Learning about ourselves from others: Reading Michael Eaude - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Learning about ourselves from others: Reading Michael Eaude PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7b77a4-ODMxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Learning about ourselves from others: Reading Michael Eaude

Description:

Learning about ourselves from others: Reading Michael Eaude s Catalonia and Barcelona & Andy Durgan s Spanish Civil War EXTENSIVE READING IN CLIL CLASSES – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:31
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: Usuari418
Learn more at: http://www.ub.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Learning about ourselves from others: Reading Michael Eaude


1
Learning about ourselves from others Reading
Michael Eaudes Catalonia and Barcelona Andy
Durgans Spanish Civil War EXTENSIVE READING IN
CLIL CLASSES
  • David C. Hall Teresa Navés
  • http//groups.yahoo.com/group/DavidCHall/
  • tnaves_at_ub.edu
  • APAC 2008. Barcelona. UPF

2
Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • Eaude, M. (2006). Barcelona The city that
    re-invented itself. Nottingham Five Leaves.
    www.fiveleaves.co.uk
  • Eaude, M. (2007). Catalonia A cultural history.
    Oxford Signal Books. www.signalbooks.co.uk
  • Durgan, A. (2007). Spanish Civil War. (Studies in
    European History) Palgrave Macmillan.

3
Barcelona Catalonia M. Eaude
4
  • Learning is learning to think.
  • Dewey (1933/1986, p. 176)
  • Properly organized learning results in mental
    development.
  • Vygotsky (1978, p. 90)
  • The process of putting something into words is
    similar to the process of working out a problem.

5
Part I. David C. Hall introduces Barcelona
Catalonia by M. Eaude
6
Chapter 3 from Eaudes Barcelona
Eaude, Michael (2006) Barcelona The City that
Re-invented itself. Nottingham Five Leaves.
7
TASKS 1. Examine this mind map
Again and again young people commented to me that
they were unaware there had been a revolution in
1936...
(Andy Durgam cited
in Eaude, 2006 68)
Botellón
Esponjament
Chapter 3 Strange Valuable
It's symbolically just incredible that the square
named after George Orwell is among the first in
the city to be under video surveillance. (Manu
Chao cited in Eaude, 2006 55)
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Hitchens
In Catalonia (...) the history of the defeated
was finally celebrated As a victory. A square
(...) was named Plaça George Orwell
(Hitchens cited
in Eaude, 2006 54)
8
Tasks
  • 2. Chapter three is entitled Strange and
    Valuable. If you cant think why read the first
    page and find out why Eaude might have chosen
    Strange and Valuable for this chapter. (Tip
    See the last two words of the quotation by George
    Orwell from Homenage to Catalonia which opens the
    chapter (p.54))
  • 3. In the light of the fact that M. Eaude
    chooses to entitle one of his chapters about
    Barcelona after Orwell, to what extent do you
    think Eaude likes /agrees with Orwells view of
    Barcelona and Catalonia?
  • Chapter Three
  • Strange and valuable
  • I had dropped... into the only community of any
    size in Western Europe where political
    consciousness and disbelief in capitalism were
    more normal than their opposites... One had been
    in contact with something strange and valuable.
  • George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia.
  • (Eaude, 2006 54)

9
Pre-reading tasks
4. Examine the pictures and try to figure out
what they are. Where were those pictures taken?
Have you heard of Plaça George Orwell? Have you
ever been there?
5. Have you read or seen 1984? Do you know who
wrote 1984? Have a look at the pictures. What do
they suggest?
10
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • Chapter Three
  • Strange and valuable
  • I had dropped... into the only community of any
    size in Western Europe where political
    consciousness and disbelief in capitalism were
    more normal than their opposites... One had been
    in contact with something strange and valuable.
  • George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia.
  • ()

11
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • Plaça Orwell
  • At the end of the century, we Orwell fans were
    excited to see that a new Barcelona square was to
    be named after him. From New York, Christopher
    Hitchens hailed this lyrically
  • In Catalonia three years ago, the history
    of the defeated was finally celebrated as a
    victory. A square near the Barcelona waterfront
    was named Plaça George Orwell... ()

12
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • The Plaça Orwell is a small triangular space
    opening off the Carrer dels Escudellers (Street
    of potters). Though hardly a stones throw from
    the City Hall and Catalan Government buildings on
    the Plaça Sant Jaume, Escudellers is one of the
    most irreducibly rough streets of the Ciutat
    vella. Novelist Stephen Burgen called it a
    gloomy piss-drenched street cheered only by the
    aroma of chickens spit-roasting on a wood fire
    outside Los Caracoles restaurant" -- and he
    wasn't writing of Genet's day, but in 2002. ()

13
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • The creation of the Plaça Orwell is part of the
    City Councils strategy of knocking down slum
    buildings in the Ciutat vella to create small
    open spaces. This policy, known as esponjament --
    i.e. inserting little holes, as in a sponge --,
    both reduces the areas extremely high population
    and leads towards gentrification and making the
    area more tourist-friendly.
  • ()

14
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • The square's troubled short history reveals some
    of the contradictions. After it was sponged out
    in 1997, the Plaça Orwell rapidly became a
    hang-out for late-night drinkers and drug users.
    Conflict between youth using the square and the
    police erupted into skirmishes several times in
    1999 and 2000.
  • ()

15
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • As a result, in Summer 2001 the Plaça Orwell was
    selected for a pioneering social experiment.
    Street cameras connected directly to the police
    station were installed. Drug dealers would be
    deterred and unsuspecting tourists straying down
    from Carrer Avinyó would be properly protected.
  • ()

16
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • Manu Chao, son of Spanish exiles, brought up in
    Paris and now master of the mestissage of styles
    that has become the main style of today's
    anti-capitalist movement, lives on Carrer Avinyó,
    where 100 years ago Picasso had a studio.This
    uncompromising radical poet did not miss the
    irony "It's symbolically just incredible that
    the square named after George Orwell is among the
    first in the city to be under video
    surveillance."
  • ()

17
Chapter 3 Strange and Valuable
  • However, resistance to 1984 lives the camera
    cables have been frequently cut. Even uncut,
    their effectiveness is slight there is less
    bag-snatching or drug-dealing in the Plaça
    Orwell, but these activities have just moved
    further along Escudellers.
  • (Eaude, 200655)

18
Excerpts from Eaudes Catalonia
Eaude, Michael (2007) Catalonia A Cultural
History. Oxford Signal Books.
19
Roger de Flor
  • PRE-READING TASKS
  • Is there a street in your city named after Roger
    de Flor? If so, is it a major street or a narrow
    one?
  • Do you know whether there are any statues of
    Roger de Flor? Have you ever seen one? If so, do
    you remember what he was like? What was he
    wearing? Do you remember his clothes? Was he
    dressed as a politician, a doctor, a soldier, a
    priest, a scientist, etc.?
  • Many hotels in Catalonia are called Roger de
    Flor, any suggestions why?
  • What have you heard about Roger de Flor? In which
    century did he live? Did he speak Catalan? Where
    was we born? How did he earn his leaving?

Roger de Flor was an impoverished son of a
German nobleman. A terrible situation
impoverished, he had nothing to eat, but as a
nobleman he was not prepared to work like anyone
else. (Eaude,200753)
20
Roger de Flor
  • WHILE / POST-READING TASKS.
  • Roger de Flor was the son of a very poor German
    nobleman who did not have any money or job
    training except possibly with arms. How do you
    think he earned his living? Imagine what sort of
    life he had.
  • Look at this statues of Roger de Lluria from
    Tarragona, Barcelona and elsewhere. How whealthy
    (rich) and influential do you think he ended up
    being / was?
  • Why do you think there are sculptures of Roger de
    Lluria in so many Catalan cities?
  • His skill with arms, ruthlessness and leadership
    qualities took him from povertry to wealth and
    European notoriety in just fifteen years.
    (Eaude,200753)

21
Almogàvers
PRE-READING TASKS 1. Do you know of any soccer
team supporters called Almogàvers? If so, what
are they like? Why do you think they chose to
call themselves Almogàvers? 2. Examine those
pictures. What do they suggest about who the
Almogàvers were? 3. In your city is there a
street called Almogavers?
  • They were, of course, not kindly visitors to
    Greece and Asia Minor. They did not practice
    Catalan pacting imperialists do not pact with
    the people they conquer. Still today, in some
    parts of coastal Sicily, when parents want to
    frignten their children into behaving, they hiss
    The Catalans are coming, the Catalans are
    coming.
  • (Eaude,200756)

22
L Alger
  • TASKS
  • Where is Catalan spoken? Name all the countries
    where Catalan is spoken
  • Habláme en cristiano Are you familiar with this
    request? Do you know who used to make this
    request? Do you know why?
  • Think of the nationalist, socialist and
    conservative parties in Catalonia and Spain and
    their points of view about the use of Catalan and
    Spanish in schools. Who claims Spanish is being


http//eu.musikazblai.com/alaitz-eta-maider/hablam
e-en-cristiano/ "Háblame en cristiano" esaten
digute Euskal Herrian gaude ta ze uste
dute? "Hablame en cristiano" esaten
digute Espainian gaudela uste al dute? "Hablame
en cristiano" esaten digute "We allways speak
cristiano" uste al dute? "Hablame en cristiano"
esaten digute Euskal Herrian gaude ta ze uste
dute? Astazapote!
23
L Alger
  • Modern Catalan nationalists are proud that
    Catalan is spoken in four states France, Spain,
    Andorra and Italy. However, nationalist pride
    should be nuanced as John Payne points out in
    his Catalonia, it is only spoken in LAlger (on
    Sardinia and that part of Italy) because
    conquering Catalans threatened with prison or
    death those who refused to speak it. This is
    mirror-image of Francos 1940s insistence that
    only Castillian Spanish be used should make
    Catalans reflect before rushing to celebrate the
    geographical range of their language.
  • (Eaude,200757)

24
Verdaguer
LEmigrant by Jacint Verdaguer Dolça
Catalunya,      pàtria del meu cor,      quan de
tu sallunya      denyorança es mor ...
Task. In chapter five,Michael Eaude translates
into English LEmigrant, quite simply the
best-known Catalan poem in Catalonia (p. 65).
However, the first five stanzas are missing.
Eaude has not translated the first first verses
reproduced above. Can you think why?
25
Verdaguer
  • He was born in 1845 to a peasant family in
    Folgueroles, a village three miles from Vic. Out
    of nine children he and three others reached
    adulthood. At the age of ten he was sent to the
    seminary at Vic, walking there and back every
    day. This was no indication of religious
    vocation indeed at 14, Verdaguer ran away to be
    a soldier, though he got no further than
    Figueres. Being sent to the seminary was common
    among younger sons of the poor, if they showed
    signs of intelligence. It was the only way of
    educating them for a job with a certain social
    status it meant a mouth less to feed and it was
    very important for the Catalan inheritance
    system.
    (Eaude,200764)

26
Picasso
  • Tasks
  • Was Picasso Catalan?
  • Could Picasso speak Catalan?
  • Was Picasso a Communist?
  • Where is one of the most famous Picasso museums?

27
Picasso
  • Pablo Picasso was not Catalan. He came from
    another great Mediterranean sea-port, Malaga in
    Andalusia. However, his best (not at all his most
    comprehensive) museum is in Barcelona. ()

28
Picasso
  • Although he spent under a decade in Catalonia
    (1895-1904), he identified with it. It is where
    he spent his adolescence and early adulthood,
    learnt his craft, formed his personality and
    developed his left-wing politics. ()

29
Picasso
  • He marveled at Barcelona, with its modern
    industry, its mediaeval streets, its great
    bourgeoisie and its powerful revolutionary
    movement. In Barcelona, he became Picasso, the
    most famous painter and great art revolutionary
    of the twentieth century. That is why 60 years
    later he chose Barcelona for his Museum.
  • (Eaude,2007115)

30
Dalí
  • Tasks

Cap de Creus Port Lligat
31
Dalí
  • The conservation of Cadaqués is attributed to
    the building controls the rich were able to exert
    to keep their remote refuge intact. That is true
    enough, but not the whole truth, for in the 1950s
    Dalí sought direct intervention from General
    Franco for protection of the coastline. Franco
    responded, with a decree protecting Cap de Creus.
    ()

32
Dalí
  • Indeed, today under the democracy, free
    enterprise is building apace around Port Lligat
    and invading some of the remoter parts of the
    Cape (ignoring its status as National Park). We
    owe the conservation of the headland not just to
    its remoteness, and not to an enlightened
    bourgeoisie, but rather to the Dictator himself
    and the only great Spanish artist who could
    stomach him.
  • (Eaude,2007127)

33
Miró
  • Tasks
  • Were Miró and Raimón friends?
  • Guess how Miró and Hemingway met?
  • Miró and Picasso were commissioned to paint a
    mural each one for the Pavilion of the Republican
    Government at the Paris exhibition. Picasso
    painted the Guernika. What do you think Miró
    painted?

34
Miró
  • In 1925 an obscure 26 year-old American
    journalist bought Joan Mirós La Masia, The Farm,
    for 250 dollars. He didnt have the cash, but ran
    around the expatriate bars of Paris to beg and
    borrow the asking price off friends. Triumphant,
    he carried the huge canvas home in an open taxi
    measuring 147 x 132 cm, it was too big to fit in
    a closed car. He had to ask the driver to slow to
    a crawl as the painting billowed in the wind.

35
Miró
  • The picture was a present to his wife, who hung
    it above their bed. Miró came to see it and
    approved of its new home. The journalist was
    Ernest Hemingway. When he separated from Hadley,
    his first wife, in 1927, she sent round a list of
    goods she wanted Hemingway to deliver to her new
    flat.() On delivering it to Hadley, he burst
    into tears. Whether this was because the impact
    of what he had done in leaving Hadley finally hit
    him at that moment or because he could not bear
    to part with La Masia is not clear.
    (Eaude,2007133)
  • 1 Hemingway lusted after La Masia. In 1934 he
    asked Hadley to lend him the picture for five
    years. This she did, but her good faith was ill
    rewarded. He never returned it to her. It became
    one of the most valuable of the items squabbled
    over in unseemly fashion by his heirs after he
    shot himself in 1961.

36
Miró
Mirós third political painting was the most
famous poster of the Civil War, his Aidez
lEspagne (Eaude, 2007139)
  • Task
  • What do you think this poster was about?

37
  • Because the acquisition of information is so
    dependent on reading, the measurement of
    readability of materials is of great concern.
  • (Blau,1982 517)

38
Task-Based Learning TBL
  • Task complexity ? Linguistic difficulty
  • Cumminss (1984) highly cognitively demanding yet
    heavily contextualised tasks
  • Two-way tasks (Long, 1994)
  • Planning time results in better learners
    performance.
  • Meaningful tasks
  • Info-gap
  • Non-linguistic but content aims
  • Purposeful
  • Etc.

39
Task-Based Learning TBL
40
Initial Evaluation aims to
  1. Check learners prior experience
  2. Check learners background knowledge
  3. Raise expectations
  4. Anticipate some content and objectives
  5. Detect potential problems

41
Content Schemata
  • Content schemata are more helpful to EFL reading
    than linguistic simplification
  • - Steffensen, Joag-Dev, and Anderson (1979).
  • Steffensen and Joag-Dev (1984),
  • Carrell (1987),
  • Johnson (1982), Kang (1992),
  • Oh (2001),
  • Hossein Keshavarz Reza Atai (2007)

42
Against Linguistic Simplification
  • Blau (1982)
  • Learners benefit from the information regarding
    relationships that is revealed by complex
    sentences. Short, simple sentences actually are
    an obstacle to comprehension
  • Strother and Ulijn (1987)
  • NS and NNS comprehension of original texts v.
    texts that are simplified syntactically but not
    lexically confirms that LS does not make texts
    more readable.
  • Parker Chaudron (1987)
  • LS does not make a text easier to understand as
    a whole
  • Britton, Gulgoz, and Glynn (1993)
  • Presenting content in appropriate ways improves
    readability much more than text simplification

43
Against Linguistic Simplification
  • Yano, Long, Ross (1994)
  • Elaborated input
  • Oh (2001)
  • Elaboration is more facilitative than
    simplification.
  • Low-proficiency students did not significantly
    benefit from simplification.
  • Byrd (2000)
  • these simplified materials can remain
    difficult because of the loss of connectors and
    other language used to guide the reader through
    the text (p. 2).
  • Hossein Keshavarz Reza Atai (2007)
  • LS impeded the comprehension and recall of the
    content-familiar texts.

44
Extensive Reading
  • Krashen (1994) makes a strong case for extensive
    reading as an effective and efficient path to
    obtaining input for acquisition.
  • Ellis (1995) points out that moderate to low
    frequency words occur much more frequently in
    written texts than in common speech, thus
    offering greater opportunity for acquisition.
  • The reader also has time, when needed, to form
    and confirm hypotheses about meaning and usage.
  • Speech, on the other hand, may pass by too
    quickly for this to be done.

45
Benefits of Extensive Reading
  • Janopoulos (1986) found pleasure reading in
    English the variable correlating most strongly
    with English writing proficiency among ESL
    students,
  • Tsang's (1996) study, time spent reading proved
    more helpful to learners' writing (language use
    and content) than time spent writing.
  • Hafiz and Tudor (1989 1990), in companion
    studies in ESL (England) and EFL (Pakistan)
    contexts, also recorded significant gains in
    writing proficiency (accuracy, fluency, range of
    expression) resulting from extensive reading,
  • Mason and Krashen (1996) reported that students
    in extensive reading based courses enjoyed
    greater relative gains in reading speed, writing
    proficiency, and performance on cloze tests than
    their counterparts in reading skills/grammar-trans
    lation based courses.

46
Extensive Reading
  • Both Hafiz and Tudor and Mason and Krashen also
    observed positive effects on attitudes towards
    English among extensive readers.
  • Robb and Susser (1989), comparing extensive
    reading based and skills based reading curricula,
    saw extensive readers improve their reading
    skills at least as much as the control group,
    while reportedly enjoying the process much more.
  • Gradman and Hanania (1991) found extensive
    reading for personal interest and enjoyment to be
    by far the strongest influence on scores on the
    TOEFL and its subsections including listening
    comprehension
  • Elley (1991), reviewing a number of empirical
    studies, reported significantly greater gains in
    reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills
    among primary school children involved in
    "book-flood" programs than ones receiving
    traditional audio-lingual instruction,
    particularly as assessment was extended over
    longer periods (one to three years).

47
PISA basics
  • In every OECD country
  • 5,000 to 10,000 students
  • 2-hour paper-and-pencil tests
  • Test items are a mixture of multiple-choice
    items and open questions.
  • at least 150 schools
  • every 3 years
  • in different fields, focusing particularly on one
    each year
  • 2000 Reading literacy
  • 2003 Mathematical literacy
  • 2006 Scientific literacy

48
  • PISA looks at literacy in terms of important
    knowledge and skills needed in everyday life not
    in terms of mastery of the school curriculum.

49
Reading Literacy
  • An individuals capacity to understand, use and
    reflect on written texts, in order to achieve
    ones goals, to develop ones knowledge and
    potential and to participate in society.
  • (PISA, 2006 p.46)

50
Reading Literacy assessed by
  • 1. Wide range of text format
  • Prose or continous texts
  • narration,
  • exposition,
  • description,
  • argumentation
  • Non-continous texts Lists, graphs, diagrams
  • 2. High order reading processes
  • Retrieving info
  • interpreting the text
  • Reflecting on and evaluating its content and
    format
  • 3. Situations
  • For personal use novels, biographies, letters
  • Public use official docs
  • Occupational use manuals, reports..
  • Educational use textbooks

51
Assessing Literacy
  • Scales with an average score of 500 and a
    standard deviation of 100 for all three domains.
  • The reading scales were divided into 5 levels of
    knowledge and skills.
  • Level 1 335 to 407
  • Level 2 408 to 480
  • Level 3 481 to 552
  • Level 4 553 to 625
  • Level 5 more than 625

52
PISA 2006 Reading Results
  • There has been a general drop in reading
    comprehension scores in all countries in 2006.
  • The drop is particularly striking in Spain, down
    to 461 points.
  • These results are frankly disturbing and confirm
    the poor Spanish performance in the international
    IEA PIRSL reading comprehension study done on 9
    year-olds (4th grade)

53
PISA 2006 Reading Results Spain
  • Spain obtained a qualification of 461 points,
    fourth from the bottom, ahead only of
    Greece,Turkey and Mexico.
  • Spain was the country that saw the most severe
    drop from the previous assessment in the year
    2000
  • The highest levels in reading were those of South
    Korea (556 points), Finland (547), Hong Kong
    (536) and Canada (527).
  • http//www.elperiodico.cat/default.asp?idpublicaci
    o_PK46idiomaCATidnoticia_PK464310idseccio_PK
    1021

54
LOE 2006
  • In light of the poor results for reading
    comprehension in Spain, the 2006 Education Act
    (LOE) calls for more time to be specifically
    devoted to reading in all grades.
  • The LOE also calls for teachers of all subjects
    to be responsible for the development of reading
    comprehension in their classes. (Reading across
    the curriculum)

55
What do PISA results mean to the EFL teacher?
  • The idea of the LOE that reading needs to be
    worked on in all subjects means that teachers of
    EFL also have this responsibility.
  • Reading and writing skills learned in English
    class can be applicable to reading and writing in
    the students native language, and vice-versa.
    (Cumminss transfer of skills)

56
  • One enemy of good writing is fear, fear of taking
    a stand. Good writing is clear, and being clear
    means being definite.

57
In good writing,
  • the writer
  • not only wants to say something but has something
    to say (purpose)
  • thinks about how to say it effectively
  • knows who she is writing for (audience)
  • organises her ideas
  • plans before writing (planning time)
  • revises what she has written (drafts)

58
Against Linguistic Simplification
  • Blau, E. K. (1982). The effect of syntax on
    readability for ESL students in Puerto Rico.
    TESOL Quarterly, 16, 51728.
  • Parker, K., Chaudron, C. (1987). The effects of
    linguistic simplification and elaborative
    modifications on L2 comprehension. University of
    Hawaii Working Papers in ESL, 6, 107133.
  • Strother, J. B., Ulijn, J. M. (1987). Does
    syntactic rewriting affect English for science
    and technology (EST) text comprehension? In J.
    Devine, P. L. Carrell D. E. Eskey (Eds.),
    Research in reading in English as a second
    language. Washington, D.C. TESOL.
  • Britton, B. K., Gulgoz, S., Glynn, S. (1993).
    Impact of good and poor writing on learners
    Research and theory. In B. K. Britton, A.
    Woodward, M. Binkley (Eds.), Learning from
    textbooks Theory and practice (pp.146).
    Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.
  • Yano, Y., Kong, M., Ross, S. (1994). The
    effects of simplified and elaborated texts on
    foreign language reading comprehension. Language
    Learning. 44, 189219.
  • Byrd, H. P. (2000). Its all the same grammar
    Re-thinking grammar at various proficiency
    levels. Retrieved from http//www.gsu.edu/eslhpb/
    grammar/info/same.htmTradition
  • Oh, S. Y. (2001). Two types of input modification
    and EFL reading comprehension Simplification
    versus elaboration. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 6996.
  • Hossein Keshavarz, M., Reza Atai, M. (2007).
    Content schemata, linguistic simplification, and
    EFL readers comprehension and recall. Reading in
    a Foreign Language, 19(1).

59
Thank you very much Moltes gràcies Muchas gracias
60
  • 2. Comprehensible Input And Acquisition
  • Research indicates that second language
    acquisition can be aided by explicit language
    study (e.g., rule giving, consciousness raising,
    vocabulary work) (Ellis, 1990 Schmitt, 1995),
    and meaningful language use (Brown, 1994 Long,
    1990) in interactive contexts (Pica, Young and
    Doughty, 1987 Swain, 1985). There is, however,
    strong evidence that the primary requisite for
    significant acquisition is massive comprehensible
    input (Krashen, 1988 Nation, 1997). Although
    many would argue that input alone is not
    sufficient for gaining native-like fluency in a
    foreign language (Lightbown and Spada, 1993), few
    would deny its necessity.
  • The key concept here is comprehension or
    understanding. No one learns a dissimilar second
    language merely by listening to unintelligible
    talk radio in the L2. Learners must be able to
    draw meaning from the input they attempt to
    access (Krashen, 1988 Ying, 1995). Conversely,
    not everything need or should be understood
    "I1" input, for which the learner occasionally
    has to infer meaning or wait for more data is
    seen as ideal for acquisition (Krashen, 1988).
    With more and more such input, the learner is
    repeatedly exposed to words, expressions,
    structures, and aspects of discourse. With each
    exposure, the learner adds to his or her mental
    mapping of these features and how they are used
    in the target language (Ellis, 1995). In other
    words, learners begin to form ideas of the
    meaning and usage of new features, while
    extending and deepening their understanding of
    more familiar onesjust as learners acquire much
    of their first language (Krashen, 1988).
About PowerShow.com