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Half-day Conference on Meeting the Challenges of Change Leadership for Learning 11th June 2010 Education Bureau Quality Assurance Division – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Half-day Conference on


1
Half-day Conference on
Meeting the Challenges of Change
Leadership for Learning
11th June 2010
Education Bureau Quality Assurance Division
2
Programme
Time Content Speakers
0845 0900 Registration
0900 1000 Keynote Speech Meeting the Challenges of Change Leadership for Learning Professor John MacBeath
1000 1020 Experience Sharing (1) Mr Lin Man Sheung (Headmaster of Pui Kiu Primary School)
1020 1040 Break
1040 1100 Experience Sharing (2) Sister Agnes Law (Principal of Sacred Heart Canossian College)
1100 1130 Leadership for Learning in the Local Context Reflections and Recommendations Professor John MacBeath
1130 1200 Panel Discussion Professor John MacBeath Mr Lin Man Sheung Sister Agnes Law Mr Hui Chin Yim, Stephen
1200 1230 Open Forum Professor John MacBeath Mr Lin Man Sheung Sister Agnes Law Mr Hui Chin Yim, Stephen
3
The three questions
  • What do we understand by effective leadership?

How does it contribute to learning for all?
What is the role of self-evaluation in addressing
these questions?
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HOW WE SEE OURSELVES
The way we see leadership, learning and the
quality of our school is ultimately a product of
how we see and think about ourselves
8
Who am I?
The hero rescuer The dutiful manager The
orchestrator The intermediary The
innovator The team player The risk taker
9
Flying below the radar
  • An extra-ordinary generation of school leaders
    who have bucked the trend, who are not
    intimidated and oppressed by the centre
    because with imaginative leaders and committed
    creative teachers they follow their best
    professional instincts, who dont say Id love to
    do innovation but I cant afford to because of
    ..
  • Theyve just got on innovating, or should I say,
    transforming, doing exciting things and running
    very good schools - exciting places for teachers
    and kids to be in.
  • (David Hargreaves, 2009)

10
THE POWER OF ONE?
School leadership is often taken to mean
headship. Such an outlook limits leadership to
one person and implies lone leadership. The
long-standing belief in the power of one is being
challenged. Today there is much more talk about
shared leadership, leadership teams and
distributed leadership than ever before.
(Southworth, 2002)
11
GREEDY WORK
The task of leading a school in the twenty first
century can no longer be carried out by the
heroic individual leader single-handedly turning
schools around. It is greedy work, all consuming,
demanding unrelenting peak performance from
super-leaders and no longer a sustainable notion.
Peter Gronn, The New Work of Educational
Leaders Changing Leadership Practice in an Era
of School Reform, 2003
12
THE DILEMMAS OF LEADERSHIP
  • Unrelenting change
  • Stress
  • Workload
  • Social factors
  • Accountability
  • Bureaucracy
  • Teacher recruitment
  • Salary
  • Lifestyle balance
  • Intensification

(MacBeath and Galton, 2002,2004, 2006, 2008)
13
ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING DISABILITIES
Its a great idea but it wouldnt work
here There simply isnt the time in the day, or
week If we just had the resources. Theres
no room in an overcrowded curriculum Yet one
more initiative for an already overstretched
staff Not this year, perhaps next year
14
11 KEY FACETS OF LEADERSHIP
  • Seeks out opportunities to learn
  • Acts with integrity
  • Adapts to differences
  • Is committed to making a difference
  • Seeks broad based knowledge
  • Brings out the best in other people
  • Is insightful - sees things from new angles
  • Has courage to take risks
  • Seeks out and uses feedback
  • Learns from mistakes
  • Is open to criticism

15
COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP
Leadership is exercised not at the apex of the
organisational pyramid but at the centre of the
web of human relationships (Joe Murphy 1996)
OR
16
Mediated effects
  • School leaders improve teaching and learning
    indirectly and most powerfully through their
    influence on staff motivation, commitment and
    working conditions
  • School leadership has a greater influence on
    schools and students when it is widely
    distributed
  • Collaborative patterns beyond the school
    strengthen the quality of teaching
  • (Leithwood, 2006, Mulford, 2003, Carmichael,
    2006)
  • Leithwood et al.

17
Making the connections
Leadership and management
Ethos and culture
Learning and teaching
18
  • School is a house of learning. It is a place
    where diversions and mistakes are allowed, but
    where evaluation in the form of feedback gives
    you a sense of direction

19
Local responsibility and national prescription
Towards system-wide sustainability
Schools tomorrow? Building capacity
Schools today Detailed prescription of what
schools do
The challenge Every school an effective school
20
Human capital (OECD)
21
Human capital (OECD)
22
FROM SINGLE LOOP TO.......
assess
measure progress
set targets
23
DOUBLE LOOP LEARNING
assess
measure progress
set targets
Build capacity
Evaluate learning
Create and share knowledge
24
SMC from single to double loop
  • Set school goals and performance targets
  • Ensure smooth operation in school
  • Prepare annual school plan budget
  • Pilot evaluate educational initiatives
  • Promote education to pupils
  • Establish effective channels of communication
  • Plan professional development of teachers
  • Evaluate school effectiveness

25
Appreciative inquiry
  • Protected learning time at meetings
  • Story telling sessions from invited guests
  • Participation in lesson study
  • Shadowing a class
  • Shadow a School Review Team
  • Consultancy on OLE
  • Focus group with students
  • Co-teaching

26
WHAT IS THE CAPACITY OF YOUR SCHOOL?

Conducting a knowledge audit
  • Where does the knowledge lie as to
  • What motivates and engages students?
  • The effectiveness of teaching?
  • Uses and impact of assessment
  • The value of homework?
  • Learning in home and community?
  • Other Learning Experiences?
  • Agency and change agents?
  • Qualities of leadership?


27
Evidence from the Impact Study
  • In schools where SSE is more strongly embedded
  •  
  • Membership of the team covers a cross-section of
    staff with high credibility among their
    colleagues.
  • The School Improvement Team enjoys scope to
    exercise initiative and creativity.
  •  
  • There is a willingness and capability to ask hard
    questions and to instil an ethos of
    accountability.
  •  

28
Evidence from the Impact Study (2)
  • Teamwork exceeds and synergises the professional
    capacities of all its members.
  • Initiative and ownership create confidence and
    shared leadership throughout the team.
  • There is a vision as to what SSE can achieve and
    how it can feed into school improvement.

29
DEVELOPING THE INNER EYE
Leadership acts are most likely to occur when
attempts are made to understand the circumstances
of teachers work. This means starting with the
practicalities of teaching, developing a language
for talking about teaching, and assisting
teachers to collect evidence about the
contradictions, dilemmas and paradoxes that
inhere in their work. This consciousness raising
amounts to developing an inner eye so as to
penetrate accepted assumptions and, in the
process, isolate viable ways in which
transformation might occur. (Smyth, 1986, p. 3)
30
Leadership for Learning making learning visible
The task of leadership is to make visible the
how, why and where of learning. It achieves this
by conversations and demonstrations around pupil
learning, professional learning and learnings
which transcend the boundaries of the school. The
challenge for leadership is to nurture the
dialogue, to make transparent ways in learning
interconnects and infuses behaviour. It promotes
a continuing restless inquiry into what works
best, when, where, for whom and with what
outcome. Its vision is of the intelligent school
and its practice intersects with the wider world
of learning.
31
OECDs PISA assessment of the knowledge and
skills of 15-year-olds

32
Extrapolating learning
Every three years, OECD tests roughly half a
million of children in the principal
industrialised countries, and thats not simply
about checking whether students have learned what
they were recently taught, but we examine to what
extent students can extrapolate from what they
have learned and apply their knowledge and skills
in novel settings.
33
How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide
measures of routine and non-routine task input
Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task
distribution
(Levy and Murnane)
34
LEARNING IN THE UNFAMILIAR
tasks/ problems
unfamiliar
novel problems in familiar contexts
unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar contexts
familiar problems in familiar contexts
familiar problems in novel contexts
contexts/situations
familiar
35
LEARNING IN THE UNFAMILIAR
unfamiliar
tasks/ problems
novel problems in familiar contexts
unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar contexts
familiar problems in familiar contexts
familiar problems in novel contexts
familiar
contexts/situations
36
Learning Science in Informal Environments
  • There is mounting evidence that structured,
    nonschool science programs can feed or stimulate
    the science-specific interests of adults and
    children, may positively influence academic
    achievement for students, and may expand
    participants sense of future science career
    options.. Many academic achievement outcomes (1)
    do not encompass the range of capabilities that
    informal settings can promote (2) violate
    critical assumptions about these settings (3) are
    not designed for the breadth of participants.
  • Learning Science in Informal Environments
    People, Places, and Pursuits, National Research
    Council, Washington.

37
PLUS CA CHANGE?
  • In the job Ive just left I got the chance to go
    to ministerial meetings in so many places, from
    America to Australia, to China to India, to Egypt
    to Scandinavia, where Ministers would unfailingly
    stand up and talk about how the world is
    changing, its uncertain, technology, global
    sustainability, rich and poor, economic
    challenge, movement of people, threats to our
    civilisation, etc. Then they all say, therefore,
    what youngsters need to be is adaptable,
    flexible, ever to cope with change, and words
    like that. Then, within an hour, all of them are
    marching to another drum which is about how we
    hold on to tradition and how we dont let things
    that we have traditionally tested drift away
    because theyre fearful of their electorate
    thinking that theyve lost what they thought the
    electorate matters.
  • (Mick Waters, Former Director, The
    Qualifications and Curriculum Authority)

38
Archbishop of Canterbury's Christmas sermon
Friday 25 December 2009
  • In the case of children, we shall do our level
    best to turn you into active little consumers and
    performers as soon as we can.  We shall test you
    relentlessly in school from the word go we shall
    do all we can to make childhood a brief and
    rather regrettable stage on the way to the real
    thing - turning you into a useful cog in the
    social machine that won't need too much
    maintenance.
  • The Children's Society's Good Childhood report
    or the Cambridge Review of primary education. 
    There has at last been a wake-up call about the
    ways in which we are crushing and narrowing
    children's experience and there is a long and
    significant agenda there for debate in the months
    ahead.

39
Entre les murs
  • its naturalistic portrayal of the energy and
    high tension of the classroom
  • the chaos, the challenges to, and idle assertions
    of authority, the clashes and power struggles,
    and, the tedium, a wholly absorbing microcosm of
    human interaction.

40
The tyranny of being right
  • What we do know is if youre not prepared to be
    wrong, youll never come up with anything
    original. And by the time they get to be adults
    most kinds have lost that capacity. They have
    become frightened of being wrong. We stigmatize
    mistakes and were now running educational
    systems where mistakes are the worst thing you
    can make.
  • (Sir Ken Robinson, Chair of Government Task
    Force on Creativity, 1997-2001)

41
Children come into the classroom to be taught
  • Children come into the classroom to learn

42
REFRAMING
  • from individualism to professional community
  • from teaching at the centre to learning at the
    centre
  • from technical and managed work to inquiry and
    shared leadership
  • from prescription of curriculum to
    capacity-building of teachers (Liebermann and
    Miller, 2003)
  • Learning teams as initiators in discussion of
    tough problems and deep mysteries of teaching
    and learning.
  • (Mitchell and Sackney, 2000)

43
View of learning
Surface passive
Deep active
Individual detached
Individualised learning instruction
Personalised inquiry
construction

Personalised community
co-construction


View of person
Social and relational
44
Who assesses the quality of learning?
Others assess student learning
Students self assess
45
Teacher and student assessment coincide
Teacher assessment is final and definitive
Others assess
Self assessment is final arbiter
There is little or no formative assessment
Students self assess
46
Teacher assessment is final and definitive
Teacher and student assessment coincide
co-construction
Others assess
There is little or no formative assessment
Self assessment is final arbiter
Self assess
47
Observing learning
  • What are they doing?
  • What are they learning?
  • What am I learning?
  • What will I do next?

48
  • What combination of experiences best promote
    the learning of different people?

49
Knowledge in the head
Vulgar and useful
Pure and useless
Knowledge in the world
50
The singular fallacy
  • Learning and development are frequently presumed
    to be the result of individual effort and
    accomplishment, rather than the product of
    communities, groups, and families. What is all
    too commonly framed as individual accomplishment
    is better understood as the result of the
    coordination and strategic use of learning
    resources.
    (Lauren Resnick, 1987)

51
NESTED LIVES
  • Children and young people live nested lives, so
    that when classrooms do not function as we want
    them to, we go to work on improving them. Those
    classrooms are in schools, so when we decide that
    those schools are not performing appropriately,
    we go to work on improving them, as well. But
    those young people are also situated in families,
    in neighbourhoods, in peer groups who shape
    attitudes and aspirations often more powerfully
    than their parents or teachers.
  • (David Berliner, 2005)

52
The nesting of school performance
  • The family and neighbourhood context
  • The social and economic context
  • The national cultural context
  • The global policy context
  • The school context

53
Measuring what we value?
  • We couldnt find a mechanism to show we valued
    the things we didnt test. That was the problem.
    We always valued the other things but we
    couldnt find a way of showing it, thats the
    problem. We need to get to a situation where
    theres a way of showing how much we value
    dancing, music, sport and PE how much we value
    how much improvement children make in the widest
    sense and that really gets into the public
    consciousness.
  • (Estelle Morris, Secretary of State for
    Education, 2001-2002)

54
Synergy or compromise?
  • The line of best fit to get as near as
    possible to everybody, but not too far from
    anybody.
  • No matter the colour of government, theres
    always going to be a concern - whats your
    average parent going to think about this?
  • (Mick Waters, ex Director QCA)

55
Self-evaluation a question of purpose
  • As preparation for inspection?
  • For practitioner professional development?
  • To enhance student learning?
  • To build school capacity?
  • To raise standards?
  • To encourage pupil voice?

56
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57
The players
Middle managers who act as intermediaries between
senior leaders and school staff, encouraging
teachers within their departments to step outside
of their subject to adopt a commitment to
whole-school improvement.   SITs who share
leadership, take the initiative in supporting
their colleagues and assume responsibility for
the successful embedding of SSE
practice.   Teachers who are the ultimate
gatekeepers and champions of SSE, through
promoting continuing reflection on the quality of
learning and teaching in their classrooms and
beyond
58
The players
Parents who are the first and most important
educator, have a responsibility to take every
opportunity to maintain a liaison with teachers
in a joint commitment to support their childrens
learning.   Students who will only become
effective lifelong learners when they are
self-evaluators, play a role in constructive
critique of school life and contribute to school
improvement. Front line and auxiliary staff who
present the school to the outside world, who
support the mission and vision of the school and
its day to day operations
59
Seeking external assistance
  • A sign of vitality (Fullan)
  • Essential for success in school improvement
    (Baker et al.)
  • Assistance seeking a sign of intelligence and
    strength, not weakness (Louis and Miles)
  • Making use of consultants should be the norm
    rather than the exception (Fidler et al.)
  • The school cannot go it alone (Stoll and
    Thomson)

60
  • Schools need critical friends, individuals who,
    at appropriate times, listen and help them sort
    out their thinking and make sound decisions, who
    are not afraid to tell them when expectations for
    themselves and others are too low and when their
    actions do not match their expectations. They
    also help schools raise their expectations
    because critical friends care about schools and
    want the best for them.
  • (Stoll and Thomson, 1996, p27)

61
WHO?
understands your work yet is a little removed
and so can offer a different perspective? Asks
questions that make you think, reassess your
assumptions, helping you to see things in a new
light? do you trust and know to be on your side,
even if they sometimes present challenging
critiques of your actions? helps you make sound
decisions, challenge expectations, and helps
shape, but never determines, courses of
action? alerts you to issues perhaps only half
perceived, whilst being sympathetic to you as a
person and to the bigger tasks you face?
62
UNICEF 2008
  • The true measure of a nations standing is how
    well it attends to its children their health
    and safety, their material security, their
    education and socialization, and their sense of
    being loved, valued, and included in the families
    and societies into which are born.
  • (An Overview of Child Well Being in Rich
    Countries (2007 p. 3).
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