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Constitutional Amendments

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Title: Constitutional Amendments


1
Constitutional Amendments
2
Amendments
  • Changes to the constitution can only be
    accomplished through the amending process.
  • The first ten amendments are called the Bill of
    Rights.
  • They place strict limitations on how the national
    government can use its power.
  • Later amendments gave rights to other groups and
    some changed how the government operates.
  • Only 27 amendments in 221 years

3
(No Transcript)
4
The First Amendment
  • Democracy must contain citizens who are able to
    express ideas.
  • The first amendment protects freedom of religion,
    speech, press, assembly, and right to petition
    the government.

5
First Amendment Rights in the News
  • Cartoon Controversy

6
Freedom of Religion
  • Congress cannot establish an official religion.
  • Separation of Church and State keeps religion
    out of politics.
  • Two important clauses are the establishment
    clause and the free exercise clause.
  • Religion cannot be a basing factor in America.

7
Establishment Clause Government Cannot Promote
Religion
8
How many amendments are there?
  1. 30
  2. 10
  3. 27
  4. 25

9
Establishment Clause - Government
  • Cans
  • Teach about religions in school
  • Allow voluntary prayer in many examples
  • Transport students to a religious school
  • Read Bible for culture or literacy content
  • Cannot
  • Set a state religion
  • Government cannot order a prayer
  • Teach religious doctrine in the school
  • Pay seminary teachers
  • Teach creationism

10
Free Exercise of Religion
11
What are the first 10 amendments called?
  1. The Preamble
  2. The Articles
  3. The Bill of Rights
  4. The Personal Freedoms

12
Free Exercise A person
  • Can
  • Choose whatever religion
  • Lead a prayer in most examples
  • Ask questions about religions
  • Worship who ever you want
  • Cannot
  • Break the law and claim it is religious belief
  • Raise children without education
  • Deprave children of basic needs

13
Freedom of Speech
  • Congress shall make no laws . . . abridging the
    freedom of speech

14
All of the following are a freedom protected by
the 1st Amendment except
  1. Freedom of Religion
  2. Freedom to bear arms
  3. Freedom of assembly
  4. Freedom to petition

15
Freedom of Speech
  • People are free to say what they want with a few
    exceptions.
  • Lying about a person is called slander and is a
    crime.
  • Giving military secrets to other countries is
    called treason.
  • Freedom of speech has evolved into freedom of
    expression.

16
Free Speech An Individual Can
  • Say any political belief
  • Protest (without getting out of control)
  • Say things about someone that are true
  • Burn the flag
  • Say racist and hate slogans
  • Free speech means someone might say something you
    disagree with

17
Freedom of Speech Personal Limits
  • Threaten to blow up airplanes, schools or the
    president
  • Sexual harassment
  • Create too much social chaos
  • Extremely crude language in a public form
  • Disrespectful, vulgar language in schools
  • Hate crimes

18
Freedom of the Press
  • Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . .
    the freedom of the press.

19
Freedom of the Press
  • Freedom to communicate ideas.
  • Printing lies about a person is called libel.
  • The US government cannot ban information.

20
Freedom of the Press The Press
  • Can
  • Print any political position
  • Make fun of people, especially politicians
  • Expose wrongs by the government
  • Say things you might not agree with
  • Cannot
  • Libel intentionally injuring a persons
    reputation by false facts
  • Disclose defense-security secrets
  • Detail how to make a certain weapons

21
Freedom of Assembly
  • Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . .
    The people to peaceably assemble

22
Freedom of Assembly
  • Permits peaceful assemblies.
  • People are permitted to join organizations.

23
Freedom of Assembly An Individual
  • Can
  • Protest
  • Parade (with a permit)
  • Parade chanting hate slogans
  • Gang members can congregate in public
  • Cannot
  • Protest by throwing rocks and breaking windows
  • Hang out on private land against owners
    willloitering
  • Teen curfew

24
Petition the Government
  • Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . .
    the people. . . to petition the government for a
    redress of grievances

25
Right to Petition the Government
  • Formal request.
  • Our right to express our ideas publicly about the
    government.
  • Representatives are not required to act on a
    petition, but if there is enough support, they
    will express the peoples ideas.

26
Limits
  • The 1st amendment does not allow Americans to do
    whatever they want.
  • People must take into account the rights of the
    community.

27
2nd AmendmentRight to Bear Arms
  • A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the
    security of a free state, the right of the people
    to bear arms shall not be infringed.

28
What is the debate with the right to bear arms?
  • How much can the government keep guns from
    criminals and youth?
  • In order to keep guns away from criminals, does
    that limit the right of law abiding citizens?

29
Gun Debate Continued
  • Thousands of people die every year because of
    guns
  • Thousands of crimes are prevented because of guns

Shoes Represent Gun Deaths
30
2nd Amendment in the News
  • Obama and Guns
  • Court on Gun Control

31
Third Amendment
  • The Government cannot force you to shelter
    soldiers in your home without your consent in
    time of war or peace.

32
Amendments 4-8 Rights of the Accused
  • Important to preserve freedom

33
Fourth Amendment
  • Protects the people from the government
    improperly taking property, papers, or people,
    without a valid warrant based on probable cause
    (good reason).
  • Search and Seizure Unreasonable, but many
    exceptions today
  • Mapp v. Ohio

34
Fourth Amendment
  • What does a policeman need in order to search
    your home?
  • A warrant given to him by a judge
  • Probable cause is also needed

35
What right means we have to be told of what we
are charged with in a crime?
  • Ex Post Facto
  • Bill of Attainder
  • Habeas Corpus
  • Cloture

36
Fifth Amendment
  • You cannot be tried for the same crime
    twicecalled Double Jeopardy
  • You do not have to testify against your self. I
    plead the fifth
  • You must have due process of law before you are
    convicted
  • The government cannot take your land unless it
    pays. Eminent Domain
  • Must be formally charged (writ of habeas corpus)

37
Sixth Amendment
  • Right to speedy trial by impartial jurymeaning
    not favoring either side
  • You must be told of charges (habeas corpus)
  • You must be provided a lawyer if you cannot
    afford one
  • Gideon v. Wainwright
  • Must be able to question all witnesses

38
Class Discussion
  • Why is the right to a speedy trial important?

39
Seventh Amendment
  • In Suits at common law, where the value in
    controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the
    right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no
    fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise
    re-examined in any Court of the United States,
    than according to the rules of the common law.
  • Jury trials for certain civil trials.

40
Eighth Amendment
  • No excessive bail
  • No cruel and unusual punishment

41
Ninth Amendment
  • The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain
    rights, shall not be construed to deny or
    disparage others retained by the people.
  • Addresses rights of the people that are not
    specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
  • Powers of the People

42
Class Discussion
  • Why did the Framers want to include Amendment IX?
  • Whats its purpose in the Bill of Rights?

43
Tenth Amendment
  • States that any power not granted to the federal
    government belongs to the states or to the
    people.
  • Restates the principle of federalism in the
    Constitution
  • Reserved Powers

44
Which amendments protect the rights of the
accused?
  • 2, 4, 5, 6
  • 4, 5, 6, 7
  • 4, 5, 6, 8
  • 5, 6, 8, 9

45
11th and 12th Amendment
  • 11th (1795) Places limits on suits against
    states
  • Federal courts have limited jurisdiction over
    state courts
  • 12th (1804) Revises procedures for electing
    president and vice president
  • President and Vice President must be on separate
    ballot
  • For instance, couldnt elect Biden instead of
    Obama in the Electoral College
  • Who elects the President when there isnt a
    majority?

46
What term refers to a courts ability to hear a
case?
  • Original jurisdiction
  • Jurisdiction
  • Certiorari
  • Stare Decisis

47
Civil War Amendments 13th, 14th, 15th
  • 13th Amendment (1865) Abolished slavery and any
    other forced labor.
  • Exception punishment for a crime
  • Ex. Chain gangs and clean up crews

48
Civil War Amendments 13th, 14th, 15th
  • 14th Amendment (1868) U.S. citizen is anyone
    born or naturalized in the U.S.
  • Due to Black Codes in Southern States
  • Equal protection of the laws
  • Forbids states interfering with privileges and
    immunities of citizens of the U.S.
  • Nationalization of Bill of Rights

49
Civil War Amendments 13th, 14th, 15th
  • 15th Amendment (1870) Prohibits the government
    from denying a persons right to vote on the
    basis of race.
  • Still didnt help African Americans in Southern
    States due to literacy tests and poll taxes.
  • Many would have to wait another 90 years to vote.

50
16th and 17th Amendments
  • 16th Amendment (1913) Establishes the right for
    the government to impose an income tax on
    citizens.
  • 17th Amendment (1913) Direct elections for
    Senators.
  • State legislatures were in charge of this before.
    Part of the Progressive movement.

51
Class Discussion
  • Where does most of the National government
    revenue come from? How about states?

52
18th, 19th, 20th Amendments
  • 18th Amendment (1917) Prohibition no more
    legal alcohol.
  • Temperance Movement
  • 19th Amendment (1920) Gave women the right to
    vote.
  • 20th Amendment (1933) Ended lame duck
    officials. Moved the inauguration date from March
    to January.

53
Class Discussion
  • Do people need the national government to protect
    them from bad habits?

54
21st, 22nd, 23rd Amendment
  • 21st Amendment (1933) Overturned 18th
    amendment. Ended Prohibition. Only amendment to
    repeal another.
  • 22nd Amendment (1951) Limits the President to 2
    terms.
  • This was after FDR was elected to 4 terms.
  • 23rd Amendment (1961) Gave Washington D.C.
    residents the right to vote for President and VP.

55
Class Discussion
  • What does the 22nd Amendment say about our view
    of the President?

56
24th, 25th, 26th, 27th Amendments
  • 24th Amendment (1964) Abolished Poll Tax
  • Used to keep people with low incomes from voting
  • 25th Amendment (1967) Established process for
    VP to take over as President and how to fill a VP
    void.
  • Due to assassination of which President?
  • 26th Amendment (1971) Lowered voting age to 18
    years old.
  • 27th Amendment (1992) Congressional Pay raises.

57
Class Discussion
  • Why do you think the voting age was changed from
    21 to 18 years old?

58
Which are the Civil War amendments?
  • 12, 13, 14, 15
  • 13, 14, 15
  • 13, 14, 15, 16
  • 12, 13, 14
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