??? ??????? ?? ???????? Reproduction in Fungi - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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??? ??????? ?? ???????? Reproduction in Fungi

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Title: Reproduction in Fungi Author: kaau Last modified by: hussain2007 Created Date: 3/7/2008 2:48:59 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ??? ??????? ?? ???????? Reproduction in Fungi


1
????? ??????
2
  • ????? ?????????? ?????? The fungal mycelium

3
(No Transcript)
4
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5
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6
(No Transcript)
7
1- ?????? ??????
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??
    ???????? Glucan polymers
  • ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????
    ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????
    ???? ????? ??????.
  • ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???
    ???? ????? ?? ???????chitin .

8
  • ????? ??????? 3-60 ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????
    ????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???
  • non-cellulosic B-1.3 and 1.6 linked glucans ?
    1.3and 1.4 linked glucans
  • ???? ??? (1968) Bartnicki-Garcia ????? ???????
    ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????
    ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??
    ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????.

9
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????
    Mastigomucotina ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??
    ???????? .
  • ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????
    ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? Chitin chitosan? ???
    ????? ????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ???
    ?? ??? ?????? non-acetylated chitin-like polymer.
  • ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ???
    ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????
    ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????
    ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???
    ??????? ?? ?????.

10
????? ?????? ?????? ????? Neurospora
11
(No Transcript)
12
(No Transcript)
13
(No Transcript)
14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
(No Transcript)
17
  • ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????
    ??????? ???? ???? ????? .
  • ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????
    ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????
    ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????
  • ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ????
    ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????.

18
  • ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??
    ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????
    ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????
    ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ???????
    ?????
  • ??? ????? ??? ???- ??????? ????? ?????? ?????
    ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? .

19
  • ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ????
    ????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ????????
    ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? .
  • ????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? aerial
    hyphae? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ???????
    ???? ???? ???? ?????.
  • ?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????
    ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????
    ???? ????? .
  • ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????
    ???????? ?????? ????????.

20
(No Transcript)
21
2- ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????
  • ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????
    ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ????????.
  • ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????
    ???? ????????????? mitochondria.
  • ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????
    ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??
    ???????????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????
    ???? ???????? Glycogen ? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???????
    ???????.
  • ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????
    ?????????? Volutine.

22
  • ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????
    ???????? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????
    ???????????? anthocyanin.
  • ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????-
    ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????
    ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????
    ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????. ??? ???? ???
    ??? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????
    ???? ????? ??? ???????.
  • ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??
    ?????? ?????? ???60?90.
  • ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????
    ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????
    ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????
    ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.

23
  • ??????- ????? ?????? ??????? ???????
  • ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ?????? monopodial? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????
    ??????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????
    ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???????
    ??.

24
  • ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
    ????????Somatic structures

25
  • ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????
    Fungal thallus .
  • ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? (?? 0.5
    ??????-100??????) ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????
    ????????????.
  • ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????
    ???? ????? ?? ????? Septa ????? ????????? ?? ???
    ?????? ?????????? ?????? Septate ?? ??????
    Cellular
  • ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ???
    ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? .

26
  • ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????????
    ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????
    ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ???.
  • ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???????
    ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????
    ????????? ?? ???? ????? Single hyphae ???
  • ????? ?????.
  • ??? ????????.
  • ??? ????????.
  • ??????? ???????.

27
  • ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????
    ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????? .
  • ???????? ???????
  • ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ???
  • ????? ?????? Sclerotium.
  • ????? ?????? Rhizomorphs.
  • ??????? ??????? Stroma or stromta.
  • Synnema.
  • Sporodochium.

28
??? ??????? ?? ????????
  • ?????? ??????? ?????? Obligate parasitic Fungi
  • ?????? ???????? ?????? Facultative Parasitic
    Fungi
  • ?????? ??????? ?????? Obligate Saprophytic Fungi
  • ?????? ???????? ?????? Facultative Saprophytic
    Fungi
  • ?????? ??????? Symbiotic Fungi

29
(No Transcript)
30
??? ??????? ?? ????????Reproduction in Fungi
  • ??????? ???????? Asexual Reproduction
  • ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? somatic , ??
    ?????? vegetative ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????,
    ?? ???????, ?? ???????, ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????
    ???? ?????.
  • ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????
    ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????
    ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???, ??? ???? ?????
    ????? ????? ?????? ?????? arthrospores

31
?? ?????? oidia, ?? ?????? ????????
chlamydospores, ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??
??????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???????, ????????? ??? ??
???, ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????
conidia?? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???
????????.
32
  • ??????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ??? ?????, ??????,
    ??????, ???? ???????, ???????? ???? ????? ????
    ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????
    ?????? ?????, ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????????
    ????????.
  • ???????? ???????? Transverse Fission??? ?????
    ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? (????? ??????????
    sporangia), ????? ????? ???? ????????
    ???????????? sporangiospores, ?? ????? ????????
    ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????,
    ????? ????? ???? "????????? conidia".

33
??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????
  • 1- ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? (????? ?????????)
    Vegetative or Fragmentation Method
  • ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????
    ???????? ????????, ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????
    ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????, ?? ????
    ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????
    ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????
    ??????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???? ???????
    ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???
    ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????, ????
    ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????
    ???? ??????? ?????.

34
  • 2-???????? ???????? Transverse Fission
  • ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??
    ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????, ???
    ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????, ???? ???? ??
    ???? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??
    ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????
    ????? ??? ???? ?????.
  • 3-??????? Budding
  • ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ????
    ?????? Bud, ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????, ?????
    ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ???????
    ????, ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????,
    ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????
    ????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?? ??????
    ?????? ???????, ????? ?????????, ???? ??????
    ??????.

35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
  • 4- ????? ????? ????
  • ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ????????
    ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????. ???? ???????
    ????????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????
    ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????,
    ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????
    ?????? ??????? ????????, ???? ??? ???????
    ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??
    ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ?????????
    ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????,
    ???????? Oidia (?????? Oidium) ?? ????????
    ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????
    ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???????, ??????
    ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ???
    ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????
    ??????? ????????.

38
  • 5- ????? ??????? ??????? Sclerotia
  • ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????
    ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????
    ???? ????? ?????? Sclerotium ?????? ??????
    ??????? ????????, ???? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ???????
    ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??????
    ??????? ??? ????????, ?????? ???? ??? ??????
    ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????
    ????? ?? ???? (Stroma) ????? Stromata.

39
  • 6- ????? ?????? ???????? Chlamydospores
  • ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????
    ???? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????
    ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ???
    ?? ???? ?????, ?? ?? ?????, ?? ????? ??????? ????
    ?????, ????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????
    ???? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ????? ???
    ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????,
    ????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?????, ??????
    ??????????.

40
  • 7- ????? ???????? (???????)Spores
  • ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???????
    ????????
  • ?????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????
    ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????
    ?????, ?????? ?????????? Micrometer ??????
    ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ???? ??????. ??????
    ??? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???
    ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??????, ??? ???? ??? ??????
    ?? ??? ???? ??????.

41
(No Transcript)
42
????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????
??????? ??? ????????
  • ???????? ????????
  • ???????? ??????? Zoospores ?????? ???? ?????
    ???? ????? Zoo-sporangium ????? ??? ???????? ??
    ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? , ?? ???? ????
    ????? ?? ??? ???, ????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????
    ???????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????
    ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????,
    ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??????.
  • ???????? ??????? Sporangiospores ?????? ????
    ????? ?? ????? ??????? Sporangia ?????? ????? ???
    ????? (??? ?????? Nonmotile) ????? ???? ?????
    ????. ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???
    ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????
    ????????.

43
(No Transcript)
44
(No Transcript)
45
  • ???????? ????????
  • ????? ????? ???????? ????????? Conidiospores
    ?? ????????? Conidia(?????? Conidium), ????
    ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????
    ??????? ???, ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????
    Conidiophores ??? ?? ????? ????????????
    ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????,
    ??????, ??????, ????????, ???? ??????? ??? ????
    ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??
    ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??
    ?????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???
    ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????????????.

46
(No Transcript)
47
??????? ??????? ?????????
  • ?) ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? Pycnidium
    (pycnium) ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????
    ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????, ???
    ???? (????) ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????
    ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??
    ???? ?????.
  • ?) ??????? ????????? (?????????) Acervule
  • ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ??
    ????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????????
    ?????????, ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??????
    ??????.

48
  • ?) ???????????? Sporodochium
  • ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????
    ????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ???????
    ???????? ??????, ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????
    ?? ????????.
  • ?) ??????? ????????? Synnemata
  • ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????
    ????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????

49
(No Transcript)
50
  • 2- ??????? ?????? Sexual Reproduction
  • ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???
    ????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????, ???? ????? ??
    ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???????
    ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? "????????
    ??????? Fungi Imperfecti" ??? ???? ??? ????????
    ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ????????
    ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??????.
  • ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?? ??????, ??? ???
    ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????
    ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????,
    ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????
    ??????.

51
????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????
????????compatible nuclei
  • ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ???? ????? ??????? ???
  • ???????? ???????? plasmogamy
  • ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????, ????
    ???? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???? ???
    ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????.
  • ???????? ?????? Karyogamy
  • ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????
    ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? (?)
    ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????
    (2?).

52
  • ???????? ????????? Meiosis
  • ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???
    ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????, ??? ???
    ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????
    ????????? ????????? (????? ???? ??? ?????? ???
    ???????? ??? ????) ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??????
    ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????.
    ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????
    ???????? ?? ????? ?????.

53
????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??
????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???
??????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • 1) ????? ???? ?????? ??????? Isogamy ??? ????
    ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????
  • 2) ????? ???? ?????? ??????? Heterogamy ???? ????
    ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???
    ????? ??? ????? ?????, ????? ????? ??? ????
    ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????, ?????
    ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????
    ???????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????? ????????
    ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ????
    ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ???????.

54
  • 3) ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????
    ???????? ??????? ??????? ???, ?? ??? ?????? ????
    ?????? ?????? ??????? osphere ??? ???????
    ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? Oogonium ??
    ?????????? Ascogonium ??? ??????? ????????
    ??????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? Antheridium
    ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ????????
    ???????. ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??
    ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????
    ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???????.
  • 4) ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ??
    ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????????, ??? ????
    ????????, ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????
    ?????? (??? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????).

55
(No Transcript)
56
(No Transcript)
57
(No Transcript)
58
(No Transcript)
59
(No Transcript)
60
(No Transcript)
61
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????
  • ???????? ??????? Oospores
  • ???? ???? ??????? ??????? (??????????)
    ???????? ???????? (?????????) ?? ????? ??????
    ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??????
    ??????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ???? ???? ?????
    ?? ??????????, ?????? ????????? ????? ??????
    ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???? ????, ????
    ?????????? ????? Oeriplasm, ??????????? ?????
    ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? Ooplasm ????
    ???? ??????, ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????
    ??? ????? ????.

62
  • ???????? ???????? Zygospores
  • ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????
    ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????
    ???????. ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????
    ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????. ????? ?? ???
    ???????? ???????? ??????? Progametangium ??????
    ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?????
    ?????? ?????, ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ?????
    ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ????????
    Gametangium ???? ??? ????? ???? ???????
    Suspensor, ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????
    ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????
    ???????, ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????????
    ???????? ????.

63
?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????
  • ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ????? ????
    ???? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ??????, ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????????
    ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??
    ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ???
    ????? ??????.
  • ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????
    ???????? ??? Xenospores ????? ???? ????????
    ???????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ?????
    ?????? ??? memnospores ?????? ??? ???????
    ??????? ???????.

64
  • ????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ???,
    ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??????????
    conidia, ????????? ???????????? sporangiospores,
    ????????? ??????? zoospores, ??? ???? ??????
    ?????, ??? ???????? ????????? basidiospores.
  • ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??
    ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????, ????? ????
    ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???
    ?????? ??????, ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???
    ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????, ????? ?? ???
    ????? ??????, ??? ??? ????.

65
  • ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??
  • ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??????
    ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? glycogen,
    ???????????? trehalose, ??????. ????? ???????
    ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????
    ???????, ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????
    ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
  • ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????
    ?????, ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????
    ???? ???? ??????, ???? ??????? ??????? ???????
    ??????? ????? verticillium ??? ?? ?????? ????
    ???? ??? 14 ??? .

66
  • ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??
    ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???
    ??? ?????? ????? ?????, ??? ???? ??? ???????
    ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????
    ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????????????.
  • ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????
    ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ??????
    ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ???
    ??????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????? ???????
    ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???????
    ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????.

67
  • ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????
    ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???
    ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???????
    ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???????. ???? ????
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