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Chapter 1 Section 3

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Chapter 1 Section 3 Foundations of Civilization The Main Idea From farming villages arose cities, and with them, the first civilizations, marking the beginnings of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Section 3


1
Chapter 1 Section 3
  • Foundations of Civilization

2
The Main Idea From farming villages arose
cities, and with them, the first civilizations,
marking the beginnings of recorded history.
  • Objectives
  • Why did some villages develop into cities?
  • What characterized the worlds first
  • civilizations, and where did they develop?
  • What factors cause civilizations to change
  • over time?

3
I. From Villages to Cities
Villages grew and the first cities appeared
City of Uruk, c. 3000 BC
4
I. From Villages to Cities
  • Improved agriculture and irrigation resulted in
  • a food surplus

Shadouf Irrigation
5
I. From Villages to Cities
  • Fewer people needed to farm others worked
  • in different tasks division of labor

Egyptians artisans smelted copper and gold for
artistic, architectural, and military purposes.
6
I. From Villages to Cities
  • Cities larger/more densely populated
  • First known city - Uruk

Uruk, 3000 BC Population 40,000 to
50,000 Size 1000 acres
7
I. From Villages to Cities
  • City populations more diverse
  • Village - families/clans traditional economy
  • City - unrelated people complex economy

8
I. From Villages to Cities
  • Formal organization in cities, were centers of
  • trade

Ancient Babylon, c. 600 BC
9
II. The First Civilizations
10
II. The First Civilizations
  • Civilizations - complex organized cultures
  • with common characteristics

11
A. Characteristics of Early Civilizations
  • Developed Cities political, economic, and
    cultural centers
  • Organized Government laws/systems of justice,
    food production, taxation

Harappa, Indus River Valley
12
A. Characteristics of Early Civilizations
  • Formalized religion priests, ceremonies,
    rituals
  • Government and religion closely connected

Egyptians saw their pharaoh as a god, more
specifically as the god Horus Egyptian Gods
Horus and Osiris and Pharaoh Seti I
13
A. Characteristics of Early Civilizations
  • Specialization of labor farmers, soldiers,
    artisans, merchants, etc.

The earliest specializations were baking,
brewing, weaving, dyeing, carpentry,
pottery-making, stone and metal-working
merchants, soldiers and artists priests and
healers temple managers, bureaucrats,
calendar-keepers, and scribes
14
(No Transcript)
15
A. Characteristics of Early Civilizations
  • Social classes - People became ranked according
    to job, wealth, or influence

16
A. Characteristics of Early Civilizations
  • Abstract writing for record keeping
  • Calendars to keep track of yearly events

Cuneiform tablet
17
A. Characteristics of Early Civilizations
  • Arts and architecture reflected beliefs, values,
    strength, and culture

Mesopotamian Ziggurat
Temple of Hephaistos
18
III. Changes in Civilizations
  • Civilizations changed - some failed, others
    succeeded and grew

19
III. Changes in Civilizations
  • Forces of nature
  • Need for resources
  • Expanded trade for scarce resources

Salt mine in the Sahara Desert
20
III. Changes in Civilizations
  • Cultural Diffusion - spread of ideas, customs,
  • culture, and technology by migration, trade,
  • warfare

Traders approaching Timbuktu in Mali
Diffusion of language
21
III. Changes in Civilizations
  • Warfare brought change victors forced way
  • of life upon defeated
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