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Characteristics of Living Things

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Title: Characteristics of Living Things Author: Jim & Nicole Last modified by: teetni Created Date: 9/19/2012 10:12:34 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Characteristics of Living Things


1
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Chapter 1

2
Warm-Up
  • What does it mean to be alive? On a sheet of
    paper, write a definition for life or living. Do
    this independently. Try not to consult your
    group members!

3
Composed of cells
  • Unicellular
  • Multicellular
  • single-celled organisms
  • free-living and contain structures, called
    organelles, that allow them to be
    self-sufficient.
  • Example bacteria
  • Many celled organisms
  • More complex
  • Humans cells are organized into tissues.
  • Have a common function like a muscle
  • Tissues are organized into organs like the heart.
  • Organs are organized into organ systems, like the
    cardiovascular system.
  • Organ systems functioning together make up a
    living organism.

4
Levels of Cell Organization
5
Use Energy Maintain Balance
  • Most of us call this EATING!
  • Science calls it ingestion the taking in of
    food
  • We have to be able to convert our food, a form of
    energy, to chemicals our cells can use through
    metabolism.

Autotrophs Bacteria Heterotrophs
Make their own food (mostly through photosynthesis) Plants, algae, microorganisms Chemosynthesis production of chemicals (nutrients) as part of their metabolism Capture their own food Animals fungi
6
Energy (cont)
  • Energy (usually sugars) obtained from the
    environment
  • Anabolism - a process (such as tissue growth)
    that involves synthesizing, or putting together,
    complex substances from simpler substances
    (sugars) (REQUIRES ENERGY)
  • Catabolism- final breakdown (digestion) of
    complex substances into simpler ones, (RELEASES
    ENERGY)
  • Metabolism- total sum of all chemical reactions
    in the body, or the balance between anabolism and
    catabolism

7
Respond to Environment
  • Living things will make changes in response to a
    stimulus in their environment.
  • anything that causes an organism to react
  • A behavior is a complex set of responses.
  • This often results in movement of the individual
    toward safety.
  • As young children we learned to avoid hot stoves
    and busy streets.
  • Plants
  • They grow up toward the sun, and some have leaves
    able to turn to follow the sun, allowing them to
    photosynthesize better. Their roots grow down to
    search for water and minerals. If a plant doesn't
    get enough sunlight, water or minerals it will
    die.

8
  • In order to survive, organisms must be able to
    achieve homeostasis.
  • an organisms ability to maintain the constant or
    stable conditions necessary for life.
  • Each type of organism has a specialized way to
    stay in balance with its outside and inside
    environments.
  • A paramecium has a contractile vacuole that pumps
    excess water out of its cell in order to survive
    in a fresh water environment.
  • We have an internal "thermostat" that helps us
    maintain a body temperature of about 98.6 degrees
    Fahrenheit.

9
Reproduce
  • All living things reproduce in one of the
    following ways
  • Asexual reproduction - Producing offspring
    without the use of gametes.
  • Produces genetically identical offspring clones
  • Example many invertebrates such as - sea
    anemones, sea stars bacteria split budding
    plants
  • Sexual reproduction - Producing offspring by the
    joining of sex cells.
  • Union of a sperm cell from male united with egg
    cell from female.
  • Offspring is different from either parent,
    although it contains characteristics from both
    unique
  • In living things, we call this genetic
    biodiversity.

10
Growth
  • Cell division - the orderly formation of new
    cells.
  • Cell enlargement - the increase in size of a
    cell. Cells grow to a certain size and then
    divide.
  • An organism gets larger as the number of its
    cells increases.

11
Growth (Cont)
  • Life does not necessarily mean continuous growth
  • During growth organisms undergo a cycle of
    changes called development.
  • Bodily maintenance occurs throughout life
    (requires energy). Aging occurs when an organism
    loses its ability to maintain itself.

12
Growth Development
  • Fetal Growth Development
  • Zygote formed at fertilization has all of the
    genetic information necessary to become a child
  • Embryo a multicellular organism earliest stage
    of growth and development
  • Fetus a developing mammal from nine weeks to
    birth

13
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14
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15
Adapt to Environment
  • Adaptation an inherited structure, behavior or
    internal process that enables an organism to
    respond to environmental factors and live to
    produce offspring
  • Inherited from previous generations
  • As the environment changes ? some adaptations are
    more suited to the new conditions than others
  • Individuals with more suited adaptations survive
    and reproduce
  • The gradual change in a species through
    adaptations over time is evolution

16
  • How does the dolphin demonstrate life?
  • IF an organism is missing a limb, does it still
    meet all criteria to be considered living?
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