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Agile%20Software%20Development

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Title: Agile%20Software%20Development


1
Agile Software Development
  • ??????

2
??
  • Introduction
  • Agile Development
  • Agile Design

3
??
  • Introduction
  • Agile Development
  • Agile Design

4
Introduction
  • Robert C. Martin Agile Software Development
    Principles, Patterns, and Practices, Prentice
    Hall (October 25, 2002)

Jolt Award 2003
5
Introduction
  • Robert C. Martin

Designing Object Oriented C Applications using
the Booch Method , 1995 Pattern Languages of
Program Design 3, 1997
More C Gems, 1999
Extreme Programming in Practice, 2003 UML for
Java Programmers ,2003
Uncle Bob
http//www.objectmentor.com
6
Agile ??
  • ??????????????????????????
  • ????????????? -- practice
  • ??????????????? -- principle
  • ??????????? -- pattern
  • ??????????,???????

7
The Agile Alliance ????
  • The Manifesto of the Agile Alliance ??????, 2001

http//www.agilealliance.org/
  • We are uncovering better ways of developing
    software
  • by doing it and helping others do it. Through
    this work
  • we have come to value
  • Individuals and interactions over processes and
    tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan

Kent Beck, Alistair Cockburn, Robert C. Martin,
etc.
8
??????
  • ????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ??????????
  • ??????????

9
Principles
  • ?????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????,???????????????????????????
  • ?????????????,????????????????,????????????

10
Principles
  • ?????????,????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????,?????????????
  • ?????,??????????????????,?????????

11
Principles
  • ????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????

12
Principles
  • ?????????????????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ??????,????????????????????,????????????????

13
Agile Processes
  • SCRUM
  • Crystal
  • Feature Driven Development ????????
  • Adaptive Software Development ???????
  • eXtreme Programming (XP) ????

14
??
  • Introduction
  • Agile Development
  • Agile Design

15
Agile Development
  • Extreme Programming(XP,????) ?????????????,???????
    ?,????????,?????????????????????
  • XP??????,????????????????????
  • XP??team work??????,??,?????????????,????????????,
    ???????,???????????????

16
Extreme Programming
  • XP??4???
  • ??(communication),XP???????????????????????
  • ??(simplicity),XP????????????
  • ??(feedback),????????,?????????????
  • ??(courage),??????????????

17
Extreme Programming
  • XP??????????????,??????????????????,??????????????
  • XP????????????,?????????????????,XP????????
  • XP???????(???),???2-12???,XP???????????

18
Practices of XP
  • ????????
  • ???? user stories
  • ?????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ???? pair programming

19
Practices of XP
  • ????????? Test-Driven Development
  • ?????
  • ????
  • ????????
  • ???????
  • ???? planning game
  • ?????
  • ?? Refactoring
  • ?? Metaphor???????????????

20
??
  • Introduction
  • Agile Development
  • Agile Design

21
What is Design?
  • After reviewing the software development life
    cycle as I understood it, I concluded that the
    only software documentation that actually seems
    to satisfy the criteria of an engineering design
    is the source code listings.
  • -- Jack Reeves

22
Design Smells
  • Rigidity ??? ? ????
  • Fragility ??? ? ????
  • Immobility ??? ? ????
  • Viscosity ??? ? ????
  • Needless Complexity ???????
  • Needless Repetition ??????
  • Opacity ???

23
The Copy Program
  • Initial Design

void copy() int c while ((cRdKbd())!
EOF) WrtPrt(c)
24
Requirement changes
  • bool ptFlag false
  • //remember to reset this flag
  • void Copy()
  • int c
  • while ((c(ptFlag?RdPt() RdKbd())!EOF)
  • WrtPrt(c)

25
Requirement changes again!
bool ptFlag false bool punchFlag
false //remember to reset these flags void
Copy() int c while ((c(ptFlag?RdPt()
RdKbd())!EOF) punchFlag ? WrtPunch(c)
WrtPrt(c)
26
Agile design of the copy example
  • int RdKbd()
  • void WrtPrt(int)
  • const int EOF -1
  • class Reader
  • public virtual int read() 0
  • class KeyboardReader public Reader
  • public virtual int read() return RdKbd()
  • KeyboardReader GdefaultReader
  • void Copy(reader reader GdefaultReader)
  • int c
  • while ((creader.read()) ! EOF)
  • WrtPrt(c)

27
Agile developers
  • Knew what to do because
  • Detect the problem by following agile practices
  • Diagnose the problem by applying design
    principles
  • Solve the problem by applying the appropriate
    design pattern
  • The interplay between these three aspects of
    software development is the act of design.

28
A more complex example Multi-panel interactive
systems
  • ??
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ??

28
29
Multi-panel interactive systems
  • ??
  • ????
  • ????(session)???????
  • ????
  • ??panel(???),??????(??),????,???,????????????????
    ???(????????????????)
  • ????
  • ??
  • ????

29
30
2019/7/10
Institute of Computer Software Nanjing University
31
?????
32
????
  • ?????
  • ?????
  • ?????

?????????? (????)????? ?????
33
A Simple-minded solution
34
A Simple-minded solution
  • ??
  • Goto!
  • ??
  • ????????hardwired?????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????

34
35
A functional, top-down solution
  • ?,????goto,????????,??????? transition(state,choi
    ce)

35
36
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37
Top-down decomposition
38
The top
39
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40
Critique
41
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42
Fragileness
???????
???????????
43
object-oriented architecture
  • Law of inversion
  • If your routines exchange too many data, put your
    routines in your data.

44
State as a class
45
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46
Use inheritance and deferred class
47
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48
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49
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50
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51
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52
The system? An ADT, not a main function
53
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54
2019/7/10
Institute of Computer Software Nanjing University
54
55
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56
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57
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58
??
  • Focus on data abstraction
  • Forget the main function of the system,
    resist the constant temptation to ask What does
    the system do?
  • Law of inversion
  • Realworldliness is not a significant difference
    between OO and other approaches what counts is
    how we model the world

59
??
  • Introduction
  • Agile Development
  • Agile Design
  • design principles

60
Design Principles
  • SRP (The Single-Responsibility Principle) ??????
  • OCP (The Open-Closed Principle) ??-????
  • LSP (The Liskov Substitution Principle)
    Liskov????
  • DIP (The Dependency-Inversion Principle) ??????
  • ISP (The Interface-Segregation Principle) ??????

61
SRP ??????
  • A class should have only one reason to change.
    ??????,???????????????
  • What is a Responsibility?
  • A reason for change ???????????????????,??????,???
    ??????????
  • An axis of change is an axis of change only if
    the changes actually occur. ??????????????????????
    ?

62
Example
??????
????
63
Example applying SRP
??????
??????
64
Example SRP violation
  • interface Modem
  • public void dial (String pno)
  • public void hangup()
  • public void send (char c)
  • public char recv()

connection management
data communication
65
Example
  • Separated modem interface

????????????????????????,?????????!
66
OCP ??-????
  • Software entities (classes, modules, functions,
    etc.) should be open for extension, but closed
    for modification. ????(????????)????????,????????
  • OCP is the heart of OO design!

67
OCP Description
  • Two primary attributes
  • Open for extension the behavior of the module
    can be extended
  • Closed for modification extending the behavior
    of a module does not result in changes to the
    source or binary code of the module.
  • ??????,???
  • Is it possible?

68
Abstraction is the key!
Client is neither open nor closed
69
Strategy Pattern
Client is both open and closed
70
Template Method Pattern
A clear separation of generic functionality from
the detailed implementation of that functionality
71
Shape????
  • ???????

--------drawAllShape.cc--- typedef struct Shape
ShapePointer void DrawAllShapes(ShapePointer
list, int n) int i for (i0iltni)
struct Shape slisti switch
(s-gtitsType) case square
DrawSquare((struct Square)s) break
case circle DrawSquare((struct Circle)s)
break
--------shape.h---------- enum ShapeTypecircle,sq
uare struct Shape ShapeType
itsType --------circle.h--------- struct
Circle ShapeType itsType double itsRadius
Point itsCenter --------square.h--------- str
uct Square ShapeType itsType double
itsSide Point itsTopLeft
72
??OCP
  • OOD????

class Shape public virtual void Draw()
const0 class Squarepublic Shape
public virtual void Draw() const class
Circlepublic Shape public virtual void
Draw() const void DrawAllShapes(vectorltShape
gt list) vectorltShapegtiterator I for
(ilist.begin()i!list.end()i)
(i)-gtDraw()
73
??100??!
  • ???????????????????,???
  • ?????????,?????????????!

74
Heuristics
  • OCP????????????!
  • ?????????????
  • ??OOPL??????OCP
  • ????????????
  • 100??????,?????????????
  • ????????????????????,??????????????????

75
LSP Liskov????
76
LSP Liskov????
  • Subtypes must be substitutable for their base
    types. ?????????????????
  • If for each object o1 of type S there is an
    object o2 of type T such that for all programs P
    defined in terms of T, the behavior of P is
    unchanged when o1 is substituted for o2 then S is
    a subtype of T. Liskov88 ??????S???o1,???????T??
    ?o2,???????T?????P?,?o1??o2?,??P??????,?S?T?????

77
LSP Violation (I)
RTTI(???????)
  • struct Shape
  • enum ShapeType square, circle itsType
  • Shape(ShapeType t)itsType(t)
  • struct Circle public Shape
  • Circle()Shape(circle)
  • void Draw() const
  • struct Square public Shape
  • Square()Shape(square)
  • void Draw() const

void DrawShape(const Shape s ) if(s.itsType
Shapesquare) static_castltconst
Squaregt(s).draw() else if (s.itsType
Shapecircle) static_castltconst
Circlegt(s).draw()
78
LSP Violation (II)
class Rectangle public void
SetWidth(double w) itsWidthw void
SetHeight(double h) itsHeighth
private double itsWidth double
itsHeight
IS-A Relationship
79
LSP Violation (II)
  • void SquareSetWidth(double w)
  • RectangleSetWidth(w)
  • RectangleSetHeight(w)
  • void SquareSetHeight(double w)
  • RectangleSetWidth(w)
  • RectangleSetHeight(w)

void f (Rectangle r) r.SetWidth(32) //call
RectangleSetWidth
Square Violated!
Square
80
LSP Violation (II)
Are Rectangle and Square self-consistent?
class Rectangle public virtual void
SetWidth(double w) itsWidthw virtual void
SetHeight(double h) itsHeighth
private double itsWidth double
itsHeight
Square
void g (Rectangle r) r.SetWidth(5)
r.SetHeight(4) assert(r.Area()20)
True or false?
Violated!
81
The real problem
  • Validity is not intrinsic! ?????????
  • ????????????????????
  • IS-A is about Behavior
  • Behaviorally, a Square is not a Rectangle.
  • Recall DbC principle about inheritance
  • Precondition ??Postcondition ??

82
The real problem
  • RectangleSetWidth(double w)?????
  • Postcond (itsWidthw)(itsHeightold.itsHeight
    )
  • ??SquareSetWidth(double w)???????
  • ??????????????????

83
Heuristics and Conventions
  • Violation 1
  • Degenerate functions in derivatives ?????????
  • Violation 2
  • Throwing exceptions from derivatives ?????????

public class Base public void f() /some
code/ Public class Derived extends Base
public void f()
84
LSP
  • One of the enablers of the OCP?
  • LSP??OCP????????????
  • It is the substitutability of subtypes that
    allows a module, expressed in terms of a base
    type, to be extensible without modification.
    ?????????????????????????????????????

85
DIP ??????
  • High level modules should not depend on low-level
    modules. Both should depend on abstractions.
    ??????????????,???????????
  • Abstractions should not depend on details.
    Details should depend on abstractions.
    ??????????,??????????
  • Inversion ??????????

86
Laying
  • Booch all well structured OO architectures
    have clearly defined layers, with each layer
    providing some coherent set of services through a
    well-defined and controlled interface.

Unfortunate!
87
Laying
Hollywood principle dont call us, well call
you. ???????????????????????????
  • Inverted layers

also an inversion of interface ownership
????????,??????????????
88
Example
?
Button
Lamp
poll()
turnOn() turnOff()
  • public class Button
  • private Lamp itsLamp
  • public void poll()
  • if (/ some condition /)
  • itsLamp.turnOn()

89
Example
Button
ButtonServer
SwitchableDevice
poll()
turnOn() turnOff()
!
Lamp
  • public class Button
  • private ButtonServer bs
  • public void poll()
  • if (/ some condition /)
  • bs.turnOn()

90
Heuristic
  • Depend on abstractions ?????
  • ????????????????????????????????
  • According to it
  • ???????????????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ??????????????????????????
  • ????????????,??String

91
DIP
  • ???????????????????????
  • ?????????????,??????????,???????????
  • DIP?????OO???????????????????????????????????????

92
ISP ??????
  • Clients should not be forced to depend on methods
    that they do not use. ??????????????????
  • Deals with the disadvantage of fat interfaces
    whose interfaces are not cohesive. ???????????????

93
Example
common door!
class Timer public void Register
(int timeout, TimeClient client )
  • class Door
  • public
  • virtual void Lock() 0
  • virtual void Unlock() 0
  • virtual bool IsDoorOpen() 0

class TimerClient public virtual
void TimeOut () 0
How about a timed door?
94
Interface Pollution
But not all varieties of Door need timing!
95
Separate Interfaces
  • Solution 1 adapter ????????

96
Separate Interfaces
  • class TimedDoor public Door
  • public virtual void DoorTimeOut(int
    timeoutId)
  • Class DoorTimerAdapter public TimeClient
  • pubic
  • DoorTimerAdapter(TimedDoor theDoor)
    itsTimedDoor(theDoor)
  • virtual void TimeOut(int timeoutId)
  • itsTimedDoor.DoorTimeOut(timeoutId)
  • private
  • TimedDoor istTimedDoor

97
Separate Interfaces
  • Solution 2 multiple inheritance

class TimedDoor public Door, public
TimerClient public virtual void TimeOut(int
timeoutId)
98
Heuristic
  • ????????????????????!
  • ???????????????????????
  • ?????,???!

99
Design Principles
  • SRP (The Single-Responsibility Principle) ??????
  • OCP (The Open-Closed Principle) ??-????
  • LSP (The Liskov Substitution Principle)
    Liskov????
  • DIP (The Dependency-Inversion Principle) ??????
  • ISP (The Interface-Segregation Principle) ??????

100
How to design Packages?
  • ?????????????????
  • ????????????????????
  • ??????????(????)????????????(????)?
  • ?????????C?Java????????
  • ?????,????????????

101
?????????
  • REP (The Reuse-Release Equivalence
    Principle),????????,?????????????
  • CRP (The Common-Reuse Principle),??????,??????????
    ???????
  • CCP (The Common-Closure Principle),??????,????????
    ?????????????????

102
REP
  • ?????????,???????????????-- ????????
  • REP??,????????(granule of reuse)???????(granule
    of release)????????????????????????
  • ??????????????!
  • ??????????,??????????????????????????????????????

103
CRP
  • ????????????????,???????????,?????????????
  • ??????????????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • jar??????

104
CCP
  • ??????????????????????????????????????,???????????
    ???,???????????????
  • ???SRP,OCP
  • ????????????????????????????

105
??????????
  • ADP (The Acyclic-Dependencies Principle),??????,??
    ??????????????
  • SDP (The Stable-Dependencies Principle),??????,???
    ?????????
  • SAP (The Stable-Abstractions Principle),??????,???
    ??????????????

106
ADP
  • ?????
  • ????
  • ?????
  • DAG

107
ADP
  • ????????
  • ??MyTasks
  • ??MyDialogs

108
?????
  • ??1 ????????

109
?????
  • ??2 ????????????,????????????

Jitter???
110
Heuristic
  • ????????????
  • ????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????,??,????????????????

111
SDP
  • ?????????
  • ???????,?????????,?????????????????,??,???????????
    ?

???
??
112
?????
  • (Ca)???????????????????????????
  • (Ce)???????????????????????????
  • ????I 0,1
  • I0 ???
  • I1 ????
  • SDP??????I??????????????I???(?I??????????????)

113
?????
Pa
Pb
q
r
s
Pc
Pd
t
u
v
Pc Ca3, Ce1, I1/4
114
?? vs. ???
  • ?????????????

???HOW TO?
i1
i1
i0
??????
???SDP
115
?? vs. ???
DIP
116
SAP
  • ????????????????
  • ?????????????,????????????????
  • ?????????????,???????????????????????

?????????????!
117
Remember
  • As with all principles, care must be taken not to
    overdo it.

118
?? (????????)
  • ?????????????????
  • ??JDK?Collection??????,?????????????????????????
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