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Feedback, Reinforcement,


Feedback, Reinforcement, & Intrinsic Motivation PED 374 Psychology of Sport Introduction I try never to plant a negative seed. I try to make every comment a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Feedback, Reinforcement,

Feedback, Reinforcement, Intrinsic Motivation
  • PED 374 Psychology of Sport

  • I try never to plant a negative seed. I try to
    make every comment a positive comment. Theres a
    lot of evidence to support positive management.
  • Jimmy Johnson, College and Professional Football
  • To really win, you have to get every player to go
    beyond his capabilities. He must feel great
    about himself He must feel that his coaches or
    supervisors have total confidence in his ability,
    and he must feel that his weaknesses are small
    and his strengths are much bigger. You do that
    by positive reinforcement, making sure that no
    one thinks negatively at any time.
  • Rick Pitino, Basketball Coach

  • Much of human interaction consists of attempts to
    influence other peoples behaviors
  • Influence attempts occur frequently in sport
  • Athletes interact with teammates, opponents,
    officials, and coaches
  • Coaches influence athletes in many ways
  • Creating a good learning environment where
    athletes acquire technical skills to succeed
  • Psychology of coaching can be regarded as a set
    of strategies to increase ability to influence
    behaviors effectively.

The ABCs of Behavioral Control
  • Influential approach in psychology Operant
  • (A) Antecedents or environmental stimuli (B)
    behaviors in which the person engages and (C)
    Consequences that follow the behaviors.
  • Antecedents are the stimuli that control
  • Antecedents that signal the likely consequences
    of particular behaviors are called discriminative
  • Skill learning in sport often involves learning
    to read environment and respond.
  • EX basketball player learns how to set up the
    offense when the opponent switches from one
    defense to another

Response Consequences
  • The key is on what happens after the response is
  • Present Remove

Positive Reinforcement (Strengthens behaviors) Extinction (weakens behaviors) Response cost punishment (weakens behavior)
Punishment (suppresses / weakens behaviors) Negative reinforcement (strengthens behaviors)
Positive Stimuli
Aversive Stimuli
Negative Aspects of Punishment
  • Punishment works on the basis of raising fear
    raises preoccupation with negatives
  • Under threat of punishment, athletes view
    competition as more of a threat.
  • Ironically, coaches with this style, increase
    likelihood of mistakes they are trying to avoid.
  • Negative approach coaches usually succeed
  • They are also able to communicate caring
  • They have very talented athletes
  • They recruit thick-skinned athletes
  • They are such skillful teachers, this overrides
    their negative approach
  • What About Response Cost?
  • Fines, loss of privileges, benchings are examples
    removal of noncontigent reinforcers.
  • Punishment through deprivation has 2 advantages
    over aversive punishment
  • It does not create as much fear of failure
  • The punisher is not modeling aggression or
    other negative behavior

The Positive Approach Getting Good Things to
  • Reinforcement takes many forms
  • Verbal compliments, smiles or other nonverbals
    behaviors that convey approval increased
    privileges awards
  • Effective requires
  • Finding effective reinforcers that work with a
    given athlete
  • Making reinforcement depend on performance of a
    desired behavior
  • Making sure the athlete understands WHY
    reinforcement is given

Schedules and Timing of Reinforcement --
  • How frequently should reinforcement be given?
  • The Coach or Leader has 2 related challenges
  • Athletes have to be instructed in skills until
    they master them
  • Coach needs to figure out how the athletes are to
    maintain a high proficiency level
  • Initially, in skill development, reinforcement
    should be continuous
  • Once the skill is well learned, reinforcement
    should be on a partial schedule.
  • Timing of reinforcement is critical should be
  • It is natural to praise an athlete who has just
    made a great play it is less natural to
    reinforce an athlete who tried but failed.

Positive Reinforcement and Motivational Climate
  • Positive approach is designed to foster a
    task-oriented motivational climate.
  • Athletes in ego-oriented motivational climates
  • Experience reinforcement upon outperforming
    others punishment of unsuccessful performance
    emphasis on social comparison
  • Performance Feedback and Motivation
  • Objective FB effectively increases motivation
  • It can correct misperceptions (misattributions)
  • It creates a stimulus for athletes to experience
    positive emotions
  • It links well with personal and collective goal
  • FB leads to increases in self-efficacy

Positive Reinforcement and Motivational Climate
  • Instructional Benefits of FB Objective FB
    provides info. About
  • The specific behaviors that should be performed
  • The levels of proficiency that should be achieved
  • The athletes current sense of proficiency in
    that skill
  • FB should be based on successful execution of
    skills and NOT outcome

Guidelines to getting positive things to happen
  • Administering Positive Reinforcement
  • Be liberal with reinforcement, especially early
    in learning
  • Have realistic standards expect compliance with
  • Reinforce desired behaviors AS SOON AS THEY OCCUR
  • Reinforce process and execution, not just outcome
  • Help athletes set positive, individual,
    performance-based goals
  • What about Reacting to/giving FB based on
  • Mistakes should be viewed as learning
  • Ask the athlete what they should have done
    increases reinforcement of the CORRECT
    performance principle
  • With motor skills, we are visual learners
  • Use the sandwich approach
  • Limit criticism to behaviors that are within the
    athletes control
  • Avoid punishment it works by building fear of

The Sandwich Approach to giving FB
1. Find something the athlete did right and
reinforce it
Tell the athlete how to correct a mistake
emphasize the good things that will happen as a
End with a general performance-related positive
Believing one can The Construct of Self-Efficacy
  • Self-efficacy is defined as a persons judgment
    about their capability to successfully perform a
    specific task
  • Two major principles
  • Our efficacy beliefs affect our thought patterns
    and responses
  • Self-efficacy is positively related to positive
    motivational patterns
  • High Self-Efficacy does not guarantee outcome,
    BUT increases probability that athlete will do
    well in terms of performance factors they can
  • Implications for Practice 6 key determinants of
  • Most influential determinant previous
    successful performance
  • Vicarious experience when we see another
    (similar) person succeed
  • Verbal persuasion either ours, or someone else
  • Our physiological state is it appraised as
    positive or negative?
  • Our emotional state same thing as above
  • Imagined experiences If you can see it, you can
    be it

Doing it for the Joy Determinants of Intrinsic
  • When intrinsically motivated, we do activity for
    its own sake
  • Different types of motivation vary according to
    their level of self-determination
  • Athletes who are amotivated
  • They have no sense of personal control they have
    no real reasons for doing the activity
  • External regulation
  • Behavior is performed to satisfy external demand
    or stems from external reward
  • Introjected regulation
  • Athletes participate b/c inside they feel they
    HAVE to participate.
  • Identified regulation
  • Behavior is done out of free choice but as a
    means to an end
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • The athlete feels competent, autonomous, and
    connected with others