6th World Rechargeable Battery Regulatory Forum March 23 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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6th World Rechargeable Battery Regulatory Forum March 23

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... Sony, Saft, A123 Systems, Maxell, NEC, EnerSys, Boston Power, Valence Technology, Quallion, Johnson Controls, Rayovac, Duracell, Energizer, Varta ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 6th World Rechargeable Battery Regulatory Forum March 23


1
6th World Rechargeable Battery Regulatory Forum
March 23 24, 2015 Berlin, Germany
George A. Kerchner PRBA The Rechargeable
Battery Association 1776 K Street, NW Washington,
DC 20006 202.719.4109 gkerchner_at_wileyrein.com
PPT 1.b.4.
2
PRBA The Rechargeable Battery Association
  • Established in 1991 as the Portable Rechargeable
    Battery Association
  • Based in Washington, DC
  • Represent industry on regulatory and legislative
    issues at local, state, national and
    international level
  • Observer/Advisor with UN Sub-Committee of Experts
    on Transport of Dangerous Goods and ICAO
    Dangerous Goods Panel

3
Members of PRBA The Rechargeable Battery
Association
  • Primary and secondary battery manufacturers
    Samsung, Panasonic, Sony, Saft, A123 Systems,
    Maxell, NEC, EnerSys, Boston Power, Valence
    Technology, Quallion, Johnson Controls, Rayovac,
    Duracell, Energizer, Varta .
  • Manufacturers of notebooks, tablets, cellular
    phones, power tools, medical devices,
    automobiles Apple, HP, Dell, Bosch Tool, Makita,
    Stanley Black Decker, Motorola, Philips
    Healthcare, Boston Scientific, Toyota, General
    Motors, Tesla Motors
  • Retailers, battery testing labs, battery
    recyclers, airline, DG consultants and packaging
    manufacturers

4
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration Lithium
Battery Testing Program
  • Recent FAA testing and research
  • Propagation of Lithium Battery Fire in an Inert
    Environment
  • Characterize Chemical Energy Released from Li ion
    batteries at Different States of Charge
  • Lithium Battery Thermal Runaway Vent Gas
    Composition
  • Aircraft Installed Lithium Battery Hazard
    Analysis
  • E-Tablets Fire Tests
  • Full Scale Battery Tests-Class C - Large Format
    Cells
  • Passive Fire Protection for Lithium Battery
    Shipments
  • Shipment of Lithium Batteries Technology Concept,
    Development and Testing
  • http//www.fire.tc.faa.gov/systems.asppres

5
Recent Media Coverage of FAA Testing on Lithium
ion Batteries
6
U.S. DOT and Transport Canada Lithium Battery
Final Rules
  • U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT ) rule
    ends 5½ year regulatory process
  • New regulations effective for AIR transport on
    February 6, 2015
  • New regulations for ground, rail and sea
    transport postponed until August 7, 2015
  • New Transport Canada rule updates 12 year old
    lithium battery transport regulations
  • New regulations effective July 1, 2015
  • Both rules generally harmonized with
    international standards

7
State Battery Recycling Legislation
  • States and product stewardship organizations in
    U.S. continue to push for battery collection and
    recycling laws
  • No federal legislation
  • States of California, Connecticut, Vermont active

8
Wassenaar Arrangement and Limits on Secondary
Cells gt 300 Wh/kg
  • Wassenaar Arrangement established in 1996
  • Limits exports of conventional arms and dual-use
    goods and technologies
  • PRBA petitioned U.S. Department of Commerce to
    eliminate export control on secondary cells

9
Information Technology Agreement
  • ITA provides complete elimination of duties on
    certain IT products
  • PRBA petitioned U.S. trade office to seek
    elimination of tariffs on lithium ion
    cells/batteries through ITA

10
  • Enforcement of Dangerous Goods Regulations in
    China/Hong Kong and PRBAs Request for ICAOs
    Intervention

11
Non-compliance and Enforcement of Dangerous
Goods Regulations
  • Documented non-compliant lithium battery
    manufacturers and distributors in China knowingly
    violating DG regulations
  • Lithium batteries shipped by motor vehicle from
    Guangdong Province to Hong Kong (HK) shipped by
    air from HK
  • UPS Flight 6 in Dubai, September 2010 included
    many non-compliant lithium battery shipments
  • Complex, cross-border logistics involving battery
    manufacturers, freight forwarders, trading
    companies, ground handling agents, airlines
  • Creates unique challenge for HK enforcement
    agency serious safety issues for airlines

12
Mislabeled Lithium ion Batteries, Knowing
Violations of DG Regulations
  • Lithium ion battery intercepted by Australian
    transport authorities
  • Labeling battery 100 Wh
  • Enables airline passengers to carry battery on
    board aircraft
  • Shippers of battery subject to less stringent
    dangerous goods regulations

13
Mislabeled Lithium ion Batteries, Knowing
Violations of DG Regulations
  • Non-compliant batteries shipped from Hong Kong,
    originating in S. China

14
Checked Baggage from Passengers Leaving Hong Kong
on Cathay Pacific
15
PRBA Request for ICAO Action on Non-Compliance
and Enforcement
  • August 2014 PRBA letter to ICAO requesting
    assistance
  • To date, no action by ICAO
  • IATA recent call for action
  • Flagrant abuses of dangerous goods shipping
    regulations, which place aircraft safety at risk,
    must be criminalised, as are other actions which
    place aircraft safety at risk.

16
Outreach, Education and Industry/Government
Cooperation
  • Links to Australia and UK/FAA safety videos on
    lithium batteries
  • Webinars on transport regulations
  • Participation in international workshops on
    lithium battery air transport issues
  • Work with freight forwarders, airlines, ground
    handling agents, transport agencies, customs
    agencies

www.prba.org
17
  • Update on ICAO Regulations and Activities on
    Lithium Batteries

18
ICAOs Lithium Battery Multi-Disciplinary Working
Group Meeting
  • Second meeting held in Cologne, Germany
    September, 2014
  • Developed 14 Recommendations
  • Restrictions on lithium metal batteries on
    passenger aircraft
  • Limitations on state of charge for Li ion
    cells/batteries
  • Develop performance based provision to limit
    probability of propagation of thermal runaway
    between cells
  • Limit carriage of lithium ion batteries in
    certain cargo holds of passenger aircraft
  • Limit carriage of Li ion and Li metal batteries
    in Class C cargo hold of cargo aircraft
  • Distinguish button cells from other types of Li
    metal cells
  • Develop performance based packaging for Li ion
    and Li metal batteries

19
Projections for Li ion Cell Production
Data courtesy of Hideo Takeshita Institute of
Information Technology, Ltd.
20
Trade Values of U.S. Imports
21
Recent Paper Filed with ICAO Dangerous Goods
Panel WG
  • International Coordination Council for Aerospace
    Industry Association (ICCAIA) recommendations
  • Establish packaging and shipping requirements to
    more safely ship lithium ion batteries as cargo
    on passenger aircraft
  • Prohibit high density packages of lithium ion
    batteries as cargo on passenger aircraft until
    safer shipping methods are established and
  • Establish packaging and shipping requirements to
    more safely ship lithium metal and lithium ion
    batteries as cargo on freighter aircraft.

22
Next Steps for ICAO DGP in 2015
  • Meetings in April and October Montreal, Canada
  • Proposals to prohibit lithium ion batteries as
    cargo on passenger aircraft?
  • Proposals to place additional restrictions and
    limitations on all lithium batteries shipped on
    cargo aircraft?
  • Limitations on state of charge for lithium ion
    cells and batteries?
  • Limitations on overpacks but exceptions for
    button cells and cells/batteries for medical
    devices?
  • Changes to lithium battery handling label and
    Class 9 label
  • PRBA participates in all ICAO DGP meetings

23
Power Banks
  • Are they lithium ion batteries or equipment?
  • Implications for transport regulations
  • Battery packaging more stringent for air
    transport
  • Lengthy discussions at ICAO and UN meetings
  • Issue on agenda for UN working group meeting in
    Brussels, March 2015

24
  • Lithium Battery Safety Issues in Air Mode and
    Industry Response

25
Misinformation on Aircraft Incidents
  • Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 March 2014
  • Asiana Flight 991 July 2011
  • UPS Flight 6 September 2010

26
(No Transcript)
27
Changes to ICAO Regulations Applicable to Small,
Excepted Lithium Batteries 1999 - 2017
Text in red indicates significant change from
previous year
Size of Battery Excepted Size of Battery Excepted UN Testing? Per Package Limits Per Package Limits Hazard Communication Label/Document
Li ion ELC/Wh Li Metal UN Testing? Per Package Limits Per Package Limits Hazard Communication Label/Document
Li ion ELC/Wh Li Metal UN Testing? Li ion Li Metal Hazard Communication Label/Document
1999 25 g 25 g Only for larger batteries None None None
2003 8 g 2 g All batteries 30 kg 30 kg Yes. If package gt 12 batteries
2009 100 Wh 2 g All batteries 10 kg 2.5 kg All packages
2013 100 Wh 2 g All batteries 2 batteries 2 batteries All packages
2013 Mandatory training for shippers also required in 2013 Mandatory training for shippers also required in 2013 Mandatory training for shippers also required in 2013 Mandatory training for shippers also required in 2013 Mandatory training for shippers also required in 2013 Mandatory training for shippers also required in 2013
2015 Lithium metal batteries banned as cargo on passenger aircraft Lithium metal batteries banned as cargo on passenger aircraft Lithium metal batteries banned as cargo on passenger aircraft Lithium metal batteries banned as cargo on passenger aircraft Lithium metal batteries banned as cargo on passenger aircraft Lithium metal batteries banned as cargo on passenger aircraft
2017 ICAO likely to adopt significant new restrictions on large shipments of lithium batteries. ICAO likely to adopt significant new restrictions on large shipments of lithium batteries. ICAO likely to adopt significant new restrictions on large shipments of lithium batteries. ICAO likely to adopt significant new restrictions on large shipments of lithium batteries. ICAO likely to adopt significant new restrictions on large shipments of lithium batteries. ICAO likely to adopt significant new restrictions on large shipments of lithium batteries.
25 g ELC (Equivalent Lithium Content) 300
Wh 8 g ELC 100 Wh
28
14 Recommendations from ICAOs Lithium Battery
Multi-Disciplinary WG meeting
  • Second meeting held in Cologne, Germany
    September, 2014
  • Developed 14 Recommendations
  • Restrictions on lithium metal batteries on
    passenger aircraft
  • Limitations on state of charge for Li ion
    cells/batteries
  • Develop performance based provision to limit
    probability of propagation of thermal runaway
    between cells
  • Limit carriage of lithium ion batteries in
    certain cargo holds of passenger aircraft
  • Limit carriage of Li ion and Li metal batteries
    in Class C cargo hold of cargo aircraft
  • Distinguish button cells from other types of Li
    metal cells
  • Develop performance based packaging for Li ion
    and Li metal batteries

29
  • New Developments in Lithium Battery Packaging for
    Transport

30
New Developments in Lithium Battery Packaging for
Transport
  • Pyrophobic
  • https//vimeo.com/90529359 (915)
  • https//vimeo.com/108568119 (100)
  • Akrofire
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vsSowNgiR0ng
    (3700)

31
New Developments in Lithium Battery Packaging for
Transport
  • FedEx gel packs
  • Pouch containing liquid coolant is placed above
    cells
  • When cell experiences thermal event, heat from
    cell ruptures pouch releasing coolant

32
  • Wassenaar Arrangement

33
Wassenaar Arrangement and Energy Density Limits
on Secondary Cells
  • Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) established in 1996
    limits exports of conventional arms and dual-use
    goods and technologies
  • Participating countries Argentina, Australia,
    Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia,
    Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
    France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,
    Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
    Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,
    Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian
    Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa,
    Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine,
    United Kingdom and United States
  • China does not participate

34
Wassenaar Arrangement and Energy Density Limits
on Secondary Cells
  • Limits energy density (Wh/kg) on primary and
    secondary cells
  • Secondary cell limit 300 Wh/kg
  • Primary cell limit 550 Wh/kg
  • Raised from 250 to 300 Wh/kg in 2012 on Japans
    request
  • PRBA petitioned U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC)
    in 2014 to eliminate export controls on secondary
    cells

35
Increasing Energy Density (Wh/kg) of Secondary
Cells
36
Wassenaar Arrangement and Energy Density Limits
on Secondary Cells
  • U.S. DOC must consult with Department of Defense
    and Department of State on WA proposals
  • U.S. Department of Defense opposed PRBA petition
  • Compromise proposal 350 Wh/kg
  • U.S. will submit proposal to raise secondary cell
    energy density limit to 350 Wh/kg at WA meeting
    in April 2015
  • Korea or Japan could request higher energy
    density limit at WA meeting (400 Wh/kg?)

37
Wassenaar Arrangement and Energy Density Limits
on Secondary Cells
  • Shipments of secondary cells over 300 Wh/kg
    requires license from government export
    authorities in country of origin
  • Does WA secondary cell limit apply to
  • Single cell batteries NO
  • Batteries NO
  • Equipment containing cells or batteries NO

38
  • Information Technology Agreement

39
Information Technology Agreement
  • ITA established in December 1996
  • 80 participating countries, representing 97 of
    world trade in information technology products
  • ITA provides complete elimination of duties on IT
    products covered by Agreement
  • PRBA petitioned U.S. trade office to seek
    elimination of tariffs on lithium ion
    cells/batteries through ITA

40
Information Technology Agreement
  • EU COUNCIL REGULATION No 722/2014 June 2014
  • Suspends tariff duties on certain agricultural
    and industrial products
  • Includes long list of lithium ion cells and
    batteries (8507.60.00)
  • U.S. / Korea free trade agreement (FTA)
  • China opposes inclusion of lithium ion batteries
    in ITA
  • ITA negotiations currently stalled
  • Need coordination between RECHARGE, KBIA, BAJ and
    PRBA to secure support for inclusion of lithium
    ion batteries in ITA
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