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Causes of the Civil War

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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I. Secession. With the election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860, Southern states started to secede . They based their move on the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Causes of the Civil War


1
  • Causes of the Civil War

2
Slavery
  • Slavery was the most polarizing issue in this
    time period.
  • Abolitionists
  • Pro-Slavery
  • Slavery was not only a morally divisive issue,
    but also became an economic issue to the southern
    states.
  • Slaves werent paid for their labor
  • Without slaves it would become even more
    expensive to farm a large plantation.

3
Why were slaves mostly in the South?
  • Slavery ended in the northern states for 2 main
    reasons
  • The urbanization of the northern states, due to
    the industrialization of the North (North becomes
    city oriented, because factories were taking over
    the northern states).
  • Settlers from Europe are coming to America to
    work in the factories
  • The southern states did not experience the change
    associated with industry, so they continued to
    use slaves to cultivate the crops on the large
    plantations.
  • Cheap labor
  • Africans werent viewed as fully human (3/5
    Compromise in 1865).

4
The Cotton Gin
  • The Cotton Gin was a machine, designed by Eli
    Whitney in 1793, that allowed large amounts of
    cotton to be processed in a short period of time
    (Fibers separated from seeds).
  • Whitneys invention led to the growth of slavery
    because production increased exponentially with
    the cotton gin. Slave owners wanted more slaves
    to be able to increase their profits on cotton.

5
African-American Abolitionists
  • Frederick Douglass An escaped slave who became a
    brilliant speaker, writer and social-reformist.
    He became a living example to America that slaves
    were human, with just as much intellectual
    ability as Anglo-Americans. Many were surprised
    that an escaped slave was so polished orally.
    Douglass also became a politician and even ran
    for vice president.
  • Sojourner Truth Born into slavery, Sojourner
    Truth escaped with her daughter. She also made
    history by becoming the first African-American to
    win a court case against a white man (the case
    was for the freedom of her enslaved son). Truth
    was a very active abolitionist and womans rights
    activist, who was instrumental in recruiting
    slaves to the Union Army.

6
Questions
  • Explain the benefit of having slaves on a large
    plantation.
  • Why do you think the South doesnt embrace
    industrialization like the North?

Slaves provided the cheapest labor possible,
allowing for more profit.
The differences in Geography/Climate make farming
more profitable.
7
Uncle Toms Cabin
  • This best-selling novel was written by
    abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stow, and published
    in 1852 (a response to the Fugitive Slave Act).
  • The story is about a dutiful, long-suffering
    slave named Tom, and his struggles to live
    through the injustice of slavery in the south.
  • The book was the 2nd best selling book of the
    19th century (1 was the Bible), and portrayed
    slaves as not only human, but shed light on the
    daily injustices of slavery in America.
  • Uncle Toms Cabin is said to have a profound
    impact on the viewpoints of many in the North,
    and added fuel to the flame of disagreement
    between the Northern abolitionist movement, and
    the pro-slavery Southern states.

8
The Underground Railroad
  • This was the system by which escaped slaves were
    traveling to the north, to freedom, but it was
    neither underground, nor a railroad.
  • Underground secret
  • Railroad refers to the terms that were used in
    communicating how to get safely from one place to
    another (conductor, station, etc.)
  • Conductors were the people who would lead the
    escaped slaves to freedom. Harriet Tubman, a
    famous conductor, reportedly made 19 trips back
    to the South to help an estimated 300 slaves
    escape.
  • Stations were the places where it was okay for
    the slaves to stop and rest, or hide from those
    trying to capture them.

9
Underground Railroad continued
  • The underground railroad helped unknown numbers
    of slaves escape bondage, but it also,
    inadvertently, led to the strengthening of the
    Fugitive Slave Laws in 1850.
  • Slave owners didnt like the idea of people
    undermining the previous Fugitive Slave Laws by
    aiding the escaped slaves reach freedom in the
    North.

10
Question
  • What do you think is the underlying issue that
    caused two different mindsets about slavery
    between the abolitionists and slavery supporters?


11
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
  • Because the US had 22 states (11 free and 11
    slave), when Missouri applied for admission into
    the union, a compromise had to be made. The
    compromise terms were
  • Missouri would be a slave state.
  • Maine, which had been part of Massachusetts,
    would be admitted as a free state (thus keeping
    the balance)
  • Missouri would be the only slave state admitted
    above the 36o 30 latitude line.

12
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13
Nullification Crisis
  • In 1828 the US passed a bill that would
    drastically increase the tariffs placed on
    imported goods.
  • Britain could no longer afford to buy as much
    cotton.
  • South Carolina declared the tariffs
    unconstitutional and refused payment.
  • Congress passes the Force Bill, giving President
    Andrew Jackson authority to use any means
    necessary to collect the taxes.

14
Question
  • Why would high tariffs on imported goods affect
    the amount of product Britain was able to buy?
  • If people cannot afford to pay for imported
    goods, they buy domestic
  • Britain makes less money
  • Britain is less likely to buy from Southerners,
    when Americans arent able to buy their product

15
Compromise Tariff of 1833
  • To calm the growing tension between the South and
    North, the leader of the Whig party, Henry Clay,
    proposed the tariff of 1833, which stated
  • Most tariffs would be reduced to 20 of the
    imported items value
  • The tariffs that werent would be reduced by 10
    yearly until all were below 20 by the year 1842.
  • All states agreed to the terms of the compromise,
    maybe because of the previously passed Force Bill.

16
Wilmot Proviso
Provided, That, as an express and fundamental
condition to the acquisition of any territory
from the Republic of Mexico by the United States,
by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated
between them, and to the use by the Executive of
the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery
nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any
part of said territory, except for crime, whereof
the party shall first be duly convicted.
  • This bill was Introduced to congress by David
    Wilmot
  • The Proviso would have banned slavery in all of
    the territories gained in the Mexican War.
  • It passed in the House of Representatives, but
    was rejected by the Senate.
  • The debate of this Provision exposed the
    overwhelming differences between the North and
    South, and further divided the country over the
    issue of slavery.

17
Compromise of 1850
  • Henry Clay comes up with another compromise for
    the north and south in 1850, but it isnt passed
    the first time it appears before congress. Clay
    then splits the bill into 5 separate bills to be
    voted on individually and gets them all passed.
  • Fugitive slave law is amended
  • Slave trade in Washington D.C. is abolished, but
    not slavery.
  • California joins the US as a free state
  • Utah Territory has a government established
  • Texas would lose all land north of the Missouri
    Compromise line, and cede some land to New Mexico.

18
Daniel Webster
  • A member of the Whig Party and famous
    congressman, Daniel Webster was very outspoken in
    support of the Compromise of 1850.
  • He thought that slavery couldnt be stopped in
    the states that it already existed, but that it
    shouldnt be allowed to spread.
  • His views were well received by moderates, but he
    lost support from abolitionist.

19
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20
Fugitive Slave Law
  • Fugitive slaves laws were passed in 1793, and
    again in 1850.
  • In 1793, Congress passed the first which gave a
    slave-owner the right to recover an escaped
    slave.
  • In the Compromise of 1850, this law was
    strengthened, and required that law enforcement
    of the free states to capture and return slaves
    to their masters.

21
Question
  • Why would slave owners feel people in Free States
    needed to apprehend and return escaped slaves?

Slave owners felt is was their Constitutional
right to own slaves as property, and those that
were helping slaves escape were, essentially,
stealing property.
22
Dred Scott Case (1857)
  • Dredd Scott brought a suit before the United
    States Supreme Court for him and his families
    freedom
  • Scott was married to and lived with free black
    woman, had lived with his master in Illinois and
    Minnesota (Free states).
  • The Supreme Court decided 7-2 against Scott,
    stating that no one of African descent could
    claim citizenship in the United States of
    America, and therefor could not bring a lawsuit
    before a Federal Court.
  • This decision ignited already strong sectional
    tension between the North and the South.

23
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  • This act, created by Stephen Douglas, formed the
    Kansas and Nebraska Territories
  • Allowed for all new territories to decide on the
    issue of slavery by Popular Sovereignty, thus
    repealing the Missouri Compromise.

24
Bleeding Kansas
  • The Kansas-Nebraska act lead to Bleeding Kansas,
    when pro/anti slavery groups poured into Kansas
    to push/fight for the people to vote for or
    against slavery.
  • Northern View Wealthy slave-owners would buy all
    of the best land to be worked by their slaves,
    leaving little farming land for those who werent
    wealthy.
  • Southern View Because of Popular Sovereignty,
    slave-owners could bring all of their property,
    including slaves.

25
Bleeding Kansas Continued
  • Abolitionists fought against Missourians (Border
    Ruffians) to establish control of the government
    in Kansas.
  • Abolitionist leader John Brown becomes famous
    when he leads his sons and other abolitionists to
    capture 5 pro-slavery men from their homes and
    kill them, and for his raid at Harpers Ferry.

26
Harpers Ferry
  • Next, Brown tried to organize a slave revolt in
    the town Harpers Ferry, Virginia in 1859.
  • The goal of the raid was to gain control of the
    armory there, and cause an uprising among the
    slaves to scare the slave-owners in Virginia.
  • The slave revolt was unsuccessful because word
    never got out to the slaves that there would be a
    revolt. Brown didnt gather the manpower he
    would need to resist the Militia and Marines
    coming to regain order in Harpers Ferry
  • General Robert E. Lee was called from leave to
    lead Marines in ending the rebellion in Harpers
    Ferry
  • Two of Browns three sons were killed in the
    raid, while John was captured and hanged for
    treason.
  • Although many thought the attack was crazy, Brown
    became a martyr in the North.

27
Preston Brooks
  • Firm believer in States Rights and Slavery
  • Preston Brooks was a Democratic representative
    from South Carolina who was famous for beating
    abolitionist Charles Sumner with a cane on the
    Senate floor, during a debate about states rights
    to choose slavery.

28
Question
  • Why would popular sovereignty create a rush of
    people coming into the new territories?
  • How would that influx of people affect the voting
    process?

People wanted to create an imbalance in the
Legislative Branch, by adding one more free or
slave state. People werent going to live, but
only to sway the voting.
29
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)
  • Lincoln was a lawyer before becoming a leader for
    the newly formed Republican Party. He had
    previously worked as a member of the Illinois
    House of Representatives .
  • He spoke out against the expansion of slavery
    during his campaign for the senate in 1858, but
    his democratic rival Stephen A Douglas won the
    election.
  • In 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican
    presidential nomination, and won the presidency
    by sweeping the North, and without much support
    from Southern states.

30
Western Land Prices
Do not spread slavery discourage migration of
labor force
Low Prices to aid small farmers
High Prices
Low Prices
Expand slavery
31
Labor
Skilled work force for businesses
Free labor
Free Labor
Avoid competition with cheap labor
Slave Labor
Cotton white gold needed for hard labor
32
Tariffs
Protect manufactured goods from being under sold
High
High
Revenue to build for transportation
Low
Keep down cost of manufactured goods
33
Internal Improvements
Create western market for manufactured goods
For
For
Roads, bridges, canals to get products east
Against
Less government spending which would raise
tariffs
34
Money
Backed by gold (species), wanted credit to be
repaid
Soft - Cheap
Hard
Not back by worth, easy for farmers to get
Soft - Cheap
Farmers in debt, crop market unpredictable,
35
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36
Southern States Secede
  • Before Lincoln can be sworn into office, 7
    Southern states secede from the union.
  • Because there is no agreement reached about
    slavery, or the secession, they form the
    Confederate States of America (CSA). They unite
    under the leadership of President Jefferson Davis
    (1861-1865), with General Robert E. Lee advising
    him on military strategy.
  • On April 12 1861, the CSA attack Fort Sumner, and
    this prompts 4 more states to secede and join the
    CSA.

37
Order of Secession
  1. South Carolina
  2. Mississippi
  3. Florida
  4. Alabama
  5. Georgia
  6. Louisiana
  7. TEXAS- February 1, 1861
  8. Virginia
  9. Arkansas
  10. North Carolina
  11. Tennessee

38
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39
Discussion
  • Why would Abraham Lincolns election make the
    Slave States want to secede from the U.S.?
  • What is your opinion on states being able to
    secede today?

The Republican Party was started by
Abolitionists, so slavery supporters felt that
Lincoln would be working to end slavery.
40
Civil War Comparison
South
North
  • Called the Confederate States of America
  • Wore gray
  • Were called Rebels
  • President Jefferson Davis
  • General Robert E. Lee
  • Capital Richmond, VA
  • Called the United States of America
  • Wore blue
  • Were called Yankees
  • President Abraham Lincoln
  • General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Capital Washington, D.C.

41
Civil War Comparison
North
South
  • 23 states
  • 22 million people
  • Had about 85 of the nations factories
  • More than double the railroad acreage of the
    South
  • Naval power and shipyards belonged to the North
  • 11 states
  • 9 million people (3.5 million of those were
    enslaved)
  • Began the war with better generals
  • Fought on home territory

42
The Confederate Strategy
  • The South started fighting a defensive war, since
    they had been invaded
  • The South depended on King Cotton to gain support
    from Europe
  • As the war went on, the South took on the
    offensive and invaded the North

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
43
The Union Strategy
  • The Unions strategy was called the Anaconda
    Plan. It was designed to smother the economy of
    the South like an anaconda squeezing its prey.
  • Blockade the Souths coastline to prevent exports
  • Gain control of the Mississippi River to split
    the Confederacy in two
  • Take Richmond, the capital
  • Lincoln ordered the invasion of Richmond in the
    summer of 1861

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
44
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
45
Important battles (and some other stuff)
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
46
Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
  • The first major land battle of the Civil War
  • Fought 26 miles from Washington, D.C.
  • The Confederate victory at Bull Run made the
    South think they had won the war
  • It also made the North realize that they had
    underestimated their opponent

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
47
Battle of Antietam
  • Late in 1862, Generals Robert E. Lee and George
    McClellan faced off in the first battle in
    Northern territory
  • After a string of defeats, McClellans victory
    over Lee provided Abraham Lincoln with an
    opportunity to issue the Emancipation
    Proclamation
  • It remains as the bloodiest day in American
    history with over 22,000 casualties

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
48
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the
    Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves
    in Confederate territory
  • Lincoln did not have the Constitutional power to
    free slaves in the United States
  • This weakened the Confederacy, and changed the
    goal of the war for the North from preservation
    to liberation

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
49
Turning Point Gettysburg
  • There are two Northern victories in the war that
    are considered turning points Gettysburg and
    Vicksburg.
  • Gettysburg turned back the Confederacys advance
    into the North
  • Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address following the
    battle

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
50
Turning Point Vicksburg
  • The Northern siege of Vicksburg gave control of
    the Mississippi River to the North, splitting the
    South in two
  • The victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg swung
    the tide of war to the North

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART I
51
War Changes Womens Roles
  • There were few battles in Texas
  • Life on plantations didnt change, except there
    were no men around to work the crops or tend the
    livestock
  • Four out of five men were away from home
  • Women and children did the work they left behind
  • Women also served as nurses during the Civil War

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, PART II
52
The End of the War
  • After the losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg,
    things were not good for the Confederacy
  • Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as
    commander of the Union armies
  • Grant came up with a plan to defeat the
    Confederacy
  • Grant would chase Robert E. Lees (the
    Confederate commander) army in Virginia
  • General Sherman would push through the Deep South
    to Atlanta

53
Texas Role
  • Sam Houston had been elected Governor of Texas,
    but when He refused to pledge allegiance to the
    Confederacy, the Texas legislature relieved him
    of his duties as Governor.

54
Texas Role
  • Texas declared secession on February 1, 1861, and
    also listed its reasons for seceding.
  • We hold as undeniable truths that the governments
    of the various States, and of the confederacy
    itself, were established exclusively by the white
    race, for themselves and their posterity that
    the African race had no agency in their
    establishment that they were rightfully held and
    regarded as an inferior and dependent race, and
    in that condition only could their existence in
    this country be rendered beneficial or tolerable.
  • Texas Secession Convention (February 1861),

55
Texas Role
  • John Bell Hood- Hoods TX brigade fought for the
    Confederacy, and General Robert E. Lee said they
    were his, Finest Soldiers.
  • Terry TX Rangers Fought in more battles than any
    other Calvary Regiment.
  • Davis Guard 47 Confederates defend Sabine pass
    against the Union capturing 2 ships and 350
    Union troops.

56
Texas Role
  • The population of Texas wasnt enough to supply a
    large number of troops to the confederate army,
    but Texas did supply them with horses, beef,
    corn, beans, cannon ammunition and uniforms.
  • Texas cotton crop was very valuable and its
    trade helped to supply the Confederacy with much
    needed supplies.
  • The Union made it a point to cut of the trade
    routes along the ports in Texas, which kept the
    Confederacy from getting needed supplies.

57
Quotes
  • The blessings in which you, this day, rejoice are
    not enjoyed in common. The rich inheritance of
    justice, liberty, prosperity, and independence
    bequeathed given by your fathers is shared by
    you, not by me. The sunlight that brought light
    and healing to you has brought stripes

Former slave speaking on the unequal treatment of
African Americans in the United States
58
Quotes
  • The absence of most of the able-bodied men in the
    army threw the whole burden of providing the
    necessities of life upon the women, who, with the
    assistance of the slaves, produced both food and
    clothing from the raw material to the finished
    productsThus while the men were strugglingin
    camp and in battle, the work of the women was no
    less heroic and patriotic in their homes.
  • Louis J. Wortham, A History of Texas From
    Wilderness to Commonwealth (Fort Worth, 1924).

Womens economic role because of the war.
59
Quotes
  • "Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers
    brought forth upon this continent a new nation,
    conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the
    proposition that all men are created equal. Now
    we are engaged in a great civil war, ... and that
    government of the people, by the people, for the
    people, shall not perish from the earth."

Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address
60
  • That on the first day of January, 1863, all
    persons held as slaves within any State or part
    of a State, the people whereof shall then be in
    rebellion against the United States, shall be
    forever free

Abraham Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation
61
Quotes
  • "A house divided against itself cannot stand." I
    believe this government cannot endure,
    permanently, half slave and half free. I do not
    expect the Union to be dissolved I do not expect
    the house to fall but I do expect it will cease
    to be divided. It will become all one thing, or
    all the other.
  • Abraham Lincoln Illinois Debates 1858

Sectionalism is a threat to the United States
62
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