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HGIA Chapter 13 - Political Geography

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Essential Political Geography concepts State a political unit Nation a cultural unit based on Latin status to stand independent country defined boundaries – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HGIA Chapter 13 - Political Geography


1
Essential Political Geography concepts
State a political unit
Nation a cultural unit
based on Latin status to stand independent
country defined boundaries internationally
recognized sovereignty over land and people
within boundaries gray areas, including colonies
based on Latin natio birth ethnic
identity common ancestry (mythical or
actual) common religion (usually) and/or
language accepted ways of behavior political
aspirations has a homeland (the sacred soil)
2
Nationalism can take several forms
  • Ethnic nationalism pride of nation based on
    group identification with specific culture
  • or
  • Civic nationalism pride of nation based on
    government system or political ideals that
    transcends ethnicity
  • How do multi-ethnic or multi-nation states
    promote a sense of national identity?
  • Is there a downside with fostering nationalism?

3
The geography of nations and states
Situation 1 Nation-State Model - close match
between political sovereignty and extent of a
nations homeland
Situation 2 Multi-nation State Political unit
with two national homelands may lead to
ethnonationalism and stages of political
fragmentation separatism, devolution, or
secession
Situation 3 Multi-state Nation Cultural unit
(homeland) exists across the boundaries of more
than one political unit may lead to
irredentism political goal to unify a nation
across existing state borders
Situation 4 - Stateless Nation a nation (with
political aspirations) without sovereignty over
its homeland
4
Strategies used by multi-nation states for
unifying countries (nation-building)
1. Maintain central control Dominant group
(political core) doesnt grant any political
autonomy to ethnic regions Examples Yugoslavia
under Tito, UK prior to Irish independence, Iraq
under Saddam 2. Devolution Peripheral ethnic
regions pressure core group for local control
sharing of some power by the core (dominant)
group with the ethnic-minority region Examples
Spain (Basques, Catalans), Belgium (Walloons,
Flemish), Canada (Quebec)
5
Boundary of former Turkish (Ottoman) Empire
Empires often divided peoples to maintain control
over ethnic-minority regions
Mismatch between state and nation in Central
Asia borders drawn by Russian and British
Empires
6
Devolution in the UK Efforts at greater local
control from a core nations political dominance
Scotland has own Parliament for its local
affairs Northern Ireland and Wales have its own
Assembly for its local affairs Rep. of Ireland
(Eire) split from English control completely in
1922

London
7
Political Fragmentation
What if devolution fails to unify a State?
Separatism Independence movements in peripheral
ethnic regions seek to break free from cores
domination Examples? Secession Fragmenting of
multi-nation state into smaller states as local
ethnic regions gain independence may lead to
balkanization fragmentation into small states
that may not be viable Examples?
8
Fragmentation -Czechoslovakia split in 1993 one
multi-nation state became two nation-states
SLOVAKIA Population 5,400,000 Ethnicities Slova
k 86 Hungarian 11 All others 3
CZECH REPUBLIC Population 10,200,000 Ethnicities
Czech Moravian 95 Slovak 3 All others 2
CZECHOSLOVAKIA (data before separation in
1993) Total population 15,600,000 Ethnicities Cz
ech Moravian 62 Hungarian 4 Slovak 32 Al
l others 2
9
Pop. GNI/PPP Ethnicity Singapore 4.3
26,590 77 Chinese Malaysia 26.1 9,630 60
Malay
Singapore split from Malaysia in 1965
SINGAPORE
MALAYSIA
10
Successor states to the former Soviet Union (15
countries)
Russia 142 million Ukraine 47 million Uzbekistan
26 million Total of 12 others 70 million
11
Russian Federation still a multi-nation state,
with designated internal ethnic republics
Chechnya Internal ethnic republic in Russia -
mostly Muslim declared independence in 1994
led to devastating war
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13
Fragmenting of the former Yugoslavia into six
countries (so far)
Serbia
Croatia
Slovenia
Bosnia - Herzegovina
Macedonia
Montenegro
14
Aceh
Moluccas
West Papua
East Timor
Separatist Flashpoints in Indonesia (East Timor
gained independence in 2002)
15
Core area (Irrawaddy River valley)
Myanmar (Burma) Ethnically diverse, not unified
Karenni kids
Burmese are politically dominant
Peripheries (mountainous)
16
Irredentism Cross-border political movement a
nation divided by intl borders seeks to unify
and control all of its land in one
state Examples Irish, Serbs, Albanians,
Hungarians, Germans (pre-WW2) Ethnic
Cleansing Political strategy by a dominant group
to forcibly remove ethnic minorities from within
its state boundaries
Nations of Southeastern Central Europe
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22
  • Governing States
  • National governments can be classified as
    democratic, autocratic, or anocratic.
  • A democracy is a country in which citizens elect
    leaders and can run for office.
  • An autocracy is a country that is run according
    to the interests of the ruler rather than the
    people.
  • An anocracy is a country that is not fully
    democratic or fully autocratic, but rather a mix
    of the two.

23
Regime Type
24
  • Governing States -National Scale Democracies and
    autocracies differ in three essential elements
  • Selection of Leaders
  • Democracies have institutions and procedures
    through which citizens can express effective
    preferences about alternative policies and
    leaders.
  • Autocracies have leaders who are selected
    according to clearly defined (usually hereditary)
    rules of succession from within the political
    elite.
  • Citizen Participation
  • Democracies have institutionalized constraints on
    the exercise of power by the executive.
  • Autocracies have citizens participation
    restricted or suppressed.

25
  • Governing States
  • National Scale Democracies and autocracies
    differ in three essential elements contd
  • Checks and Balances
  • Democracies guarantee civil liberties to all
    citizens.
  • Autocracies have leaders who exercise power with
    no meaningful checks from legislative, judicial,
    or civil society institutions.
  • In general, the world has become more democratic
    since the turn of the 19th century.

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Governing States Local Scale
  • Unitary States places most power in the hands
    of central government officials (more suitable
    for smaller states)
  • Ex. France, China

28
  • Federal States allocates strong power to units
    of local government within a country (more
    suitable for larger states)
  • Ex. United States, Mexico

29
  • Supranationalism
  • vs.
  • Devolution

30
Supranationalism cooperation (economic,
political, military) among several countries for
mutual benefit
31
Supranationalism
  • Can be connected with globalizing forces
  • States may give up some political power
    (sovereignty) to join a supranational
    organization
  • Examples United Nations, European Union, NATO,
    NAFTA, ASEAN, OPEC, OAS, CIS.

32
Since 1980s - Europe has had 15 new countries
created by ethnic nationalism Since 1950s - Also
has been project to increase economic political
integration an example of concept of
supranationalism
EU Flag and Flags of Its Member States (as of
2006)
33
European Union
  • Primarily for economic purposes, but also
    politically, environmentally, and security
    oriented
  • Economic changes Border-free work, Euro currency
    (most members), Free trade in EU, Free flow of
    currency
  • Has made EU largest market in the world
  • Member states elect representatives to EU
    Parliament
  • Four freedoms of movementof people, goods,
    services and capital

34
Some key elements in EU integration ?Free trade
among member states ?Remove barriers to movement
of labor capital ?Uniform fiscal
environmental policies
EU Members 15 members joined 1958-1995 12
newest members joined 2004-2007 Candidate countr
ies


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Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  • Main aim
  • To accelerate the economic growth, social
    progress and cultural development in the region
  • To promote regional peace and stability through
    abiding respect for justice and the rule of law
    in the relationship among countries of the region
    and adherence to the principles of the U.N.
    Charter.

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