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The World at War AGAIN!

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Title: World War II Author: johnsoj Last modified by: johnsoj Created Date: 5/6/2005 11:44:01 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The World at War AGAIN!


1
The World at War AGAIN!
2
Unsuccessful
  • Provisions for a safer world as set forth in the
    Treaty of Paris at the end of WWI were
    unsuccessful.
  • The League of Nations faltered without American
    support
  • Germany developed a strong military.
  • Nazism grew in Germany
  • Fascism grew in Italy.

3
Rise of Fascism
  • A political system based around the belief that
    the state or government is more important than
    the individual.
  • Countries under Fascist regimes built powerful
    armies to kill or intimidate anyone that
    threatened their authority.
  • Extremely nationalistic and believed their race
    was superior to others.
  • Believed they had the right to trample weaker
    nations and abuse inferior groups within their
    own country.

4
Mussolini in Italy
  • Italian dictator since 1922.
  • Created the Fascist party with himself as the
    leader, and forbid all other political parties.
  • Popular slogan Believe!, Obey!, Fight!

Benito Mussolini
5
Germany Following WWI
  • People of Germany were upset about losing World
    War I.
  • They removed their king and established a
    democracy.
  • Economy took a nose dive in 1923 due to inflation
    (steady rise in prices of goods).
  • Democratic government was criticized for being
    weak.

6
Hitler and Nazism
  • Adolf Hitler became the leader of the National
    Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazis).
  • Blamed Germanys problems on others.
  • Promised wealth and prosperity for Germany.
  • Preached against Democracy and Jews.
  • Became Chancellor of Germany in 1933.
  • Soon after declared himself dictator and gave
    himself the title der Führer

Adolf Hitler
7
Empire of Japan
  • Hurt by the depression, Japan relied on importing
    rice and raw materials from other countries.
  • Radicals who gained control of the government
    felt that invasion of other countries was the
    only way to survive.
  • Japan invaded Indo-China in 1937.
  • US placed an oil embargo on Japan due to their
    invasion of Indo-China.
  • Japan signs alliance with Germany in 1940.

8
American Isolationism
  • Following WWI, the U.S. took on a culture of
    isolationism.
  • The U.S. did not want to get involved in another
    European War.
  • The U.S. did initiate the Lend-Lease Program,
    which provided ships, planes, and military
    supplies to Allied countries.
  • Germany felt that the U.S. was involved in the
    war by providing supplies, and thus could be
    targeted by U-Boats.

9
German Land Aquisition
  • Took control of Austria, Czechoslovakia, and
    Poland (all Germanic speaking countries).
  • Hitler wanted to create a Third Reich (empire).
  • Many European leaders appeased Hitler by allowing
    some of these take-overs in order to prevent
    another war.

10
More Nazi Land Acquisition
  • April 1940 (Defeated by Germany)
  • Denmark
  • Norway
  • May 1940 (Defeated by Germany)
  • Belgium
  • Luxembourg
  • Netherlands
  • June 1940 (Surrender/Armistice)
  • France

11
Battle of Britain
  • Began in 1940
  • German heavy bombing of England.
  • Conducted 24 hrs a day.
  • London was heavily hit.
  • British used a new technology called radar to
    detect incoming Germany bombers.
  • Hitler finally withdrew the bombing.

12
  • America Thrust into World War II

13
Japan Justifies an Attack on America
  • Oil embargo placed on Japan by the U.S.
  • If American Pacific fleet was destroyed, they
    wouldnt be able to prevent Japan from its
    conquests in Asia.
  • Hitler felt that if the U.S. was involved in a
    War in the Pacific, they couldnt help out their
    Allies in Europe.

14
America Unprepared An Attack on Pearl Harbor
Thought Impossible
  • The harbor is too shallow for a torpedo attack.
  • Sabotage by people of Japanese decent living on
    the island was more probable.
  • Planes bunched up at air fields to prevent
    sabotage.
  • No clear warnings of an attack at Pearl.
  • Admiral Kimmel felt that being at a constant
    state of readiness weakened a military unit.
  • Radar warning of incoming planes dismissed as a
    squadron of B-17s inbound from the mainland.
  • Fleet at anchor in harbor every weekend.

15
Location of Battleships
16
The Attack Sunday Dec. 7, 1941
  • 755AM
  • Japanese fighters begin attack on Pearl.
  • 5 of 8 Battleships were sunk or sinking.
  • Aircraft bases and planes destroyed.
  • 2400 Americans were killed.

17
The Aftermath
USS Arizona Wreckage
USS Oklahoma Sunk
18
Salvage Recovery Efforts
USS Arizona Salvage Divers
Raising the USS Oklahoma
19
Reflections on Pearl Harbor
  • Senator Daniel Inouye reflects on the attack on
    Pearl Harbor.
  • Radio broadcasts announce the tragedy in Hawaii.

20
Dec. 8, 1941
  • Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt asks Congress to
    declare a state of war against the Empire of
    Japan.
  • Congress complies with FDRs request.

21
America Initiates its War Machine
  • War Production Board
  • Directed the conversion and re-tooling of
    factories left empty from the Great Depression
    into operation war time factories.
  • Supervised the building of new factories.
  • Manufacturing shift towards war materials.
  • General Motors was able to produce more war
    supplies than Germany and Japan combined.

22
Economic Changes
  • Government increased taxes.
  • War bonds were sold in order to keep inflation
    rates down.
  • Rationing of products began.
  • Items included
  • Gasoline
  • Heating Fuel
  • Tires
  • Coffee
  • Sugar
  • Meat
  • Butter
  • Canned Goods

23
Clothing Changes
  • In order to save fabric the following changes
    occurred in clothes manufacturing
  • No pleats on womens skirts.
  • No cuffs on mens pants.
  • Womens nylons were virtually non-existent due to
    the use of nylon in parachute manufacturing.

24
Civilians Take on an Active Role
  • Plant Victory Gardens
  • To help supply vegetables.
  • By 1943 accounted for 1/3 of the nations
    vegetable supply.

Victory Garden Poster
25
Civilians Take on an Active Roll 2
  • U.S. re-institutes the draft.
  • Women rolled up their sleeves and went to work in
    factories. (referred to as Rosie the Riveter)

Rosie the Riveter Poster
26
Raising an Army
  • Posters such as this help recruit soldiers to
    fight in WWII.
  • It was expected in society for any able bodied
    male between 18-37 to enlist.
  • Men would be looked down upon for not enlisting.

27
Selective Training Service Act
  • Passed in 1940 (before Pearl Harbor).
  • Provided for the first peace time draft in the
    nations history.
  • Required the registration of all men between
    21-35 (later extended from 18-37).

28
Women Enlisted Too
  • Womens Army Auxiliary Corps
  • WAACs
  • Womens Air force Service Pilots
  • WASPs
  • Womens Navy Auxiliary
  • WAVEs
  • Womens Coast Guard Auxiliary
  • SPARs

29
Women Serve Overseas
  • Most women served on the homefront.
  • Others served overseas tending to wounded
    soldiers.
  • Army Nurse Corps (ANC)
  • Navy Nurse Corps (NNC)

30
Paranoia Sets In
  • U.S. fears sabotage from people of Japanese
    ancestry.
  • Executive Order 9066
  • President FDR orders people of Japanese ancestry
    on the west coast and near military installations
    to be moved to internment camps.
  • Camp locations
  • Arizona (Gila River, Poston)
  • Arkansas (Jerome, Rohwer)
  • California (Manzanar, Tule Lake)
  • Colorado (Granada)
  • Idaho (Minidoka)
  • Utah (Topaz)
  • Wyoming (Heart Mountain
  • There were many Japanese Americans who fought on
    the European front of the war.

Internment Train
31
The March on Washington
  • African and Mexican Americans were still being
    discriminated against in the U.S.
  • Pres. Roosevelt issued an executive order that
    forbid racial discrimination in defense plants
    and govt. offices.
  • The Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)
    was created to enforce the order.

32
Allied Attacks in the Mediterranean
  • Nov. 1942, Allied forces landed in Northwest
    Africa.
  • Invasion code-named Operation Torch
  • Led by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  • After several fierce battles, Axis forces
    surrendered in May 1943.

33
Invasion of Italy
  • Summer 1943, Allies conquered Sicily.
  • Sept., Italian govt. signed an armistice with the
    Allies.
  • Allies next move was to invade the Italian
    mainland..
  • June 1944, Rome became the first Axis capital to
    fall to the Allies.

34
Victory in Europe
  • Germans still controlled the Atlantic due largely
    to their u-boats.
  • Allies refinement of sonar equipment and
    increasing number of fast escorts ships helped
    the situation.
  • By 1944, the Allies had won the Battle of the
    Atlantic.
  • During this time, the Allies also increased their
    strategic bombing program.

35
Invasion of France
  • Victory in the Pacific and air attacks on Germany
    paved the way for Operation Overlord
  • This was the long awaited land assault on German
    occupied France.

Invasion of Beach on D-Day
36
D-Day Continued
  • On June 6, 1944 nearly 5,000 troop transports,
    landing craft, and warships carried 150,000
    soldiers to the beaches of Normandy, France.
  • Planes dropped 23,000 airborne soldiers.
  • American, British, and Canadian forces
    participated.

Airborne Troops on D-Day
37
D-Day Hitlers Mistake
  • Hitler believed the main force was coming from
    the north and thus refused to send
    reinforcements.
  • Allies liberated Paris on Aug. 25, 1944.

Paris Liberated
38
Battle of the Bulge
  • Last major counter attack by Hitler.
  • Followed the Allies crossing the German border.
  • Began using V-2 long range rockets.
  • 200,000 Germans attack the Allied force of
    80,000.
  • By Jan.1945, it was apparent the Allies would be
    victorious.

39
Yalta Conference
  • Feb. 1945 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to
    plan for postwar peace.
  • Leaders agreed to divide and occupy Germany, and
    outlined plans for a new international peace
    organization.

Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
40
Hitlers End and V.E. Day
  • April 30, 1945 Hitler commits suicide in his deep
    bunker under the ruins of Berlin, for fear of
    being captured.
  • Soviets occupy Berlin.
  • German forces all over the country stopped
    fighting.
  • Germans surrendered unconditionally on May 7,
    1945.
  • Victory in Europe (V.E.) Day May 8, 1945.
  • In June, Germany divided into 4 occupied zones.

41
Mussolini Mutilated
  • Mussolini and his wife hung.
  • Bodies hung out in Rome for the people to do with
    what they want.

42
Holocaust Discovered
  • As Allied troops took over land formerly
    controlled by Germany, concentration camps were
    discovered.
  • Medical experiments had been performed on many
    prisoners.
  • Allied soldiers discovered gas chambers and
    cremation furnaces.

43
Concentration Camp Horror
  • Warning
  • If you dont want
  • to see these,
  • please look away!

44
Concentration Camp Horror
45
Concentration Camp Horror 2
Eli Weisel, Author of Night in which he writes
about his life while imprisoned at Buchenwald
46
Doolittles Raiders Bomb Tokyo
  • April 1942
  • Led by Jimmy Doolittle
  • Felt as the first part of revenge for Pearl
    Harbor.
  • Bombing of Tokyo.
  • Jimmy Doolittle was raised in Nome, AK.

47
Turning the Tide in the Pacific
  • June 1942.
  • Ferocious 3 day battle
  • Battle of Midway turned the tide in the Pacific.
  • Large victory for the U.S.

48
Pacific Offenses
  • Island Hopping Instead of attacking all islands,
    Allies only attacked strategic Japanese held
    islands.
  • Gilbert Island Nov.1943.
  • Marshal Islands
  • Marianna Islands Summer 1944.
  • Battle of the Philippine Sea Summer 1944.
    (Decisive U.S. Victory).

49
Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • October 1944.
  • Last, largest, and most decisive naval engagement
    in the Pacific.
  • Japanese lost a large part of its fleet.
  • No longer a serious threat to the Allies.

50
Victory in the Pacific
  • Douglas MacArthur commander of all U.S. Army
    troops in the Pacific.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur
51
Battle of Iwo Jima
  • February 1945.
  • Mt. Suribachi
  • First native Japanese soil invaded by Americans
    during WWII.

Flag Raising on Mt. Suribachi
52
Battle of Okinawa
  • April 1945.
  • Only 350 miles from Japan.
  • Perhaps the bloodiest battle of the Pacific War.

Battle of Okinawa
53
U.S. in Mourning
  • April 12, 1945.
  • President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies.

54
A New President
  • Vice President Harry Truman becomes the new
    President.

55
Manhattan Project
  • Started in 1942.
  • Involved the development of atomic bombs.
  • Scientists who had escaped from Nazi occupied
    Europe, helped in the development.

56
Preventative Action
  • Pres. Truman and U.S. military commanders worried
    about the high loss of life if the U.S. invaded
    the Japanese mainland.
  • The Japanese were expected to fight till the end
    to defend their island.
  • The President was left with a tough decision.

57
Decision Made
  • President Truman decides to drop atomic bombs on
    two Japanese cities.
  • The Enola Gay was the B-25 used to drop the bomb
    on Heroshima.
  • Bocks Car was the B-25 used to drop the bomb on
    Nagasaki.

58
Bombing of Hiroshima
  • August 6, 1945
  • Atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese industrial
    city of Hiroshima.
  • 100,000 Killed
  • U.S. had dropped warning messages earlier,
    instructing people to leave the city.

Little Boy A-Bomb
Mushroom Cloud
59
Bombing of Nagasaki
  • The U.S. had expected the Japanese to surrender
    following the bombing of Hiroshima.
  • August 9, 1945
  • Atomic bomb dropped on the city of Nagasaki.

Fat Man A-Bomb
Mushroom Cloud
60
Japanese Surrender
  • September 2, 1945.
  • Emperor Hirohito signs the surrender.
  • Ceremony held aboard the battleship USS Missouri
    in Tokyo Bay.

61
World War II is OVER!
Celebrating in Times Square New York
62
WWII Memorialized
  • Many memorials have been built to commemorate and
    remember those that lost their lives in World War
    II.
  • Some were built shortly after and others have
    been built within the last few years.

63
40th Anniversary of D-Day
  • June 6, 1984.
  • President Reagan gives a speech at a U.S.
    cemetery in Normandy, France.
  • Speech Video Link

64
Arizona Memorial-Pearl Harbor
65
Iwo Jima Memorial
66
World War II Memorial
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