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What is the Scientific Revolution?
  • It is the beginning of a great intellectual
    transformation that leads to the modern world
  • Concurrent with other major events
  • Copernicus is making discoveries at the time of
    the religious wars are breaking out in Europe
  • by the end of the Revolution Europe is about to
    embark on the Enlightenment, a cultural movement
    that largely rejected religion.

Causes of the Scientific Revolution
  • Trade and Expansion of Trade
  • navigational problems generated research
  • Medieval Universities
  • study of Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy and Democritus
    were essential
  • The Renaissance
  • value of mathematics
  • Humanism.

Principles of SCIENTIFIC Revolution
  • Logic over faith religion no longer the only
    possible explanation for events
  • Observe, experiment publish
  • Verifiable Use of mathematics to prove a point
  • Money Patronage
  • Questioning discrepancy between observation and
    expectations springboards into a search for truth

Main Scientists
  • Astronomers Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo
  • Scientific Method Bacon, Descartes
  • Synthesis Newton
  • Ask a Question
  • Do Background Research
  • Construct a Hypothesis
  • Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
  • Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion

Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Polish priest studied in Italy
  • returns to Poland and works on Astronomy
  • writes De Revolutionibus Orbitum Coelestitum (On
    the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres)
  • Earth is just another planet with a 24 hour
  • retains circular planetary motion (perfection of
    the sphere).

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Student of mathematics and astronomy
  • studied with Tycho Brahe
  • tested hypothesis after hypothesis until he
    determined that planets move in ellipses
  • Three Laws of Planetary Motion
  • planets move in ellipses with sun as one focus
  • velocity of a planet is not uniform
  • equal area of the plane is covered in equal time
    by the planets.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Astronomy
  • used a telescope, proved the heavens are not
    perfect (craters on moon)
  • supported Heliocentric system
  • Laws of Motion
  • dropping weights from the Tower of Pisa
  • imagined motion without constraint!!!!
  • Thought of inertia
  • Problems with the church
  • argues for separation of science and theology
    because we are endowed with reason
  • 1633 banned by Church and house arrest
  • must recant heliocentric system to save neck.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • math/physics/astronomy
  • author of Principia Mathematica in 1687
  • bringing together Galileos discoveries about
    motion on Earth and Keplers discoveries in the
  • explained heavenly motion that was tied to
    observed motion on Earth.
  • Provided a synthesis superior to Aristotle
  • notion of inertia - only have to explain change
  • Newtons work led to a new branch of mathematics
    called calculus
  • Three Laws of Motion

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  • Proposed INDUCTION
  • make a lot of observations then generalize rules
    of nature - this leads to scientific observation
    as a method
  • Promoted the modern idea of progress because he
    wanted application of science
  • Problem of Induction
  • there is no logical reason to go argue from any
    amount of experience to a general law.

Rene Descartes(1596-1650)
  • Great mathematician - showed that any algebraic
    equation could be plotted on a graph
  • In this manner he linked Greek with Hindu and
    Arabic knowledge
  • Also looked at DEDUCTION - go from a theory to
    the facts
  • Only wants what is absolute Cogito ergo sum I
    think therefore I am
  • leads to proof of God.

Other Scientific Advances
  • Medical firsts
  • First accurate and detailed study of human
  • First use of stitches
  • First description of the circulatory system
  • First microscope

VI. Effects of Revolution
  • The Scientific Revolution led to the Age of
    Enlightenment and a growing belief in human
  • Social impact
  • rich get richer
  • not much immediate direct change for peasants
  • widens intellectual gap
  • effect on navigation, map making and artillery
  • Science has innumerable social effects over time
    new guns, bigger armies, more taxes, social
  • Guns lead to European colonialism (more accurate
    cannon fire)
  • new way of observing the world.

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The Enlightenment
  • The practical application of the scientific
    revolution. (How common people were affected)
  • Rational law was applied to human behavior.
    (rehabilitation, checks of political power.)

From 1650 to 1800, European philosophers began
rethinking old ideas about govt, religion,
economics which led to an era known as the
Enlightenment (also called the Age of Reason)
The Enlightenment
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were
called philosophers they shared some basic
New truths could be discovered by using logic
Everything could be explained by observing
universal truths known as natural laws
A belief in progress, that the world can be
improved, that life should be enjoyed
People are born with natural rights (personal
freedoms that protect liberty)
During the Scientific Revolution, scholars
applied logic, perfected the scientific method,
made new discoveries that shattered old ideas
This gave Enlightenment philosophes a model to
follow to make new theories about society
The most important Enlightenment ideas were those
that challenged rule by absolute monarchs
presented new theories about government
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
One of the first political thinkers of the
Enlightenment was Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes was bothered by the English Civil War
chaos that plagued England after the beheading of
King Charles I
Hobbes believed that humans are naturally cruel,
selfish, hungry for power Hobbes argued that
people need to be protected from themselves
What kind of government do you think Hobbes
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Hobbes supported rule b y absolute monarchs He
used scientific reasoning to argue that only
kings with absolute power could maintain order in
Hobbes believed in an idea called the social
contract people give up power rights to a king
who provides law order
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
English philosophe John Locke disagreed with the
ideas of Thomas Hobbes
He was influenced by the Glorious Revolution when
the Bill of Rights was created to protect
citizens rights
Locke believed that people are born with natural
rights, including life, liberty, property Locke
argued that kings could be overthrown if they
violated peoples rights
What kind of government do you think Locke
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Locke supported limited or constitutional
  • The English Bill of Rights (1689)
  • The king cannot tax or overturn Parliaments laws
  • Protected freedom of speech
  • The army cannot be used as a police force
  • No excessive bail

Locke believed that govt power came from the
consent of the governed (approval of the people)
that kings should protect the rights of the
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
The French philosophe Voltaire was one of the
most famous writers of the Enlightenment
Voltaire argued for the rights of freedom of
speech religion He criticized intolerance,
prejudice, oppression
Voltaire was jailed twice in France for
criticizing the govt but his letters to European
monarchs helped introduce new reforms freedoms
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Baron de Montesquieu agreed with John Locke that
government should protect individual liberties
that too much power led to tyranny
Montesquieu believed in separation of powers
divide power among 3 branches of government
Montesquieus model of govt also included a
system of checks balances in which each branch
of govt could limit the power of the other
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau
believed in individual freedom
Rousseau believed that people are naturally good,
but power corrupts them Free people form a
social contract govt based on the common good
Rousseau argued for a direct democracy that is
guided by the general will of the majority of
What kind of govt do you think Rousseau
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Italian philosophe Cesare Beccaria criticized
abuses in the justice system
Beccaria was upset with the use of torture,
corrupt judges, secret trials, severe
punishments for crimes
Beccaria argued that people accused of crimes
should be given a fair speedy trial and that
capital punishment torture should be abolished