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Long-Term Training in Swimming

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Long-Term Training in Swimming Genadijus Sokolovas, Ph.D., Senior Physiologist Global Sport Technology, Inc, www.globsport.org ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Long-Term Training in Swimming


1
Long-Term Training in Swimming
  • Genadijus Sokolovas, Ph.D., Senior Physiologist
  • Global Sport Technology, Inc, www.globsport.org

2
Top-100 Study
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the
    performances of elite level swimmers based on the
    USA Swimmings All-Time Top 100 times.
  • May early high-level performances limit a
    swimmers progression later in his/her career?

3
Methods
  • Analysis of USA Swimmings All-Time Top 100 age
    group times by girls and boys.
  • Five age groups 10-under, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16,
    and 17-18.
  • Swimming events 100, 200, and 500 freestyle 100
    and 200 backstroke 100 and 200 breaststroke 100
    and 200 butterfly and the 200 individual medley.
  • Calculating the percent of participation.

4
Participation at USA All-Time Top 100 in All
Events at Age 17-18 (Females)
Top 100 Age 10 under
10.3
Top 100 Age 11-12
20.3
Top 100 Age 17-18
36.9
Top 100 Age 13-14
49.7
Top 100 Age 15-16
5
Participation for USA All-Time Top 100 in 100
Freestyle at Age 17-18 (Males)
Top 100 Age 10 under
13.2
Top 100 Age 11-12
12.6
Top 100 Age 17-18
31.1
Top 100 Age 13-14
53.5
Top 100 Age 15-16
6
Freestyle Events for Girls
7
Backstroke and Breaststroke Events for Girls
8
Age 15-16 vs 17-18
  • There is still a low number of elite swimmers at
    age 15-16 for girls and boys.
  • About half of the elite swimmers in the Top 100
    at age 17-18 were new swimmers who were never
    ranked in the Top 100 at any age.
  • This statistics shows that most of the future
    elite swimmers swim under Top 100 times until age
    15-16.

9
Females vs Males
  • There is a small difference between elite female
    and male freestyle swimmers at age 11-12 and
    13-14, where it appears that higher numbers of
    female freestylers were ranked in the Top 100.
  • Higher numbers for females may be related to
    earlier biological maturation in girls.

10
Selection of Main Event by Females
  • 51.6 of elite female swimmers are listed in
    other events at age 10 and under.
  • This number decreases with age and reaches 37.9,
    26.6 and 24.9 at age 11-12, 13-14 and 15-16,
    respectively.
  • Most of elite female swimmers select their event
    at age 13-14.

11
Selection of Main Event by Males
  • 69.6 of elite male swimmers are listed in other
    events at age 10 and under.
  • This number decreases with age and reaches 55.6,
    40.8 and 26.7 at age 11-12, 13-14 and 15-16,
    respectively.
  • The elite male swimmers select their events at
    age 15-16 or about 2 years later than elite
    female swimmers.

12
Conclusion 1
  • A small number of elite swimmers from the Top 100
    at age 17-18 were ranked in the Top 100 at a
    younger age. Typically, a little over 10 were
    ranked as a 10-under, less than 20 as a 11-12
    year old, a little over 30 as a 13-14 year old,
    and about 50 as a 15-16 year old.

13
Conclusion 2
  • The analysis shows that most of elite level
    swimmers were unknown at young ages. About a half
    of elite swimmers at Top 100 at age 17-18 are new
    swimmers, which never were listed at Top 100 at
    any age. Most of future elite swimmers swim
    slower than age group champions, especially at
    ages until 15-16 years.

14
Conclusion 3
  • Many participants ranked in the Top 100 as age
    groupers are not present in the Top 100 as they
    become an elite swimmer in the 17-18 age group.
    It may be related to their early biological
    maturation and/or a high training volume and
    intensities at a young age.

15
Conclusion 4
  • Elite level swimmers change their events during
    long-term training. Elite female swimmers tend to
    change their events until the age of 13-14. Elite
    male swimmers tend to change their events until
    the age of 15-16.

16
What is the Goal in Career Training?
Best performance - 10 under? - 11-12? -
13-14? - 15-16? - 17-18? - at the age of peak
performance potential!
17
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History
(Freestyle)
Event Men (years) Women (years)
50 FR 24.8 2.7 25.3 7.0
100 FR 25.3 3.7 24.6 6.7
200 FR 22.6 2.1 20.8 2.4
400 FR 22.1 2.4 20.0 2.1
1500/800 FR 21.3 2.0 20.1 2.6
18
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History
(Backstroke Breaststroke)
Event Men (years) Women (years)
BACKSTROKE
100 BK 23.9 1.7 21.9 3.6
200 BK 23.1 2.2 20.8 3.7
BREASTSTROKE
100 BR 25.4 2.5 21.3 3.9
200 BR 23.6 2.6 21.5 3.3
19
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History
(Butterfly IM)
Event Men (years) Women (years)
FLY
100 FL 24.8 3.0 25.1 4.4
200 FL 23.5 1.6 22.4 4.6
IM
200 IM 23.2 1.1 20.5 2.9
400 IM 22.9 2.3 19.6 2.7
20
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History
(Male, Free)
21
Average Age of Ten Best Swimmers in History
(Female, Free)
22
Swimming Performance Progression
23
Swimming Performance Progression in Career
Training
24
Swimming Performance Progression in Career
Training
  • Peak Performance / Performance at age 11
  • For Females 0.71-0.89 (71-89)
  • For Males 0.61-0.79 (61-79)

25
Swimming Performance Progression in Career
Training
Time at age 11
Ratios Male - 0.61-0.79 (61-79) Female -
0.71-0.89 (71-89)
Peak performance time
26
Optimal Swimming Performance Progression
Lower level
Upper level
27
Optimal Swimming Performance Progression
28
Optimal Swimming Performance Progression
29
Performance Progression Model
30
Performance Progression Model
31
Duration of Career Training
Age at Peak Performances
Maintenance of High Performances
Time Reserve to prepare each swimmer to
achieve their individual maximum potential
Age at the Beginning of Career Training
32
Duration of Career Training
  • Age at the Beginning of Career Training
  • 6-8 years
  • Age at Peak Performance
  • 18-25 years depending on gender, distance
    orientation and rate of individual maturation

Time Reserve - 10-19 years!!!
33
Time Reserve for Men (Freestyle)
34
Time Reserve for Women (Freestyle)
35
Stages of Biological Maturation
  • Early Childhood and Prepuberty
  • Girls - until 11 years, Boys - until 12 years
  • Puberty
  • Girls - 11-14 years, Boys - 12-15 years
  • Postpuberty
  • Girls - after 15 years, Boys - after 16 years

36
EARLY CHILDHOOD
  • Age 4-6
  • Kids dont have good postural and balance skills
  • Very short attention spans
  • Imprecise eye movement
  • There is no advantage to begin swimming at this
    age

37
CHILDHOOD
  • Age 6-9
  • Improved postural and balance skills
  • Good age to begin organized swimming practices
  • Longer attention spans, but still isnt long
    enough to focus on long explanation
  • More precise eye movement
  • Simple swimming drills
  • Difficulty to accomplish complex skills

38
PREPUBERTY
  • Age 10-12
  • Good postural and balance skills
  • Growth in extremities and long bones
  • Maturational differences between genders and
    early/late maturers
  • Easy to learn advanced swimming technique
  • Complex swimming and synchro drills

39
PUBERTY
  • Age 12-17
  • Improved attention and decision making skills
  • Rapid growth and development (sensitive period).
    Decrease in strength and power because of rapid
    growth.
  • Improved aerobic capacity
  • Deterioration in postural and balance skills (it
    is important to continue working on swimming
    skills at this age)
  • Greater potential of skeletal-muscular injuries

40
POSTPUBERTY
  • Age 16-19
  • Appreciation of variety in training and swimming
    sets
  • Improvements in racing skills
  • Increased muscle mass and tolerance to the
    high-intensity work (anaerobic capacity)
  • Increased sprinting ability (strength and power)
  • Improved cardio-vascular system

41
Sensitive Periods of Development
  • Physical characteristics and physiological
    systems develop at different rates during
    maturation.
  • During the adolescent growth spurt many
    parameters show accelerated growth size and
    strength.
  • These accelerated phases of development are
    called sensitive periods and represent the
    fastest rate of development.

42
Anthropometric Parameters in Career Training
(Swimmers)
Sensitive Periods
Timakova T.S., 1985
43
Changes in Height Gain
Peak Height Velocity (Puberty)
Initiation of Adolescent Spurt (Prepuberty)
Deceleration (Postpuberty)
44
Changes in Weight Gain
Peak Weight Velocity (Puberty)
Deceleration (Postpuberty)
Initiation of Adolescent Spurt (Prepuberty)
45
Vo2 max in Young Male Athletes
Sensitive Period
4500
4250
4000
3750
3500
Vo2 (ml/min)
3250
3000
Cunningham et al. (1987)
2750
Daniels et al. (1978)
2500
Murase et al. (1981)
2250
2000
Baxter-Jones et al. (1993)
1750
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Age (yrs)
46
Changes in Aerobic Capacity Gain (Males)
Sensitive Periods
Kashkin A.A., 1981 Timakova T.S., 1985
47
Strength Parameters in Career Training (Swimmers,
Males)
Sensitive Periods
Sokolovas G., Gordon S., 1986
48
Changes in Strength Gain (Males)
Sensitive Periods
Priluckij P.M., 1998
49
Arm Pull
Vertical Jump
14
5
12
4
10
kg/yr
8
3
cm/yr
6
2
4
2
1
-3
-2
-1
PHV
1
2
3
-3
-2
-1
PHV
1
2
3
Bent Arm Hang
Sit and Reach
6
2
4
2
s/yrr
cm/yr
1
0
-3
-2
-1
PHV
1
2
3
-2
0
-4
-3
-2
-1
PHV
1
2
3
Data from Beunen et al., 1988
50
Progression of Physical Qualities in Career
Training
51
Duration of Sensitive Periods
52
Workload Progression in Career Training (Male)
Total - 3,600,000 yrd Aerobic - 62 Mix -
22 Anaerobic - 5 CP - 1.5
Distance Swimmer
Total - 2,700,000 yrd Aerobic - 59 Mix -
30 Anaerobic - 8 CP - 3
Sprinter
Total - 380,000 yrd Aerobic - 90 Mix -
7 Anaerobic - 2 CP - 1
53
Workload Progression in Career Training (Male
Sprinters)
54
Workload Progression in Career Training (Male
Sprinters)
55
Dryland Workload Progression in Career Training
(Male Sprinters)
56
Total Swimming Workload Volume for Early, Normal,
and Late Matured Swimmers
57
Stages of Career Training
  • Preliminary Preparation
  • Basic Training
  • Specialization
  • Peak Performance
  • Maintenance of High Performance

58
Preliminary Preparation(Girls 7-9, Boys 8-10)
  • Teaching of swimming technique in different
    swimming strokes
  • Teaching of diving and turns
  • Improvement of interest to compete
  • Development of flexibility, general (aerobic)
    endurance, balance in water
  • Playing games method
  • Recommended maximum number of sessions per week -
    3-4
  • Recommended number of seasons - 3 (3 peak
    performance competitions)

59
Basic Training (Girls 10-12, Boys 10-13)
  • Teaching of advanced swimming technique in
    different swimming strokes
  • Evaluation of individual swimming stroke and
    distance orientation
  • Development of aerobic and anaerobic-aerobic
    (mix) endurance
  • Development of quickness and agility
  • Beginning of development of general strength
  • Recommended maximum number of sessions per week -
    6-9
  • Recommended number of seasons in one year - 2-3
    (2-3 peak performance competitions)

60
Specialization (Girls 12-17, Boys 13-18)
  • Development of individual swimming technique
  • Individualization of technical and racing tactics
  • Development of aerobic-anaerobic mix, anaerobic
    specific endurance, and general strength
  • Beginning of development of specific strength and
    speed
  • Maintenance of flexibility
  • Recommended maximum number of sessions per week -
    9-12
  • Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2-3
    (2-3 peak performance competitions)

61
Peak Performance (Girls 16-20, Boys 17-22)
  • Perfection and stabilization of individual
    swimming technique, diving, turns, and tactical
    skills
  • Development of distance specific endurance,
    specific power, transition of specific power to
    water
  • Development of specific strength speed
  • Maximization of workload volume
  • Modeling (race simulation) of all conditions of
    competition
  • Maintenance of individual flexibility
  • Recommended maximum number of sessions during
    peak week - 12-15
  • Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2 (2
    peak performance competitions)

62
Maintenance of High Performance (Girls 18 and
older, Boys 20 and older)
  • Maintenance of individual swimming technique,
    diving, turns, and tactical skills
  • Maintenance of individual power, endurance,
    speed, and flexibility
  • Reduction of total workload volume with
    increasing of intensity
  • Maintenance of health
  • Recommended maximum number of sessions per week -
    9-12
  • Recommended number of seasons in a year - 2 (2
    peak performance competitions)

63
Optimizing Long-Term Training
  • Measure height at least twice a year. Increase
    workload volumes accordingly

64
Optimizing Long-Term Training
  • Identify early/late maturers
  • Early maturers experience early success due to
    physical growth advantage
  • Early success does not predict later success
  • Late maturers often catch up and exceed the
    performance of early maturers
  • Keep success in perspective
  • Develop sets to monitor individual progression

65
Optimizing Long-Term Training
  • Evaluate distance orientation (sprint, middle
    distance, distance)

Swimmer 1 Swimmer 2 Best Time on
100 0054.50 0055.00 Best Time on
200 0157.70 0202.10 Times in Seconds 54.5,
117.7 sec 55.0, 122.1 sec Calculation
117.7/54.5 122.1/55.0 Ratio
200/100 2.16 2.22
66
Optimizing Long-Term Training
  • Predict performance progression and make
    corrections in workload volumes/intensities

67
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