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Title: The%20World%20War%20I%20Era%20(1914

The World War I Era (19141920)
  • Chapter 19

  • Section 1
  • WWI Begins (p.578-586)

1. Causes of World War I
Chapter 19, Section 1
1A. Imperialism --Economic Imperial Rivalries
1B. Militarism ( Arms Race)
Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers
Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus. in millions of
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914
94 130 154 268 289 398
1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
France 10
Britain 13
Russia 39
Germany 73
Militarism cont.
  • Germany was competing with the UK to build
  • The British feared an attack on their Empire

Militarism cont.
  • Germany was competing with Russia and France to
    expand their armies
  • 1880 1914
  • Germany 1.3m 5.0m
  • France 0.73m 4.0m
  • Russia 0.40m 1.2m

1C. Nationalism
1D. The Alliance System
Allied Powers
Central Powers
2.The Major Players 1914-17
Allied Powers
Central Powers
Nicholas II Rus
Wilhelm II Ger
George V Br
Victor Emmanuel II It
Enver Pasha Turkey
Pres. Poincare Fr
Franz Josef A-H
The First World War (1914-1919)
  • Who?

Central Powers
Allied Powers
Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
Russia (leaves 1917) France Great
Britain Italy Japan United States (enters 1917)
4. The spark that started WWI
  • Franz Ferdinand, the sole heir to the
    Austria-Hungary Empire was just gunned down by a
    Serbian Nationalist.
  • Princip was a member of the Serbian Nationalist
    terrorist group, Black Hand.

Whos To Blame?
The Crisis cont.
  • Black Hand terrorists attack the Arch Duke
  • Bomb attempt fails in morning
  • Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the
  • Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.

Seal of the Black Hand group
  • Convinced that Serbia was behind the Archdukes
    assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on
    Serbia on July 28, 1914. Germany is ready to help
    its ally, Austria-Hungary.
  • Russia, as Serbias protector, began
    mobilization, or the readying of troops for war.
    France is ready to help its ally, Russia.

6. Germanys Situation
  • Germany, located between France and Russia,
    wanted to conquer France quickly to avoid the
    need to fight on two fronts. To get to France,
    German forces had to pass through neutral
    Belgium the invasion of Belgium brought Britain
    into the conflict as well.
  • One week after the war started, all the great
    powers of Europe had been drawn into it. Germany
    and Austria-Hungary formed the Central Powers,
    while Russia, France, Serbia, and Great Britain
    were called the Allies.

6. Germanys Situation
6. The Schlieffen Plan
  • Germanys military plan to defeat France and
  • Germany could not win a two front war. They must
    deliver a Knock out blow aimed at France first.
  • Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium.

Britains Reaction to invasion of neutral Belgium
  • 1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.
  • Britain also scared of Germany controlling
    Channel ports.
  • Did not want Germany to defeat France and
    dominate Europe. Britain next?
  • UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops
    from Belgium. War declared August 4 1914

German Atrocities in Belgium
D. Stalemate and Modern Warfare
  • Stalemate on the Western Front
  • By September 1914 the German advance on Paris had
    been stopped. The war had reached a stalemate, a
    situation in which neither side is able to gain
    an advantage.
  • Both sides holed up in trenches separated by an
    empty no mans land. Small gains in land
    resulted in huge numbers of human casualties.
  • Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to
    gain an advantage.

Central Powers
Allied Powers
Trench Warfare what was it like?
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No Mans Land The destroyed land between enemy
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The soldiers had very little decent food, and
what food they had was often attacked by
rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits
and badgers because they had fed on the
decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
Rats killed in one trench
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Trench Foot
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The British government wanted to encourage men to
enlist for war. They said the war would be safe,
hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by
Christmas. They used advertising posters to
encourage this idea!
A picture of soldiers going Over the Top
  • Modern Warfare
  • Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for
    the new, highly efficient killing machines used
    in World War I.
  • New weapons killed thousands of soldiers who left
    their trenches to attack the enemy.
  • What are examples of new weapons?
  • The machine gun / hand grenade / artillery /
    bayonet / poison gas / flame thrower / submarine
    / airplane /barbed wire /

War on Two Fronts (Eastern/Western Fronts)
Stalemate Many die for little gains in land
Which side should the US pick?
Central Powers
Allied Powers
  • 11 million German-Americans
  • Irish-Americans hated Great Britain
  • Close cultural ties with France and Britain
  • Shared transatlantic cables (so censored stories)
  • Big business loaned much to allies
  • Close business ties

What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
  • Britain blockaded (stopped) all German ships
    going to America
  • Germany announced a submarine war around Britain

What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
  • In April, 1915 Germany told Americans
  • to stay off of British ships
  • They could/would sink them

What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
  • Lusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers
    and crew (including 128 Americans)
  • Was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of

What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
  • The US sharply criticized Germany for their action
  • Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships
    without warning in the future, this became known
    as the Sussex Pledge.

What did it take to get the US involved?
2. Unlimited Submarine Warfare
  • 1917 Germany announced unlimited submarine
    warfare in the war zone

Why? Otherwise their blockade would not be
What did it take to get the US involved?
3. Zimmerman Note
  • US intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico
  • It promised Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back
    in return for an alliance

C. Early 1917 The pivotal time.
  • Germans gamble on (Feb. 1917) unrestricted
    submarine blockade of England and France. (They
    know that the U.S. may enter the war against them
    but they believe that the U.S. can not help
    enough in time.)
  • The all out sub blockade works!! The Allies are
    in danger of loosing the war!!!
  • April 1917 Wilson asks for and Congress issues a
    declaration of war against Germany ETC.
  • The U.S. does make a differenceConvoy System of
    escorting merchant ships across the Atlantic
    brings supplies to Br. and Fr.

Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
Sept. 1916-April 1917
May 1917-Jan 1918
What did it take to get the US involved?
  • Zimmerman Note and the sinking of 4 unarmed
    American ships led to a declaration of war

Examine the issue
  • Should we tell the story of WWI with Germany as
    the bad guy? Explain.

In the final analysis, why did the U.S. go to
war vs Germany?
  • Sub blockade by Germanswe violated the German
    zone (subs had to sink) and not the Br. zone
    (surface ships could just stop).
  • Anti German propagandaonly one source of
    newssent by the British.
  • U.S. sales and loans to Allies Billions-we
    enter the war at Allies darkest hour to save our
  • Wilson favored and admired the British.

  • Section 2
  • American Power Tips
  • the Balance (p.587-593)

How was the war looking for the allies?
Not Good...
  • Russia left the war after its communist
    revolution in 1917
  • Made it a one front war for Germany - all its
    troops could concentrate on France

War on one Front (Western Front)
Convincing the American People
Idealism 2 Goals For War
1. War to End All Wars
2. Making the World Safe for Democracy
Convincing the American People
Idealism Fourteen Points
What? President Wilsons Plan for after the war
  • Fourteen promises, including freedom of the seas
    a League of Nations to work for peace

President Woodrow Wilson
What did the US do to help?
  • US provided the food, money, and fresh troops
    needed to win the war

A. Us had to build an army from nothing
  • Building an Army
  • The United States lacked a large and available
    military force. Congress therefore passed a
    Selective Service Act in May 1917, drafting many
    young men into the military.
  • Draftees, volunteers, and National Guardsmen made
    up what was called the American Expeditionary
    Force (AEF), led by General John J. Pershing.

Chapter 19, Section 2
B. April 1917--Nov. 1917 With U.S. supplies
the Fr. and Br. make gains
  • Convoy system allows supplies to get to Br. and
    Fr. thru German sub blockadeGermans get no
    supplies thru Br. Blockade.
  • US troops not yet in Europe but the allies push
    back Germans in mid to late 1917.
  • Convoy System Allied warships escort groups of
    supply and troop ships across the Atlantic to
    protect them from German U-Boats.

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Communist Revolution in Russia
  • In 1917, Vladimir Lenin leads a communist
    takeover of Russia. Tsar Nicolas II and his
    family are arrested and killed. Russia withdraws
    from the war to fight its own civil war.

C. Spring 1918--Germans make one last all out
  • Without Russia in the war it meant that the
    German military could concentrate exclusively on
    the Western front.
  • ( March June 1918) Before the arrival of
    American troops, Germany launched a furious
    attack that was able to gain ground in France,
    coming within 50 miles of Paris.
  • AEF begins to arrive in large numbers.
  • General Pershings troops (AEF) pushed back the
    Germans in a series of attacks.
  • Finally, the German army was driven to full
    retreat in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive begun on
    September 26, 1918.

D. American Soldiers in Europe
  • By 1918, European nations had begun to run out of
    men to recruit. Energetic American soldiers,
    nicknamed doughboys, helped replace the tired
    fighters of Europe.
  • Amer. soldiers were plugged into the front lines
    where need -most often as part of Br. or Fr.
    units. Pershing and his AEF were finally given a
    section of the front to control at St. Mihiel.
  • Many African Americans volunteered or were
    drafted for service. However, these men served in
    segregated units and were often relegated to
    noncombat roles.

American Dough Boys
  • eatn all Europes doughnuts

E. Ending the War- late 1918
Chapter 19, Section 2
  • In the face of Allied attacks and domestic
    revolutions, the Central Powers collapsed one by
    one. Austria-Hungary splintered into smaller
    nations of ethnic groups, and German soldiers
    mutinied, feeling that defeat was inevitable.
  • When the Kaiser of Germany fled to Holland, a
    civilian representative of the new German
    republic signed an armistice, or cease-fire, in a
    French railroad car at 5am on November 11, 1918.
  • The Great War ended on at 1100, 11/11/18.
    Famously, remembered as the Eleventh Day, in the
    Eleventh Month, in the Eleventh Hour.

The Final Cost
1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Depletes All
Some estimates place the dead at 20-40 million
50,000,000 100,000,000 died
Weapons of WWI
New Technology old tactics horrible losses
Trench knife
Trench Shovel-Germans
Gas Masks
German stick grenade
WWII grenade
At times electrified cable ran thru the mass of
barbed wire-had to be cut first!!
Barbed wire strung out over No Mans Land slowed
speed of the advance of the attacking troops
The Machine Gun The whole 9 yards
Germans first to mass produce it the British
thought it was not sporting
Poison Gas
Chlorine Gas 1915 Germans first used it
rags soaked in water or urine
Gas Mask
Mustard Gas-sulfuric acid gas - yellow
British-first tanks
Early tank-Little Willie 1915
French Tank
German Tank lagged behind Allies in tank
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Both sides used bolt action rifles for the
U-boats Submarines Torpedos
In the beginning they surfaced to warn the other
1918 depth charges improved
Dog Fight
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The Flying Aces of World War I
Francesco Barraco, It.
Eddie Mick Mannoch, Br.
Eddie Rickenbacher, US
Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. The Red Baron
Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr.
Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg.
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  • Big Bertha (Range 9 miles)

The War at Home Section 3 (p.594-601)
A. Financing the War--how we paid for it
  • The government raised money for the war in part
    by selling Liberty Bonds, special war bonds to
    support the Allied cause.
  • Like all bonds, these could be redeemed later for
    their original value plus interest.
  • Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds,
    raising more than 20 billion for the war effort.

Chapter 19, Section 4
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B. Managing the Economy
Chapter 19, Section 3
Government Regulation Effect on USA
War Industries Board Worked with US factories to boost production for the war effort Turned whole US economy to winning the war
National War Labor Board Tried to smooth relations between unions and management to keep production going Work or Fight Promoted reforms like 8 hour day, safe conditions, and ban on child labor
Food Administration Did not ration food Gospel of the Clean Plate Meatless Mondays Wheatless Wednesdays Victory Gardens
C. Enforcing Loyalty
Chapter 19, Section 3
D. Changing Peoples Lives
  • Women filled factory jobs
  • May have led 19th Amendment after the war (Gave
    women the right to vote)

African Americans
  • Black soldiers still served in Segregated Units
  • Great Migration - thousands of African
    Americans moved North to work in factories

Wilson Fights for Peace
  • Section 4 (p.605-609)

A. President Wilsons Proposals
Chapter 19, Section 4
  • As the war neared an end, President Wilson
    developed a program for peace around the world
    known as the Fourteen Points, named for the
    number of provisions it contained.
  • Important Points
  • End Entangling Alliances
  • Reduce the size of all nations militaries
  • Self-determination Ethnic groups within
    collapsed empires should decide their own future.
  • Spread of democratic government
  • Freedom of the Seas
  • League of Nations A council of world nations,
    where members would come together to settle
    disputes peacefully.

  • Wilson wanted a Just Peace which was fair to
    all sides.
  • The Allied Powers, which suffered greatly in the
    war demanded a Peace of Vengeance to prevent a
    future threat from Germany.
  • Although both Wilson and the German government
    assumed that the Fourteen Points would form the
    basis of peace negotiations, the Allies
    disagreed. During peace negotiations, Wilsons
    Fourteen Points were discarded one by one.

B. The Paris Peace Conference
Chapter 19, Section 4
  • Wilson Forced to Compromise
  • France and Britain demanded Germany pay for war
    damages or reparations for all of the damage
    done in war.
  • Germans colonies were not given
    self-determination, instead France and Britain
    divided them.
  • Germany disarmament, or Germany was not allowed
    to have a military.

C. The Treaty of Versailles
Chapter 19, Section 5
  • The treaty which was negotiated at the Paris
    Peace Conference redrew the map of Europe to the
    Allies advantage.
  • Nine new nations were created from territory
    taken from Austria-Hungary, Russia, and
    Germanynone of which were invited to the
    negotiations. Although most borders were drawn
    with the division of ethnic minorities in mind,
    the redivisions created new ethnic minorities in
    several countries.
  • On June 28, 1919, the peace treaty, which came to
    be known as the Versailles Treaty, was signed at
    Versailles, outside of Paris.

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D. Reactions at Home
Chapter 19, Section 5
  • Congress and the Treaty of Versailles
  • Despite Wilsons intensive campaign (suffered
    stroke) in favor of the Versailles Treaty,
    Congress voted against ratifying it in November
  • The United States declared the war officially
    over on May 20, 1920. It ratified separate peace
    treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary.
    However, the United States did not join the newly
    formed League of Nations.
  • Republicans in Congress, were concerned about
    Article 10 of the Leagues charter, which
    contained a provision that they claimed might
    draw the United States into unpopular foreign

The Somme American Cemetery, France
116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
  • I can predict with absolute certainty that
    within another generation there will be another
    world war if the nations of the world do not
    concert the method by which to prevent it.
  • Woodrow Wilson, 1919

One generation later
  • Germany touches off WWII, largely because it
    wants revenge for its treatment under the terms
    of the Treaty of Versailles.