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Native America v. America


Native America v. America A Tumultuous Relationship The Question: Evaluate the validity of this statement: The relationship between Native Americans and Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Native America v. America

Native America v. America
  • A Tumultuous Relationship

The Question
  • Evaluate the validity of this statement The
    relationship between Native Americans and
    Americans (1620-present) has always been negative.

Background Pre-colonization
  • Southwest large irrigation systems, large towns,
  • Great Plains sedentary farming, permanent
    settlements, some nomadic tribes hunted buffalo
  • East greatest food sourcesfarming, hunting,
    gathering all together

Three categorizations
As Neighbors Encounter
  • The Good Exchange of crops, animals, farming
  • The Bad Importation of disease and violence

Relationship with Spanish
  • Conquistadores, encomiendas
  • came as conquerors
  • way more men than women intermarriage

Relationship with French
  • fur trade
  • didnt want to establish substantial towns
  • needed Nat. Am help with finding fur
  • some intermarriage

Relationship with British
  • Settlement, New Society
  • forced to be amicable because of need
  • Established trading in New England
  • came to build a new society
  • paganism threat to religious society
  • more self-reliant, more hostile

1675 King Philips War
  • Wampanoags direct response to colonial attempt to
    apply their laws to tribe
  • Killed over 1000 settlers in 3 years
  • 1676 Mohawks allied with colonists kill
    Metacomet (King Philip)

Revolution Pick Your Horse
  • 13,000 warriors fought on the British side
  • Americans resented tribal help to Brits
  • wanted to treat them as a conquered people

Noble Savages
  • Others saw them as needing to be civilized

Isolation and Eradication 1830s-1840s
  • noble savage idea had become savage
    especially in West (remember common man)

Assimilation 1880s-1940s
  • return to idea that Indians are civilizable
  • Offshoot of Progressive era
  • Kill the Indian, save the Man

Indian Boarding Schools
  • creation of Indian boarding schools
  • No language
  • No traditions
  • No families
  • Sent out to white families on breaks to work as
  • 1879 Carlisle Indian Industrial School (PA)

Conservation of Culture 1935-1950
  • Indian New Deal
  • Romanticization of American Indian culture
  • Many stereotypes still prevalent

Self-Determination American Indian Movement 1970s
  • AIM
  • Grew out of Civil Rights Movement of 1960s
  • reclamation of tribal land
  • Much more forceful than other movements
  • 75 takeovers of federal buildings or land
  • 1969 Alcatraz, 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties,
    1973 Pine Ridge (Wounded Knee)

As Landowners
Go West, Young Man
  • Land issue
  • westward movement of settlers creates tensions
    with Native American tribes

French and Indian War Stuck in the Middle with
  • 1748 Iroquois grant trading rights to English
    merchants in interior
  • tensions build until war breaks out in 1754 (Fort
    Necessity, Fort Duquesne)
  • Almost all tribes aligned with French
  • Iroquois aligned with GB, but also essentially
    didnt fight at all

Back to Where We Started
  • War ends with Peace of Paris (1763)
  • white settlers begin crossing into valley
  • Pontiacs Rebellion (1763)
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • improved British relations with Native Americans
  • line didnt work

Land in the New Republic
  • Western Frontier
  • Land ordinances of 1784-87 led to border conflicts

Sign on the Dotted Line
  • 1784, 85, 86 Iroquois, Choctaws, Cherokee,
    Creek, Chickasaws all signed treaties with
    government ceding land

  • 1791 Little Turtle led Shawnee, Miami and
    Delaware in battles near Ohio border

1795 Miami signed Treaty of Grenville
  • lots of land for recognition of claim to the part
    they kept
  • first recognition by US govt of sovereignty of
    Indian nations

More Tricky Treaties
  • 1801 Jefferson assimilate or move west of
  • Give up claims in Northwest Territory
  • Harrison manipulated treaties
  • by 1807 US had treaty rights to Eastern
    Michigan, Southern Indiana, most of IL
  • land taken in GA, MI, TN

Tecumseh and the Prophet
  • Rise of the Prophet (Tenskwatawa)
  • brought tribes together through religion (so
    rolled over to politics and military)
  • Prophets brother was Tecumseh
  • led secular unification of all tribes of
    Mississippi Valley
  • 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe

Indian Removal 1830-1839
  1. Remember savage
  2. Fear of unending violence in West
  3. Desire for land

Congressional Legislation
  • 1830 Removal Act
  • provided funds for negotiating treaties that
    would remove tribes to West
  • 1834 Indian Intercourse Act created Indian
    Territory west of Mississippi

Dislocation of Five Civilized Tribes
  • 1830 Choctaws removed
  • 1835 Treaty of New Echota with Cherokee
  • 1836 Creeks
  • 1837 Chickasaw
  • 1838 Trail of Tears

  • by 1839
  • All important Indian societies moved west
  • 100 mill acres of land ceded
  • received 68 mill
  • 32 mill acres of less usable land in exchange

Westward Expansionthe Far West
  • Government policy
  • 1851 each tribe assigned its own treaty instead
    of One Big Reservation idea
  • allowed government to take most desirable land
    and separate Indians physically and politically

  • Continual fighting from 1850s-1880s
  • treaties of 1867temporary peace
  • new settlers moved into lands guaranteed to
    tribes in early 1870s
  • federal government stopped recognizing tribes as
    independent entities
  • would no longer negotiate with chiefs

Indian Wars End
  • Fierce fighting through Civil War
  • 1874-1886 Geronimo fought from bases in Mexico
    and Arizona
  • dwindling troops as people died or gave up
  • surrendered in 1886official end of fighting
    betweens whites and Indians

As Citizens
  • Addressed Native Americans
  • excluded native americans not taxed from pop
    count for representation
  • gave Congress power to negotiate treaties with
  • Art. VI kept all treaties under Articles of
    Confederation valid
  • legal standing very unclearbig issue as time
    went on

In the Courts
  • Marshall made decisions that helped to clarify
    political status of Native Americans

Johnson v. McIntosh (1823)
  • leaders of Illinois and Pinakeshaw tribes sold
    land to white settlers (Johnson)
  • then ceded land to US government
  • Government issued homesteads to new white
    settlers (McIntosh)
  • Marshall favored government
  • Only government could buy or take land from
    Native Americans

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1829)
  • GA passed a law abolishing Cherokee legislature
    and courts
  • Marshall refused to hear case Cherokee not a
    foreign nation
  • Trust Relationship
  • Tribes Government ward guardian

Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
  • GA passed law requiring any citizen wanting to
    enter Cherokee territory to get permission from
  • 2 missionaries sued claiming violation of federal
    power to regulate trade
  • Marshall invalidated GA law
  • Tribes were sovereign entities like GA, and so
    they had boundaries in which their authority is

The Dawes Severalty Act 1887
  • gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land
  • 160 to head of family, 80 to a single adult or
    orphan, 40 acres to each dependent child
  • force assimilation to white model of society
  • tribal land reduced from 155 mil acres to 48 mil
    acres by 1934

Citizenship Granted
  • Inconsistent citizenship
  • by marrying white men
  • through military service
  • by allotments
  • 1924 Indian Citizenship Act

New Deal for Indians 1933-1945
  • 1933 John Collier commissioner of Indian Affairs
  • created Indian Emergency Conservation Program
  • employed 85,000 Nat Am
  • required other organizations to hire Native
    Americans too

1934 Indian Reorganization Act
  • ended Dawes
  • provided funds for tribes to buy new land
  • recognized tribal constitutions
  • federal grants to provide social services
  • prohibitions on language, religion and custom

Termination Era 1950s
  • Attempt to reduce government involvement
  • Return to assimilation
  • Reduced responsibilities of BIA
  • Tried to repay tribes for lands taken illegally
  • HCR 108 (1953) Official end of trust relationship
  • "In return for being terminated, individual
    tribal members received a check for the value of
    their landThe check did not compensate for the
    loss of federal benefits or the new tax burdens. 
    It could not pay for the loss of tribal
    governmental authority, or compensate for the
    discrimination that followed in the state
    agencies and courts.  Perhaps most tragic of all,
    the check could not possibly pay for the
    psychological costs of "not being an Indian any
  • Reprinted from Federal Indian Law, Getches and
    Wilkinson, 2nd Ed., 1998, with permission of the
    West Group.  

Self-Determination 1970-present
  • Native American tribes are semi-autonomous
  • Independent governments
  • federal government in role of protector to allow
    for self-government