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Title: Carbohydrates%20and%20its%20role%20in%20Health

Carbohydrates and its role in Health
Chapter Learning Outcomes
  • Identify the major carbohydrates in the diets of
    humans and their major food sources.
  • Recognize chemical and common names of nutritive
    sweeteners and identify common alternative
  • List the functions of carbohydrates in the body
    and roles of carbohydrates in health.

Quiz Yourself True or False
  • Compared to table sugar, honey is a natural and
    far more nutritious sweetener. T F
  • Ounce per ounce, sugar provides more energy than
    starch. T F
  • Eating a high-fiber diet can improve the
    functioning of your large intestine and reduce
    your blood cholesterol levels. T F
  • The average American consumes 40 to 50 of
    his/her energy intake as refined sugars. T F
  • The results of clinical studies indicate that
    eating too much sugar makes children hyperactive.
  • T F

How Did You Do?
  1. False Compared to table sugar, honey is not a
    significantly more nutritious sweetener.
  2. False Ounce per ounce, sugar provides the same
    amount of energy as starch.
  3. True Eating a high-fiber diet can improve the
    functioning of your large intestine and reduce
    your blood cholesterol levels.
  4. False The average American consumes about 50 of
    his/her energy intake from all carbohydrates.
  5. False The results of clinical studies do not
    indicate that sugar makes children hyperactive.

What are Carbohydrates?
  • Carbohydrates are
  • - Major source of energy
  • - Plants use CO2, H2O, and energy from the sun
  • to make carbohydrates (CHO)
  • - Often identified by chemical name ending in
  • -ose

Facts About Carbohydrates
  • Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • Plants use CO2, H2O, and energy from the sun
  • Often identified by the ose ending
  • Main source of energy in most diets
  • Less energy dense than fatprovides 4 kcal/gm
  • Spares protein (prevents excessive use of protein
    for energy).
  • Stored in small amounts in the liver and muscle
    (about a 1-day supply)
  • Prevents ketosis if gt 100gm/day is consumed
  • Preferred fuel source for brain and central
    nervous system and red blood cells

You should be able to
  • Identify the major carbohydrates in human diets
    and their major food sources.

Simple Carbohydrates Sugars
  • Monosaccharide
  • mono one saccharide sugar
  • Disaccharide
  • di two saccharide sugar

  • Glucose
  • - Primary energy source for cells
  • - dextrose or blood sugar
  • Berries, grapes, corn, and carrots
  • Fructose
  • - Fruit sugar or levulose
  • Honey, cabbage, green beans, asparagus, corn.
  • The body has little use for fructose.
  • Galactose
  • - Part of milk sugar (lactose)
  • Insert Figure 5.2

Facts about simple sugars
  • Glucose
  • Primary source of fuel for muscles and cells (red
    blood cells and brain cells)
  • The body maintains its blood glucose levels
  • Fructose
  • Found naturally in honey, cabbage, green beans,
  • Sweeter than glucose
  • Similar composition to table sugar/cane sugar
  • Body has little use for fructose Converts it to
  • Note Honey should not be feed to children under
    12 months because of the risk of infantile

Facts about simple sugars
  • Galactose
  • Not found commonly in foods
  • Component of lactoseform of CHO in milk
  • How many of the myths can you dispel?
  • HFCS is high in fructose
  • HFCS is to be blamed for the obesity problem in
    the U.S.
  • HFCS is metabolized differently from sugar
  • HCFS is NOT natural
  • Sugar is healthier than HFCS
  • Sugar is sweeter than HFCS

  • Many mixed messages about HFCS over the past
    couple of years.
  • HFCS and fructose is not the same.
  • Like table sugar, HFCS consists of two simple
    sugars - glucose and fructose. Table sugar is 50
    glucose and 50 fructose. And of the two types of
    HFCS, one is 55 fructose/45 glucose and the
    other is 42 fructose/58 glucose.
  • HFCS is actually not high in fructose at all, but
    it was named as such because it is high in
    fructose compared to regular corn syrup, which is
    composed mainly of glucose.
  • Source http//

Get the facts
  • High Fructose Corn Sugar
  • Same number of calories as sugar
  • The body cannot tell the difference between HFCS
    and sugar.
  • Does not cause obesity or hyperactivity
  • Beneficial for its many uses in the food
    industry. Used in food and beverage industry.

  • Maltose
  • glucose glucose
  • Sucrose
  • glucose fructose
  • Lactose
  • glucose galactose
  • Insert figure 5.3

  • Table sugar
  • Almost 100 sucrose
  • Made from sugar cane or sugar beets
  • Refinement strips away small amounts of vitamins
    and minerals naturally in cane and beets
  • Occurs naturally in honey, maple syrup, carrots,
    and fruits such as pineapples

Comparisons of Sugars
Sugar/Syrup 1Tbsp Kcal Carbs
Honey 64 17
Raw Sugar 46 12
Brown Sugar 36 9
Granulated Sugar 48 13
Sources of Sugar
Anhydrous Dextrose Brown sugar Corn syrup Corn syrup solids Dextrose
Fructose Honey Invert sugar Lactose Malt syrup
Maltose Maple syrup Molasses Nectar Pancake syrup
Raw sugar Sucrose Sugar White granulated sugar High-fructose corn syrup
Powdered sugar Agave nectar Cane sugar Cane sweetener Glucose
How Much Added Sugar Is In That Food?
  • Insert table 5.3

You should be able to
  • Recognize chemical and common names of nutritive
    sweeteners and identify common alternative

Alternative Nutritive Sweeteners
  • Sorbitol
  • Xylitol
  • Mannitol
  • Sweeten without providing much kcal
  • They supply an average of 2 k
  • Do not promote dental decay

Sugar alcohols
Sorbitol Xylitol Mannitol
Humectant in many types of products for protection against loss of moisture content. Xylitol is used in foods such as chewing gum, gum drops and hard candy, and in pharmaceuticals and oral health products Mannitol is nonhygroscopic (does not pick up moisture).
Sorbitol are used in the production of confectionery, baked goods and chocolate where products tend to become dry or harden It has gained widespread acceptance as an alternative sweetener due to its role in reducing the development of dental caries (cavities). Due to its high melting point (165-169o C), mannitol is also used in chocolate-flavored coating agents for ice cream and confections.
It occurs naturally in a wide variety of fruits and berries. It occurs naturally in a wide variety of fruits and berries. Mannitol is found in abundance in nature, taken from trees, and in marine algae and fresh mushrooms.
Non-nutritive Artificial Sweeteners
  • Intensely-sweet synthetic compounds that sweeten
    foods without providing kcal/serving.
  • Note sugar-free does not mean calorie free.
  • FDA approved
  • Saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose,
    and neotame
  • Saccharin used for gt100 yrs
  • Most scientific evidence supports its safety
  • Cyclamates banned in the U.S. since 1970
  • Despite being determined as safe by panel of
    experts from FDA and NAS

Facts About Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
  • http//

Artificial Sweeteners
  • Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar. Brand
    names include NutraSweet and Equal. Contains
    phenylalanine -- risk for people with the rare
    genetic disorder phenylketonuria.
  • Saccharin is 200 to 700 times sweeter than sugar
    and has no calories. Brand names include Sweet'N
    Low, Sweet Twin, and Necta Sweet. Saccharin is
    used in tabletop sweeteners, baked goods, soft
    drinks, jams, and chewing gum.
  • Acesulfame-K is 200 times sweeter than sugar,
    with zero calories. Brand names include Sunett
    and Sweet One. und in baked goods, frozen
    desserts, candies, beverages, cough drops, and
    breath mints.

Artificial Sweeteners
  • Neotame is 7,000 to 13,000 times sweeter than
    sugar, depending on how it's used in food, and
    has no calories. use in baked goods, soft drinks,
    chewing gum, frosting, frozen desserts, jams,
    jellies, gelatins, puddings, processed fruit and
    fruit juices, toppings, and syrups.
  • Sucralose is 600 times sweeter than sugar on
    average and has no calories. Although sucralose
    is made from table sugar, it adds no calories
    because it isn't digested in the body. The brand
    name is Splenda. use in products such as
    beverages, chewing gum, frozen desserts, fruit
    juices, and gelatins. In 1999, the FDA allowed
    sucralose as a general-purpose sweetener in all
  • Source FDA Consumer magazine July-August 2006

Amount of aspartame in some common foods

12 oz. diet soda sodaup to 225 mg of aspartame
8 oz. yogurt 80 mg of aspartame
4 oz. gelatin dessert 80 mg of aspartame
¾ cup of sweetened cereal 32 mg of aspartame
1 packet of Equal 22 mg of aspartame
The FDA has set the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)
for aspartame at 50 mg/kg of body weight
  • Herbal extract from South American shrub
  • used to sweeten foods in Japan and South America
  • May be sold as dietary supplement in U.S.
  • Not FDA approved as a food additive

Lets think it over
  • Turn to the person to the right of you and share
    with them five things you learned about
  • Nutritive sweeteners
  • Non-nutritive sweeteners
  • Which of the following simple sugars is a
    component of lactose, maltose, and sucrose? A)
    glucose B) galactose C) fructose D) sucrose

Lets think it over
  • A person who has phyenylketonuria (PKU) should
    avoid the artificial sweetener?
  • According to results of scientific studies,
    artificial sweeteners increase risk of bladder
    cancer in humans. T or F?
  • Which of the following simple sugars is a
    component of lactose, maltose, and sucrose? A)
    glucose B) galactose C) fructose D) sucrose

Polysaccharides orComplex Carbohydrates
  • Large molecules ( 10) of linked monosaccharides
  • Starch is the most abundant polysaccharide in
    foods. The type of monosaccharide in starch is

Starch and Glycogen
  • Starch
  • Glycogen
  • Storage form of carbohydrate in plants
  • In seeds, roots, and tubers
  • Modified starches (maltodextrin, dextrin, and
    glucose polymers)
  • Storage from of carbohydrate in humans

Whole Grain
  • Product that contains the entire grain kernel
    the bran, germ, and endosperm

Foods labeled with the words "multi-grain,"
"stone-ground," "100 wheat," "cracked wheat,"
"seven-grain," or "bran" are usually not
whole-grain products.
Reducing Your Intake of RefinedCarbohydrates
  • Sources of refined carbohydrates
  • Regular soft drinks
  • Cookies
  • Candy
  • Chips
  • Most processed foods
  • Suggested substitutes
  • Plain water
  • Whole grains and nuts
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Plain yogurt sweetened with fresh fruit, dried

How can you use more Whole Grains?
Health Benefits of FiberIndigestible
  • Maintains the health of the colon
  • Helps maintain an acidic luminal pH which
    discourages the growth of pathogenic
  • Helps maintain the integrity of colonic cells to
    prevent translocation of pathogens and toxins
    from the colon to the bloodstream.

Health Benefits
  • Prevents constipation
  • Decreases transit time by increasing gut motility
    (causes faster movement of contents through the
  • Consequence May prevent colon cancer by
    decreasing the time toxic substances are in
    contact with the colon
  • Increases fecal bulk by increasing water
    retention and bacterial growth in the stool.
  • Consequence Decreased strain in defecation which
    can prevent diverticulosis and hemorrhoids.
  • Consequence May prevent colon cancer by diluting

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Diverticular Disease
  • The disease is associated with high pressure in
    the intestine and prolonged transit time caused
    by a low fiber diet.
  • A common disease in the older population
  • Recommendations for prevention
  • Consume a higher fiber diet (20-35 gm/day) to
    lower the pressure in the colon. Consume adequate
    fluids. (Higher fiber diets require more fluid to
    move the intestinal contents along.)

Controls Blood Glucose
  • Lower blood sugar by delaying gastric emptying
    and slowing glucose absorption.
  • Consequence May make diabetes easier to control
    if glucose is not absorbed quickly.

Lowers Blood Cholesterol
  • Lower blood cholesterol by inhibiting bile acid
  • Consequence Lower blood cholesterol levels.

Weight Management
  • Add satiety to the diet.
  • Fiber occupies space without being digested
    thereby increasing satiation.
  • Delays gastric emptying.
  • Consequence May help to control food intake and
    control weight.

Recommendations for Digestible Carbohydrate and
Dietary Fiber
  • Maintain a daily diet providing gt 55 of kcal
    from carbohydrate.
  • Limit simple sugars (such as table sugar, soft
    drinks, candy, desserts) to lt 10 of total kcal.
  • Include 20-35 gm fiber/day by eating a variety of
    whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and
  • Limit processed grains.
  • Consume plenty of fluids to facilitate fibers
    laxative properties.

Graphics Microsoft Online, USDA Food and Nutrition Services Ingrid Adams, Ph.D., R.D. L.D. Associate Professor , Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kentucky Extension Specialist for Physical Activity and Weight Management Date February 27, 2015
Policy The Cooperative Extension Service is
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