
Carolina was set up farther south by the 8
nobles. They named their largest town Charleston
in honor of King Charles II.
Member of the English Church or Anglican Church
By 1700, most people coming to Charleston were
African slaves to help grow rice and indigo. SC
was the only colony where African Americans made
up the majority of the population.
James Oglethorpe carved Georgia from the southern
part of South Carolina in 1732. He created the
territory as a home for English debtors, or
people who owed money that they couldnt pay
back. Georgia grew slowly because the farms were
limited in size and slavery was forbidden.
But later, Oglethorpe changed the rules to allow
large plantations and slave labor. This caused
the colony to grow more quickly.
The South has warmer weather, which means a
longer growing season.
Economics This allowed them to grow the cash
crops indigo, rice and tobacco on farms and
Large plantations grew tobacco and rice, but only
a small percentage of white southerners owned
them. Most southern farms (75) were small with
only one or two slaves.
  • Religion
  • Anglican Church the state church, supported by
    state taxes
  • Education
  • No public schools
  • Few private schools
  • Wealthy people hired tutors
  • Politics
  • Royal Colonies
  • King made appointments

The first Africans arrived in 1619 at Jamestown.
Some were enslaved, some became servants and a
few were able to purchase their freedom.
By 1700, plantations in the Southern Colonies
relied heavily on slave labor. In the 1700s,
English sailors began referring to the passage of
slave ships west across the Atlantic Ocean as the
Middle Passage.
As slavery increased, greater limits were placed
on the rights of slaves. Slave codes treated
slaves as property, not human beings. Most
English colonists thought that black Africans
were inferior to white Europeans.
In 1688, the Quakers of Pennsylvania were the
first group to call for an end to slavery. This
group would later help slaves escape via the
Underground Railroad.
Colony Year Founded by/leader Reason
New York 1664 Duke of York Trading and religious freedom
New Jersey 1664 Lord Berkeley/George Carteret Religious and political freedom
Pennsylvania 1681 William Penn Religious and political freedom
Delaware 1701 William Penn Political (to set up assembly away from PA)
Make sure this goes in your Notes Section and is
written on your Table of Contents.
(No Transcript)