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The 2nd War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism


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Title: The 2nd War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism

The 2nd War for Independence and the Upsurge of
  • Chapter 12

Essential Question?
  • What were the causes and results of the War of

Madisons 2nd Term Timeline
  • 1810 Fletcher v. Peck
  • 1812 War of 1812 begin
  • Invasions of Canada
  • 1814 UK burns Washington DC
  • Treaty of Ghent
  • Hartford Convention (1814-15)
  • 1815 Battle of New Orleans
  • 1816 2nd Bank of US Founded

James Madison 4th President
On to Canada over Land and Lakes
  • US invades Canada
  • To gain land
  • Stop supply of weapons to Indians
  • UK military weak there
  • Problems for US
  • US military weak
  • Unorganized
  • 1 in 6 US sailors a free black
  • 1814 Napoleon defeated, UK can concentrate on
    fighting US
  • US Navy defends NY, but army loses many battles

3 U. S. Invasions of 1812
Campaigns of 1813
Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended
  • 1814 UK enters Chesapeake, embarrasses US army,
    burns Washington DC.
  • Baltimore Ft. McHenry defended, Francis S. Key
    writes The Star Spangled Banner
  • Gen. Andrew Jackson scrounges together pirates,
    free blacks, sailors defended New Orleans in
    January 1815
  • Made Jackson a national hero.

Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814
Oh Say Can You See By the Dawns Early Light
-- Francis Scott Key
The Battle of New Orleans January 8, 1815
The Treaty of Ghent
  • Ghent, Belgium in 1814
  • US delegation lead by John Q. Adams
  • UK still worried about France wanted out of war
    with US
  • ToG really an armistice, did not address
    impressments or Indian resistance
  • No land changed hands

Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814
Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention
  • New England states against the war
  • Profited by aiding UK
  • Hartford Convention secret meetings of NE states
    to discuss secession from US (1814-15)
  • Nation called NE treasonous
  • Death of the Federalist Party
  • Demands
  • End 3/5ths Clause
  • New rules in Congress for declaring war,
    embargos, and admitting new states
  • Limit president to 1 term
  • No back-to-back presidents from same state

The 2nd War for American Independence
  • War of 1812 globally unimportant, but huge for US
  • US proved it was a sovereign nation, and could
    defend itself.
  • Sectionalism proved worthless
  • New Heroes Jackson, William H. Harrison
  • Roots of US manufacturing
  • Canada felt betrayed by UK
  • US-Canada relations eventually strengthen
  • US becomes isolationist
  • Indians weak without UK backing

  • Nationalism spreads through nation after 1812
  • Famous authors
  • Washington Irvin
  • James F. Cooper Last of the Mohicans
  • 2nd Bank of the US chartered, 1816

The American System
  • Post-War UK merchants take advantage of no
    tariffs, undercut US manufacturers
  • Tariff of 1816 1st protective tariff
  • Erie Canal completed in 1825

The American System
  • Tariff of 1816
  • Second Bank of the U. S.
  • Internal improvements at federal expense.
    - National Road

Henry Clay, The Great Compromiser
The American System
  • WEST ? got roads, canals, and
    federal aide.
  • EAST ? got the backing of
    protective tariffs from the West.
  • SOUTH ? ??

The So Called Era of Good Feelings
  • 1816 James Monroe elected 5th president
  • Virginia Dynasty 4 of 1st 5 presidents from
  • Called Era of Good Feelings because there was
    only 1 political party (Democratic-Republicans)
  • Straddled the generation between revolution and
    intense nationalism.

The Election of 1816
James Monroe Timeline
  • 1816 Monroe elected
  • 1818 Treaty of 1818 with UK
  • Jackson invades Florida
  • 1819 Panic of 1819
  • Spain cedes Florida
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • Dartmouth v. Woodward
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise
  • Missouri and Maine become states
  • Land Act of 1820
  • Monroe reelected
  • 1823 Monroe Doctrine
  • 1824 Gibbons v. Ogden
  • 1825 Erie Canal

James Monroe 1816-1824
The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
  • Panic of 1819 Caused by over speculation of
    western lands.
  • Results deflation, depression, bankruptcies,
    unemployment, debtors prison
  • Hurt western states/territories hardest
  • Laid ground work for Jacksonian Democracy

Growing Pains of the West
  • Admitted as alternating between free and slave
    states to maintain congressional balance.
  • Land in west was cheap, people moved there for
    many reasons
  • Depleted tobacco/ cotton lands in south
  • Immigrants couldnt afford eastern land
  • Indian threat removed by War of 1812
  • Roads connected west to north
  • Steamboats go into use (1811)

Slavery and Sectional Balance
  • 1819 saw Missouri ready for statehood, but land
    was ideal for slave labor
  • North tried to pass the Tallmadge Amendment next
  • North had an advantage in the House, but south
    was even in Senate
  • South worried that a northern advantage could
    mean the end of slavery

The Tallmadge Amendment
  • All slaves born in Missouri after the
    territory became a state would be freed at the
    age of 25.
  • Passed by the House, not in the Senate.
  • The North controlled the House, and the South
    had enough power to block it in the Senate.

The Uneasy Missouri Compromise
  • Missouri (slave) and Maine (free) were admitted
    to the union
  • All future states carved from the Louisiana
    Purchase must be free if they existed above the
    36 30 parallel
  • North mad with another slave state, South mad
    about no slavery in other territories
  • 1st time morality of slavery becomes a major
  • Monroe reelected in 1820

The Election of 1820
John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
  • Marshall Court expanded federal power
  • McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland challenged
    authority of Bank of US. Marshall said bank was
    constitutional based on implied powers.
  • Cohens v. Virginia Supreme Court overrule state
    Supreme Court for 1st time
  • Gibbons v. Ogden Supreme Court upheld federal
    authority over interstate commerce.

Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses
  • Fletcher v. Peck Earliest case of Supreme Court
    overruling state law.
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward Set standard for
    protection of corporations.
  • Dartmouth was chartered by UK before revolution.
  • Supreme Court said NH had to recognize charter.
  • Dartmouth defended by Senator Daniel Webster

Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
  • Treaty of 1818 with UK
  • US fishing rights off Newfoundland
  • Fixed border of western US and Canada at 49th
  • US and UK would jointly occupy the Oregon Country
    for 10 years
  • 1810 and 1812 the US seized West Florida
  • Spain was busy fighting revolutions in South
  • Andrew Jackson got federal permission to invade
    Florida to crush the rebel Seminole Indians and
    capture runaway slaves (1818)
  • Spain ceded Florida in 1819

Jacksons Florida Campaigns
The Menace of Monarchy in America
  • Revolutions in Latin America worried European
  • Kings plotted to mount a joint effort to retake
    Latin America
  • Russia began establishing trading posts in modern
  • UK approached US about joint protection of Latin

Monroe and His Doctrine
  • US weary about alliance with UK
  • US knew that UK was dependent on Latin American
    trade, and would fight off European nations with
    or without a US alliance
  • Monroe Doctrine aimed at Europe
  • No new European colonies in Americas
  • Europe should not interfere with Americas

Monroes Doctrine Appraised
  • European powers shocked by Monroe Doctrine
  • Not really important until mid-1800s
  • Russia agreed to the Russo-American Treaty drew
    Russian territory at southern tip of modern
  • Never seriously challenged or upheld
  • Added to US isolationist ideals

Essential Question?
  • What were the causes and results of the War of