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Ch 38

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Title: Chapter 24 Section 3 The Ford and Carter Years Author: Kevin Hammer Last modified by: Owner Created Date: 8/2/2005 6:01:58 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch 38


1
Ch 38 Challenges to the Post-War Order
2
Dirty Tricks in the White House
  • Dirty Tricks were used by the administration to
    withhold information from the public, discredit
    critics, and gain illegal campaign contributions
    for the 1972 election
  • The plumbers were established to stop leaks of
    information
  • Former CIA agent E. Howard Hunt and FBI agent G.
    Gordon Liddy headed the re-election team
  • The Enemies List First target was Daniel
    Ellsberg who released the Pentagon Papers

3
Hunt and Liddy
4
The Imperial Presidency
  • Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency with
    little thought of Constitutional Checks
  • Impoundment of funds for fed. programs
  • Invading Cambodia without the approval of
    Congress
  • Nixon felt the office of the Presidency was above
    the law

5
The Presidents Men
  • Fierce loyal advisors
  • H.R. Haldeman Chief of staff
  • John Ehrlichman Chief Domestic Advisor
  • John N Mitchell Attorney General
  • John W. Dean III White House Council

6
The Drive Towards Re-election
  • Nixon feared losing elections ( Ex.1960)
  • Committee to Re-elect the President was formed
    (CREEP) with Mitchell as its leader
  • CREEP hired a security team to bug the DNC
    headquarters at the Watergate Office Complex in
    DC
  • On June 17, 1972 five men were caught by a
    security guard Frank Wills
  • The groups leader James McCord was former CIA
    and Security Coordinator for CREEP

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The Cover-Up
  • Nixon was concerned about the break-in
  • Documents were shredded in Haldemans office
  • The White House asked the CIA to urge the FBI to
    stop investigating the break-in
  • CREEP passed out 450,000 to the burglars to buy
    their silence
  • The burglary was of little interest to the public
    and the press
  • Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl
    Bernstein kept on the story ( Received info. from
    Mark Felt) FBI

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The Cover-Up Unravels
  • In Jan. 1973 McCord sent a letter to Judge John
    Sirica (Presiding Judge)
  • He lied under oath, and hinted others were
    involved
  • On April 30th, Nixon fired John Dean and
    announced the resignations of Haldeman,
    Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard
    Kleindiest
  • Nixon went on TV to promote his new Attorney
    General Elliot Richardson and he suggested a
    Special Prosecutor be appointed to investigate
    Watergate

11
The Senate Investigates
  • Senator James Ervin began calling Administration
    officials to give testimony
  • Dean admitted the President had been deeply
    involved in the cover-up (White House denial)
  • Presidential Aid Alex Butterfield revealed the
    tapes of Oval Office Conversations
  • A year long battle for the tapes began

12
The Saturday Night Massacre
  • Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox took Nixon to
    Court in 1973 for the tapes
  • Nixon ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire
    Cox
  • Richardson refused the order and resigned
    (Saturday Night Massacre)
  • Solicitor General Robert Bork fired Cox
  • New Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski wanted the
    tapes as well
  • A few days earlier VP Agnew resigned for
    accepting bribes while Gov. of MD
  • New VP Gerald Ford was appointed

13
The Fall of Nixon
  • In March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted seven
    presidential aids on charges of conspiracy,
    obstruction of justice, and perjury
  • Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited transcripts
  • In July 1974 The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to
    give up the unedited tapes I am not a crook!
  • In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an 18.5
    min. gap (Sec.Erased them)
  • Smoking Gun Tape June 23rd 1972

14
Impeachment or Resignation
  • The House Judiciary Committee approved three
    articles of impeachment obstruction of justice,
    abuse of power, and contempt of Congress
  • On August 8th , 1974 Nixon announced his
    resignation
  • Nixon admitted no guilt, some judgments were
    wrong
  • Gerald Ford was sworn in as President
  • Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential pardon
  • 25 administration members served prison terms

15
Nixon Resigns-Aug. 1974
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18
The Ford and Carter Years The Overextended
Society
  • 1974-1980

19
Essential Questions
  • How did Ford confront economic problems
    (stagflation)and handle foreign policy of the
    1970s?
  • What was significant about Carters election in
    1976?
  • What was Carters approach to solving economic
    problems?
  • What was Carters foreign policy?
  • What were Carters achievements and failures in
    foreign policy matters?

20
Sources of Stagflation
  • Between 1967-1973 the US faced high unemployment
    and high inflation (Stagflation)
  • High Inflation was caused by LBJ funding the war
    and the Great Society through deficit spending (
    No increase in taxes)
  • Increased International Competition in trade Ex.
    Japan West Germany
  • Floods of new workers (Domestic Baby Boomers and
    Foreign)
  • Falling productivity/US Complacency
  • Heavy dependence of foreign oil (OPEC)

21
Stagflation Part II
  • Less Investment in new machinery
  • Costs of Compliance with Gov. imposed safety
    health regulations
  • The median income of the average american family
    failed to decline to do working wives incomes.

22
OPEC and War
  • During the 1960s the Organization of Petroleum
    Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of
    oil
  • The Six Days War in 1967 impacted prices
  • The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt
    and Syria rose oil prices
  • The US sent massive military aid to Israel, Arab
    OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US (Oil
    Embargo) By 1974 price increased 4x
  • Major gas lines and shortages in the US early,
    mid 1970s
  • 74,75 worst econ. Downturn since the GD

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Shuttle Diplomacy
  • Secretary of State Henry Kissinger traveled back
    and forth between Middle Eastern countries
  • Kissingers efforts paid off
  • In January 1974 Egypt and Israel signed a peace
    accord
  • In May, Israel signed a cease fire with Syria

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Rough Road for Ford
  • Ford gave Nixon a full pardon for Watergate (
    Most Controversial)
  • Inflation rose form 6 in 73 to 10 in 74.
    (Related to the Oil Embargo)
  • Ford started the WIN campaign, (Whip Inflation
    Now) It failed.
  • Ford urged Americans to cut back on use of oil
    and gas
  • He cut government spending, interests rates went
    up triggering the worst recession in 40 years

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Fords Foreign Policy
  • Ford followed Nixon by keeping Kissinger on as
    Sec. of State
  • Kept negotiations with China and the USSR
  • Signed the Helsinki Accords which promised
    greater cooperation between Eastern and Western
    Europe
  • Ford wanted to still give money to aid South
    Vietnam, Congress refused, the South fell in 1975
  • The US ship Mayaguez was seized by Cambodia, 41
    US troops died while saving the 39 member crew.

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Defeat in Vietnam
34
The Boat People
  • After the Communist took over Vietnam a second
    wave of Vietnamese immigrants hit US Shores
  • They were fleeing poverty and an oppressive
    Communist Government.

35
Feminist Victories and Defeats
  • What factors led to the womens movement of the
    1960s?
  • What were some early gains and some losses within
    the womens movement?
  • What was the legacy of the womens movement in
    employment, education, and politics?

36
Sisterhood is Powerful
  • In 1920 the 19th Amendment was passed giving
    women the right to vote (Womens Suffrage)
  • In the 1960s Feminism was the belief that women
    should have economic, political, and social
    equality with men
  • In 1963 Betty Friedans Feminine Mystique
    identified the problem that has no name Women
    were not happy in the 1950s (Mens work vs
    Womens work)
  • In the 1960s women were forced into clerical
    work, retail, social work, nursing, and teaching
    ( Lower Paying jobs)

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Womens Activism of the 1960s
  • Women were members of SNCC and SDS, and active in
    the civil rights movement
  • In 1966- 28 women including Friedan founded the
    National Organization for Women (NOW)
  • NOW fought against gender bias in hiring and in
    the workplace and pushed for child-care
    facilities
  • In 1968 the (WITCH) N.Y. Radical Women protested
    the Miss America Pageant in AC
  • Womens Garbage into Freedoms Trashcan

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  • In 1969, a journalist and political activist
    Gloria Steinem joined the feminist movement
  • She founded the National Womens Party Caucus
  • In 1972 she founded and wrote for Ms. (Womens
    Magazine)

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Roe V Wade-1973
  • Feminist groups supported a womans right to
    chose to have an abortion
  • In 1973 the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the
    feminists on the Constitutional Right to Privacy
  • Extremely Controversial
  • Pro-Choice v Pro-Life

45
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
  • Congress passed the ERA in 1972, it was first
    introduced in 1923 (Men and Women same rights and
    protections)
  • 38 states needed to ratify it to make it part of
    the Constitution ( 35 received)
  • A Stop-ERA campaign was launched by conservative
    religious groups, and anti-feminists led by
    Phyllis Schlafly
  • Radical Feminist hate men, marriage, Children
    (Blamed for the divorce rate)
  • Fears of women being drafted, no husband
    responsibility, and possible same-sex marriages

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Equality in Education
  • In 1972 Congress passed The Educational
    Amendments
  • Title IX prohibited federally funded schools
    from discriminating against women in nearly all
    aspects of school operations from admissions to
    athletics

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52
Gains for Women?
  • Women now make up the majority54 percentof
    young adults enrolled in college. Women comprise
    about 58 percent of young adults, age 2529, who
    hold an advanced degree
  • In 2010 working women outnumbered working men
    for the first time. Women generally hold more
    part-time jobs, and they earn 77 cents for
    every dollar a man makes.
  • Since 1972 athletic participation among young
    women has increased by 904 percent in high
    school and 456 percent in college.

53
The 1970s in Black White
  • Affirmative Actions programs were controversial
  • Desegregation though school busing became a civil
    rights issue ( Whites in Detroit and Boston
    opposed it) Nixon was opposed to it
  • Milliken vs Bradley ( 1974) exempted suburban
    districts from helping to integrate urban
    districts, thus adding to White Flight
  • In Bakke vs. the University of California an
    affirmative action program was ruled
    unconstitutional

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The New Right Emerges
  • In order to combat pro-choice and the ERA
    conservatives formed the pro-family movement
    which became the New Right (Social Conservatism
    when dealing with social, cultural, and moral
    problems) (Anti-Détente)
  • They debated family centered issues and played
    key role in Pres. Reagans challenge in 1976
    election in 1980
  • )

57
Carter in the White House
  • Former peanut farmer, born again Christian and
    Gov. of Georgia
  • Promised he would never lie to the American
    people (DC Outsider)
  • In the Election of 1976 Carter and Ford squared
    off over energy, inflation, and unemployment
  • Carter won by a close margin
  • He talked to the American people through FDR like
    fire-side chats by radio and TV
  • He granted draft amnesty for those who fled to
    Canada during the Vietnam War

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Carters Domestic Agenda
  • Carter urged Americans to cut back their
    consumption of oil and gas
  • The National Energy Act taxed gas guzzling
    cars, removed price controls on oil and gas
    produced in the US, and gave tax credits for
    development of alternative energy.
  • In 1979 inflation hit 11.3, 14 by 80.
  • Carter gave his now famous malaise speech in
    which he complained of a crisis of spirit in
    Americans. He mocked American Materialism and
    lack of spirit.

60
Newspape
             
 
  • Blue Collar Blues
  • In the 1970s the US economy changed
  • Less manufacturing jobs, more jobs in
    communication, transportation, and retail.
  • Overseas competition hurt the US. (EX . West
    Germany, Japan, Korea.
  • Iron, Steel, clothing were hit with cut-backs,
    lay-offs and plant closings

                                                                                                                                              

61
Environment Continued-Love Canal 1977-1980
  • Schools and Homes were built on a Toxic Canal
    that was filled in the 1950s
  • In 1977 Lois Gibbs fell sick as did others.
  • 1980 President Carter had families moved to
    safety.

62
First Earth Day 4/22/70 Polution
63
Trans-Alaska Pipeline - 1977
64
Three Mile Island
  • March 28, 1979 Harrisburg, PA Radiation escaped
    from a damaged reactors cooling system
  • 100,000 evacuated
  • Public questioned Nuclear Power

65
Carter and Civil Rights
  • Carter appointed more women and African Americans
    to his administration then any other previous
    administration
  • Appointed Andrew Young as US Ambassador to the UN

66
Human Rights Foreign Policy
  • Carter felt the US should promote human rights
    around the globe, such as freedoms and liberties.
  • The US gave control of the Panama Canal back to
    Panama as of 12/31/99.
  • Established Formal relations with China
  • The feeling of Détente with the USSR ended due
    Carters protest on civil rights issues.
  • SALT II talks were delayed, not ratified by the
    Senate, because the USSR invaded Afghanistan

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Triumph in the Middle East
  • The Camp David Accords Carter invited the
    leaders of Egypt and Israel to Camp David (Summer
    of 78)
  • Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai
    Peninsula, Egypt recognized Israels right to
    exist
  • Carter was the peacemaker (Carter Doctrine
    Persian Gulf)

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The Malaise Speech and the Political backlash
  • By 1979 Carters domestic economic recovery
    program had failed. (Inflation, unemployment,
    etc.)
  • Carter struck a nerve with his Malaise speech in
    which he stated the nation was experiencing a
    crisis of confidence and they should improve
    attitudes and trust their leaders. (Critical of
    Materialism)
  • It was perceived as blame and backfired, Carters
    approval rating was 26.
  • Jimmy Carter Malaise Speech 1979

72
President Jimmy Carter
73
The Turn Toward the Market
  • The Energy Crisis, Stagflation Carters
    Political Woes helped the Conservative Movement
    The New Right
  • Neo- Conservatives Championed Free Market
    Capitalism, less Gov. regulation, and tax cuts
    they questioned welfare programs of the Great
    Society and wanted a tough anti-Soviet foreign
    policy.
  • Economist- Milton Friedman Free to Choose
    Free Market Less Big Gov.
  • Neo-Cons pushed for deregulation in
    Transportation, Banking Communication

74
Milton Friedman on Greed
75
The Iran Hostage Crisis
  • Jan. 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini led Islamic
    militants in overthrowing the Shah or King of
    Iran. ( They wanted a strict religious state)
  • Nov. 4th 1979 armed students stormed the US
    Embassy and captured 52 hostages because we let
    the Shah into the US for medical treatment
  • Diplomatic, economic, and military action failed
  • 444 days later the hostages were released just
    two hours after Reagan was sworn into office

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Miracle on Ice
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