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Classroom%20%20%20%20Instruction%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20that%20%20%20%20%20%20works

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Classroom Instruction that works Robert J. Marzano Debra J. Pickering Jane E. Pollock Research Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classroom%20%20%20%20Instruction%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20that%20%20%20%20%20%20works


1
Classroom Instruction that
works
Robert J. Marzano
Debra J. Pickering Jane E. Pollock
  • Research
  • Based Strategies
  • For Increasing Student Achievement

2
The science of teaching!
3
  • The vast majority of differences in student
    achievement can be attributed to factors like
  • The students natural ability or aptitude
  • The socioeconomic status of the student
  • The students home environment (Coleman et
    al., 1966)

4
Findings corroborated by
  • Christopher Jencks in his book
  • Inequity A Reassessment of the
  • Effect of Family and Schools in America,
    1972.

5
However,
  • Individual teachers can have a powerful effect on
    students.
  • Within a school there can be a great variation in
    the quality of instruction from teacher to
    teacher.
  • By identifying what highly effective teachers do,
    then even more of the difference in student
    achievement.

6
  • MCREL Mid-continent
  • Research for Education
  • and Learning
  • Analyzed selected research
  • studies on instructional
  • strategies

7
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Classroom Management

8
Achievement Factors continued
  • Classroom Curriculum Design
  • Home Environment
  • Motivation
  • Learning Intelligence
  • Background Knowledge

9
Categories of Instructional Strategies That
Affect Student Achievement
  • Identifying similarities and differences
  • Summarizing and note taking
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Homework and practice
  • Nonlinguistic representations
  • Cooperative learning
  • Setting objectives and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypotheses
  • Questions, cues, and advance organizers

10
Classroom Instruction That Works
Category Avg. Effect Size Gain
Identifying Similarities and Differences 1.61 45
Summarizing and Note Taking 1.00 34
Reinforcing Effort/Providing Recognition .80 29
Homework and Practice .77 28
Nonlinguistic Representation .75 27
Cooperative Learning .73 27
Setting Objectives and Goals .61 23
Generating and Testing Hyphothesis .61 23
?s, Cues, and Adv. Organizers .59 22

11
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Comparing (Chen, 1996)
  • Classifying (Chi, Feltovish, Glaser, 1981)
  • Creating metaphors (Chen, 1999)
  • Creating analogies (Alexander, 1984)

12
Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Rule-Based Strategy
  • Delete trivial material.
  • Delete redundant material.
  • Substitute super ordinate terms for lists (e.g.,
    flowers for daisies, tulips, and roses).
  • Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it is
    missing.

13
Summarizing
  • Summary Frames
  • The Narrative Frame
  • The Topic Restriction/Illustration Frame
  • The Definition Frame
  • The Argumentative Frame
  • The Problem Solution Frame

14
Notetaking
  • Verbatim note taking is, perhaps the least
    effective way to take notes
  • Notes should be considered a work in progress
  • Notes should be used as a study guide for tests
  • The more notes that are taken, the better

15
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
If a person is engaged in some activity for
reasons of intrinsic motivation and if he begins
to receive the external reward, money, for
performing the activity, the degree to which he
is intrinsically motivated to perform the
activity decreases (Deci, 1971, p. 108).
16
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Keeping Track of Effort and Achievement Rubric

Effort
Achievement I worked on the task until it was
I exceeded the objectives of completed
the task
or lesson I pushed myself to continue to
I meet the objectives of the on the
task/lesson task
or lesson
17
Effort and Achievement Chart
Date Assignment Effort Achievement Rubric Rubric
8/22/03 Homework-5 4 4 paragraph essay My Summer Trip
10/1/03 In class essay 3 2
18
Providing recognition
Reward is most effective when it is contingent on
the attainment of some standard of performance
(Wiersma, 1992, and Cameron and Pierce, 1994).
19
Homework and Practice
  • Homework and practice are ways of extending the
    school day and providing students with
    opportunities to refine and extend their
    knowledge.
  • Teachers can use both of these practices as
    powerful instructional tools.

20
Homework and Practice
  • The amount of homework assigned to students
    should be different from elementary to middle
    school to high school. Rule of thumb 10 minutes
    a night per grade level.
  • Parent involvement in homework should be kept at
    a minimum.
  • The purpose of homework should be identified and
    articulated
  • If homework is assigned it should be commented
    on.
  • Establish a homework policy.

21
Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of
focused practice (Anderson, J.R., 1995 Newell
Rosenbloom, 1981).
22
Nonlinguistic Representations
A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic
representations.
  • Creating graphic representations
  • Making physical models
  • Generating mental pictures
  • Drawing pictures and pictographs
  • Engaging in kinesthetic activity

23
Cooperative Learning Five Defining Elements
  • Positive interdependence
  • Face-to-face promotive interaction
  • Individual and group accountability
  • Interpersonal and small group skills
  • Group processing
  • (David Johnson and Roger Johnson, 1999).

24
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
The most powerful single modification that
enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest
prescription for improving education must be
dollops of feedback (Hattie, 1992, p. 9).
25
Providing Feedback
  • Feedback should be corrective in nature.

Right/wrong answer Percentile Gain -3
Correct answer Percentile Gain 9
Repeat until correct Percentile Gain 20
Explanation Percentile Gain 20
26
Timing of Feedback
FOCUS
PERCENTILE GAIN
immediately after item
7 Timing of immediately after test
26 Feedback delayed
after test 21
Timing of
immediately
6 Test one day
27
one week
20
longer
10
27
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Using a variety of structured tasks to guide
    students through generating and testing
    hypotheses
  • Systems analysis
  • Problem solving
  • Historical investigation
  • Invention
  • Experimental inquiry
  • Decision making

28
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
  • Cues and questions should focus on what is
    important as opposed to what is unusual.
  • Higher level questions produce deeper learning
    than lower level questions.
  • Waiting briefly before accepting responses from
    students has the effect of increasing the depth
    of students answers (Rowe, 1974).

29
Questions continued
  • Questions are effective learning tools even when
    asked before a learning experience.
  • Cues are straightforward ways of activating prior
    knowledge.

30
Advance Organizers
  • Advance organizers should focus on what is
    important as opposed to what is unusual.
  • Higher level advance organizers produce deeper
    learning than the lower level advance
    organizers.

31
Advance Organizers
  • Advance organizers are most useful with
    information that is not well organized.
  • Different types of advance organizers produce
    different results.

32
GOOD LUCK!
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